- Conrad I, Duke of Swabia
- Conradiner family members
- Gertrude of Sulzbach
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Ogilvie London, pp. Noble, The Republic of St Peter. Translation by L. Thorpe from Einhard and Notker the Stammerer. Two Lives of Charlemagne Harmondsworth, p. VII Paris, Halphen, Eginhard , p. Turtledove ed. Politically, that is; see E. See the several relevant papers in P. Godman and R. On this phase, see P. Llewellyn, Rome in the Dark Ages London, pp. Kamp and J. From Hill, Medieval Monarchy in Action , p. Bergman, Wright ed. Zucchetti ed. Wright, Works of Liudprand , pp. Baker ed. Strecker ed. Schramm, Kaiser, Rom und Renovatio , pp. Pauler, Das Regnum Italiae in ottonischer Zeit.
Fried, Otto III. Tschan, Saint Bernward of Hildesheim , vol. VI Notre Dame, p. Mommsen and Morrison, Imperial Lives and Letters , pp. Mayr-Harting, Ottonian Book Illumination. Monographien vol. Trillmich, Quellen , pp. Structures of Political Rule , transl. Jensen, Cambridge Medieval Textbooks Cambridge etc. For a cogent review of these issues, see U-R.
Blumenthal, The Investiture Controversy. Emerton ed. Selected Letters from the Registrum , Records of Civilization. Sources and Studies New York, , p. See I. Robinson, Authority and Resistance in the Investiture Contest. Quoted in T. Texts in MGH Constitutiones vol. I , nos —8, pp. Fleckenstein ed. XVII Sigmaringen, pp. The classic study is P. Haverkamp ed. XL Sigmaringen, Google Scholar.
Engel and B. Abulafia, Frederick II. A Medieval Emperor London etc. Morris, The Papal Monarchy. Sweeney and S. Benson, G. Constable and C. Sayers, Innocent III. Csendes, Heinrich VI. XXI Siegburg, pp. Chapter 3. Chapter 4. Chapter 5. Chapter 6. Chapter 7. Chapter 8. Chapter 9. Chapter The kingdom of Germany emerged in the late 9th and early 10th centuries as the successor to the kingdom of the East Franks, which had been formed when the Carolingian empire was partitioned under the Treaty of Verdun in Aug The term "Germany" or "Deutschland" was not widely used before the 16th century .
The territory had been part of the Frankish empire founded in by Emperor Charles I "Charlemagne" and ruled by his descendants until their extinction in the male line in The Franks had been only one of a number of tribes living in the area now identified as Germany. Ludwig II "der Deuts che", son of Emperor Louis I, was the first member of the Carolingian dynasty to be installed as a ruler in Germany when he received the kingdom of Bavaria in In , he was also granted Thuringia, Saxony, Frisia and the northernmost lands west of the Rhine.
Under the final division agreed by the Carolingian family under the Treaty of Verdun, the first east Frankish kingdom was created which included all German land east of the river Rhine except Frisia which was included in the kingdom of Lotharingia and the west bank territories of the bishoprics of Mainz, Speyer and Worms.
As the Carolingian Frankish empire weakened, local entities acquired positions of greater political and military importance. The power of the king in Germany came to depend increasingly on support from the German dukes in Bavaria, Carinthia, Franconia, Lotharingia, Saxony and Swabia. After the election of King Heinrich I in , the new monarch secured his position by negotiating what amounted to friendship treaties with the local dukes in Bavaria, Lotharingia and Swabia .
His success is demonstrated by his ability to intervene in securing the appointment of Hermann [Konradiner] as duke of Swabia in , the first of many such grants to the nobility as a reward for service and support. Continuing to hold the office was dependent on the appointee's continued loyalty, and offices were frequently withdrawn by the king at will. Although the king of Germany was head of the feudal hierarchy of nobility, the extent of the personal power of each king depended on the amount of land which he himself held. By contrast, King Heinrich IV retained little personal territory.
The process resulted in the creation of rival centres of power which challenged the central regal authority, particularly apparent during the reign of King Heinrich IV when two anti-kings emerged. At the same time, the centres of power fluctuated between the various families, depending on which held the most titles and property. During the 12th century, the old tribal provinces evolved into stable duchies, the succession to which became hereditary within the same families.
Nevertheless, during the 11th to 13th centuries, Germany achieved a degree of political and territorial integrity as a unit which was not to be repeated until the proclamation of the German Empire in Succession to the German crown was elective. Although the elevations of Konrad I in and Heinrich I in were described as "elections", the oath of allegiance and acclamation appear to have been the key elements of the procedure.
With the accession of the Ottonian kings, the elective element declined even further, especially as each king started nominating his successor during his lifetime.
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The accessions of Heinrich II in , and his successor Konrad II in , appear to have combined a hereditary and an elective element, although on each occasion there was some competition for the post as the primary sources name several unsuccessful candidates. The elective principle was first truly established in with the selection as king by the German magnates alone, without the intervention of the Pope of Rudolf von Rheinfelden, who was obliged to recognise the non-hereditary nature of his appointment.
On that occasion, ten representatives were selected from each of the ancient German tribal divisions, Bavaria, Franconia, Saxony and Swabia, on the suggestion of Adalbert Archbishop of Mainz who dominated the proceedings . The temporal representation was not as clear. Eike von Repgau, in his compilation of customary law written in the early s, recognised six electors, specifically excluding the king of Bohemia .
However, even as late as the election of Konrad IV in , eleven princes were involved, without any indication of an inner circle with special electoral powers . The dual election of highlighted the need for more specific procedures, aimed at avoiding subsequent challenge from competing candidates.
An extreme example of the lack of definition is provided by King Alfonso's first election in Mar , in which the Pisans proclaimed him elected " on behalf of all the subjects of the empire " . The "Bavarian" vote seems to have become attributed to the position of Pfalzgraf, both titles being held by Otto II Duke of Bavaria when he voted as such for the first time in , but the process by which this occurred is far from clear. This represented a temporary revival of the original "Bavarian" vote. The Bohemian vote was confirmed by King Rudolf in a royal declaration dated 4 Mar .
The final composition of the electoral college thus evolved through a combination of ancient custom, temporary expediency and the personalities of particular princes and prelates. Electoral procedures, the unity of the seven electors, and the right of election by the majority, were laid down definitively in the Golden Bull of , which is described in some detail by Leuschner . From the early 12th century, weaker candidates to the kingship in Germany were preferred, the more powerful nobility hoping to avoid the creation of another successful dynasty which would challenge their power.
Conrad I, Duke of Swabia
Nevertheless, the strong personalities of individual kings did at times result in the royal title becoming virtually hereditary within certain families, in particular the Hohenstaufen, Luxembourg and Habsburg dynasties. The title attributed in contemporary documentation to the king of Germany was originally rex Francorum or simply rex.
King Otto I was the first ruler to style himself rex Francorum et Langobardorum , adopting the title first used by Charles I King of the Franks from , reflecting his ambitions in Italy. He was styled imperator augustus Romanorum et Francorum when crowned emperor in In the present document, the titles "King of the East Franks" until and "King of Germany" thereafter have been used throughout instead of "King of the Franks" and "King of the Romans", reflecting the geographical and political reality of the situation rather than the titles used by the kings in contemporary documentation.
The title "emperor" had no territorial significance for the kings of Germany. The king governed within his realm whether or not he had been crowned emperor. However, the imperial title gave immense international political prestige to the holder. The kings therefore went to extraordinary lengths to be crowned emperor by the Pope in Rome, including grasping control of the papal election process itself. Once the king had been crowned emperor, it was usual practice for him to install his heir as king of Germany in his place.
His successor Maximilian I assumed the title emperor in without a coronation, his planned journey to Rome for the ceremony being frustrated by the Venetians. The kings of Germany had no central residence or capital but continually moved around their lands to impose their authority. The result was an inability to build a lasting central power base, in contrast to the Capetian kings of France who gradually extended their royal domains from their Ile-de-France base. This process developed without royal involvement.
In contrast to the distribution of titles and lands in the early part of the 11th century, the king had no control over the establishment and development of these local lordships in the 12th century. The process was accelerated by the creation of new duchies out of the territories of the original duchies of Bavaria and Saxony. These changes were apparently motivated by a desire to break the historic power blocks which, particularly when in the hands of the dukes from the Welf dynasty, represented a significant challenge to central royal authority.
This fragmentation of territories was to have a profound effect on the future development of Germany until the 19th century. The descendants of the Carolingian kings of the East Franks, and the Saxon, Salian Frankish, and Hohenstaufen dynasties of kings of Germany, are shown in full in the present document. Details concerning the parentage, wives and families of the kings of Germany from other dynasties can be accessed by hyperlink to the corresponding documents which show the families to which they belonged.
He fought with his father and his brothers, joining the rebellions in and His father obliged him to leave these additional territories in , confining his rule once more to Bavaria. Following the accession of his brother Lothaire as sole emperor after their father's death in , Ludwig allied himself with his half-brother Charles II "le Chauve".
However, her family origin is only indicated by a single source: t he Annales Xantenses record the marriage in of " Ludewicus rex " and " sororem Iudith imperatricis " without naming her . This contrasts with the number of primary sources which specify the parentage of the Empress Judith and her two brothers Rudolf and Conrad. The Annales Fuldenses record that " Hemma quoque regina " became paralysed in , died at Regensburg in and was buried in the church of St Emmeran .
The necrology of Nonnberg records the death " 2 Kal Jan " of " Hemma imperatrix sor n a " . Abbess of Schwarzach-am-Main, near Wurzburg [after ] Abbess of Zurich 21 Jul He revolted against his father in and However, he was struck by paralysis and had to be returned to Germany, where he was deposed in favour of his brother Louis "le Jeune" in Her parentage and marriage are deduced from the Annales Bertiniani which name " socerum Karlomanni…Arnustum " when recording that Ludwig II King of Germany deprived him of his honours in at the time of his son's rebellion .
Jackman suggests that Liutswindis, concubine of King Karloman and mother of Emperor Arnulf, is co-identified with this unnamed daughter of Graf Ernst . He bases this on the assumption that King Karloman's childless wife must have predeceased the king, after which he married Liutswindis by whom he had already had his son Arnulf. However, this appears to ignore the curiously worded 8 Jul charter referred to above. There would have been sufficient time after mid and before Karloman's death the following year, for his first wife to have died and for Karloman to have remarried.
However, if this was the case it is surprising that contemporary records do not mention the fact. In any case, it would probably have depended on the extent of the paralysis which afflicted King Karloman from It is of course not impossible that " socerum " in the Annales Bertiniani was used to describe the informal relationship between King Karloman and his concubine's father, and that the Annales do not refer to the king's legitimate wife at all.
King Karloman had one illegitimate son by Mistress 1 :. He was invested with the March of Pannonia and Carinthia in . During the illness of his father, he administered Bavaria but was obliged to transfer the territory to his uncle Ludwig III on his father's death, in return receiving the duchy of Carinthia. Abbess of Buchau am Federsee. The Annales Formoselenses record the death in of " Karoli regis soror Irmingard " . This is corroborated by the Annales Alamannicorum . Her existence is deduced from the Libri confraternitatum Sancti Galli which lists in order " Hemma regina, Hiltigart, Irmingart, Gisla, Perhta… "  , apparently referring to the wife of King Ludwig II and their four daughters, the existence of three of whom is corroborated by other sources.
No other primary source has so far been identified which names Gisela. He occupied Lotharingia with his brother Charles in He obliged his brother Karloman to abandon the government of Bavaria to him in The Annales Bertiniani record that the son of Ludwig II King of Germany became betrothed to " filiam Adelardi " against his father's will but did not marry her . This could only refer to Ludwig as his brothers Karloman and Karl are recorded in other sources as already being married at that date.
Widukind names " Liudgardam sororem Brunonis ac magni ducis Oddonis " as wife of " orientales Francos imperantium Hluthowicus " . The exact date of death and burial place of " Liudgardis regina " are recorded in the Annalista Saxo . Mistress 1 : Her parentage is confirmed by the Annales Fuldenses which record that " Hildigardis filia Hludowici Francorum regis " was accused of treason in and confined to " Baioaria quadam insula palude Chiemiese " .
It is assumed that she was adult at the time, which suggests that Hildegard must have been her parents' older child. Hildegard is named in three charters which all state that she was " neptis " of Emperor Arnulf but which do not name her parents. The close connection with Graf Engildeo, shown by this last charter, is curious. In addition, the Annales Fuldensis record the confiscation of the properties of both Engildeo and Hildegard in the same paragraph, but give no explanation or reason for the punishment. The connection is best explained by a close family relationship, but this has not been identified.
A love affair between the two appears less likely, although not impossible, in view of the considerable age difference: Graf Engildeo was presumably already adult in , the date of the first of the charters in which he is named. Hildegard's properties were restored to her in . Regino names " Hludowicum " as the only son of " Hludowicum rex " and his wife Liutgard when recording his death at the palace of Frankfurt after accidentally falling from a window .
The Annales Fuldenses provide a slightly different version of these events, recording that " Hugo filius regis " was killed in battle in while trying to expel " Nordmannos " from the Scheldt river area which they had occupied " longo tempore " . The Annales Fuldenses separate this event from the battle in Saxony in which Bruno and others were killed.
Conradiner family members
She succeeded her sister Hildegard as Abbess of Schwarzach-am-Main in Abbess of Zurich The Annales Alamannicorum record the death in of " Berchta filia regis " . He occupied northern Italy in Nov In mid, he received Ermengard, widow of Boson King [of Provence], and adopted her son Louis as his son and presumably heir .
Reuter highlights the absence of evidence of a formal deposition . He was given estates in Alemannia as a pension, but died a few weeks later . Regino records the death " pridie Id Ian " of " Carolus imperator " and his burial " in Augea monasterio " . The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in of " Hludowicus…Karolo filio " and " Ercangarii comitis filiam " . Abbess of Andlau in Alsace At the time of their divorce, the couple both declared that the marriage had never been consummated.
The Annales Argentinenses record that " Richarda imperatrix, Karoli regis uxor " was accused of adultery with " Liutwardo Vercellensi episcopo ", but that she was confirmed to be a virgin at the time of her divorce . The Chronicon of Bernold also records that " Richgarda imperatrix " was accused of adultery with " Liutwardo Vercellensi episcopo " but was later proved to be a virgin .
She married secondly Gauzelin ex-Bishop. The Annales Alamannicorum name " Berenhart filius Karoli " when recording his escape from Rhetia in . The Annales Fuldenses record that the emperor wanted to appoint " Bernhartum filiuum suum ex concubina " as his successor in . Bernhard became the focus of opposition in Alemannia to the rule of his cousin King Arnulf and in led a rebellion, together with Ulrich Graf der Linzgau and Bernhard Abbot of St Gallen . He was murdered by Rudolf Count of Rhetia .
The Annales Alamannicorum record that " Perenhart filius Karoli " was killed by " Ruodulfo " in . The relationship between the following individual and the above family has not been established. It is also possible that she was a relative of Emperor Arnulf on his mother's side of the family.
Gertrude of Sulzbach
He is called " Arnulfum filium spurium Carolomanni " when recording his accession in . During the illness of his father, he administered Bavaria but was obliged to transfer the territory to his uncle Ludwig III on his father's death, in return for receiving the duchy of Carinthia. Reuter highlights the absence of evidence concerning the manner in which Arnulf assumed power in place of his uncle . Fulco Archbishop of Reims came to Worms in Jun to invite him to claim the kingdom of the West Franks, challenging Eudes who had recently been elected king.
Arnulf won a decisive victory over the Vikings at the River Dyle in , after which Viking raids in the east Frankish kingdom all but ceased . He marched against Lambert of Spoleto, but was struck by paralysis and obliged to return to Bavaria . Regino records the death " III Kal Dec " of " Arnulfus imperator " and his burial " in Odingas ubi et pater eius tumulatus est " . No indication has been found about the origin of Oda. Settipani suggests that she may have been related to the future Konrad I King of Germany .
However, he bases this on King Arnulf's charter dated 19 May in which he names " Chonradi…comitis et nepotis nostri " . However, a relationship between Arnulf and Konrad can be identified through Konrad's mother, who was the niece of King Arnulf's paternal grandmother, without the need to speculate on a connection through Queen Oda. It has been assumed that the Zwentibold named in this charter was the illegitimate son of King Arnulf but this is not certain. In addition, the charter in question specifies no relationship between the emperor and Zwentibold, in contrast to the explicitly mentioned more remote relationship between the former and Markgraf Luitpold.
Mistress 3 : The name of King Arnulf's third mistress is not known. The Annales Fuldenses record the birth in of Arnulf's son " nomine avi sui Hludowicum " . Reuter highlights that charters were issued in the name of King Ludwig as if he was adult, although they were counter-signed by many more magnates acting as "intervenors" than had previously been usual .
He fought unsuccessfully against the invasion of the Magyars. The Annales Lobienses record the death in of " Loduwicus rex, filius Arnulfi " . Herimannus records the death in of " Ludowicus rex adolescens " and his burial in Regensburg . King Arnulf had one illegitimate son by [Mistress 1 ]:. Regino records that, when Arnulf King of the East Franks granted " ducatum Behemensium " to " Zuendiboldo Marabensium Sclavorum regi ", his son was baptised with " nomine suo Zuendibold " . Regino records that " Arnolfi Zvendiboldo filio " was given the honours of " Megingaudi comitis " in .
His position in Lotharingia was seriously weakened after when he quarrelled with Graf Reginar who was one of his main supporters . He was deposed on the death of his father in and replaced by his legitimate half-brother. He was killed trying to recapture his kingdom . Regino specifies that " Zuantibold " was killed in battle " Id Aug " by " comitibus Stephano, Gerardo et Matfriedo circa Mosam " . Regino records the marriage in of " Ottonem comitem…filiam Odam " and King Zwentibold .
Jackman speculates that Oda must have been born in , although this appears to be designed to fit with his theory about Oda's supposed third marriage . Regino records that " Gerhard comes " married " Odam uxorem Zuendiboldi regis " after killing her first husband in battle in . Jackman speculates on this possible third marriage for onomastic reasons, the name of Eberhard's supposed daughter Ingeltrud being that of Oda's maternal grandmother . This is the only reference to any children of King Zwentibold.
Their existence is improbable, especially given the speculative birth date shown above of Oda wife of Zwentibold, although it is possible that they were illegitimate. Their names are not, however, typical of the late 9th century in Germany and their absence from any contemporaneous primary sources is surprising if they did exist, considering the number of references to King Zwentibold himself. King Arnulf had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress 2 :.
The Annales Fuldenses records in that " Engilscalcus iuvenili audatia vir " later " rapta de concubina filia regis " . The passage does not name the king's daughter. Ellinrat is the only daughter who is named elsewhere, but the text may refer to an otherwise unknown daughter of Emperor Arnulf. King Arnulf had one illegitimate son by Mistress 3 :. He was appointed sub-king in Italy after his father's return to Germany in . Regino records that " Chuonradus comes " sent " filium suum Chuonradum " against " Gerardum et fratrem eius Matfridum " in .
Graf im Hessengau " Hludowicus…rex " granted property to Kloster Hersfeld built " in pago Hassionum in comitatu Chuonrati " by charter dated 17 Dec . Graf im Keldachgau " Hludowicus…rex " granted property to " presbitero Foldger " at the request of " Chuonradus comes ac propinquus noster…in pago Keldocense in comitatu ipsius Chuonradi " by charter dated 26 Jul . He was opposed by his brother-in-law Erchanger who rebelled in , and by Arnulf Duke of Bavaria . He was wounded on an expedition against Duke Arnulf, which led to his death .
On his deathbed he nominated Heinrich of Saxony as his successor as king of Germany . The necrology of Fulda records the death in of " Cuonradus rex " .
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Regino records the death of " Chuonradus rex " in and his burial in Fulda monastery . Thietmar records his death on 19 Oct, and his " funeral obsequies…at Weilburg " . The Annalista Saxo records that "s epultus est in civitate sua Wilinaburh " . Thietmar records that Heinrich was " born of the noble lineage of Otto and Hadwig " . According to the Annalista Saxo, he was son of the unnamed sister of Adalbert [Babenberg], with whom he and his brothers fought against the Konradiner family, his complete parentage being recorded in a later passage .
King Heinrich re-established Saxon domination over the Slavs after successful campaigns against the Hevelli in and against the Daleminzi and Bohemians in . Widukind records that he defeated t he Magyars at the battle of Riade near Merseburg in , their first major setback in their raids on western Europe . The necrology of Fulda records the death " Kal Iul " of " Heinrih rex " .
Thietmar records the death of King Heinrich 2 Jul at Memleben " in the…sixtieth year of his life " and his burial at Quedlinburg " which he himself had constructed from the ground up " . The necrology of Merseburg records the death "2 Jul" of " Heinricus rex pater magni Oddonis " . Thietmar names Hatheburg as daughter of " lord Erwin ", specifying that she was widowed without naming her first husband , when recording her marriage to Heinrich . She had become a nun after the death of her first husband, which presumably provided the reason for " the outrage perpetrated through this marriage " and the basis for the couple's separation which is not explicitly expressed as such by Thietmar .
Widukind names " Mahthilda " as wife of King Heinrich, also naming her father and three brothers . Thietmar names Mathilde as daughter of " Dietrich and Reinhild " when recording her marriage to Heinrich, specifying the was " a descendant of the lineage of King Widukind " . Her alleged descent from Widukind is also referred to in the Vita Mahthildis .
Thietmar records that Quedlinburg was bestowed on Mathilde as part of her dower 16 Sep  , and that she established the convent there thirty days after the death of her husband . She played an active part in encouraging the rebellion of her son Heinrich in and was included in the reconciliation of . Lay Abbess of Nivelles. Thietmar records the death of Queen Mathilde on 14 Mar, without specifying the year .
The necrology of Fulda records the death " 2 Id Mar " of " Mahthild regina " . Widukind names " Thancmari " as son of King Heinrich, when recording his rebellion against King Otto, and in a later passage names his mother . Thietmar records the birth of " Tammo " . He was considered illegitimate on the basis that his mother had taken the veil before her second marriage, which was therefore invalid .
Thietmar records the rebellion of " Tammo son of the king and Liudgard ", and that Thankmar claimed the inheritance of Siegfried Graf [von Merseburg], who was his mother's first cousin. He was besieged in Eresburg, forced into the church of St Peter where he was killed 28 Jul by Maginzo before the altar, his murderer being punished with a cruel death by the king " later, in the second year of his reign " . The necrology of Merseburg records the death "28 Jul" of " Thancmar frater magni Oddonis " .
The number and names of these children appear definitive apart from any who died in infancy as shown by a list of names in the Libri Confraternitatum Sancti Galli which sets out in order " Heinrich, Mathilt, Otto, Heinrich, Prun, Kerbrich, Adawi, Kysilbref ", no doubt referring to King Heinrich, his wife, children and son-in-law .
Associate King of Germany, with his father, in Liutprand states that the wife of " Gislebertum Lotharingorum ducem " was " regis sororem " . Flodoard names her " Gerbergam " when recording her second marriage . Her first husband had been a rival of King Heinrich I and maybe planned to establish himself as independent ruler in Lotharingia in . As the marriage coincided with Giselbert being created dux , it was presumably arranged to confirm Giselbert's submission to King Heinrich. King Louis married Gerberga without the permission of her brother Otto I King of Germany, probably to increase his hold on Lotharingia ruled by her first husband.
An educated person, she commissioned from Adso of Moutier-en-Der the De ortu et tempore antichristi . Her second husband gave her the abbey of Notre-Dame de Laon in , taken from his mother on her second marriage. Abbess of Notre Dame de Soissons in . Thietmar records that he was captured by Eberhard Duke of Franconia in and " held in chains ". He rebelled against his brother King Otto in and took part in a campaign of pillaging along the Rhine, joined by Eberhard ex-Duke of Franconia and Giselbert Duke of Lotharingia [Hainaut] .
They were defeated at Birten and Andernach . Thietmar records that he was expelled from Regensburg by his nephew Liudolf Duke of Swabia, during the course of the latter's rebellion against his father, but restored by his brother King Otto in  . Regino records the death of " Heinricus frater regis " in . The necrology of Fulda records the death " Kal Nov " of " Heinrichus dux " . The necrology of Merseburg records the death "1 Nov" of " Heinricus dux avus imperatoris Heinrici " .
However, he and subsequent emperors named Heinrich were normally referred to by the ordinal number attached to them as kings of Germany even after their imperial coronations. Rodulfus Glaber names " sororem [primis Ottonis] Haduidem " as wife of " Hugo dux Francorum cognomento Magnus " . Flodoard refers to " sororem Othonis regis Transfhenensis, filiam Heinrici " as the wife of " Hugo princeps, filius Roberti ", without naming her, recording the marriage in . Chancellor of Germany According to Thietmar, Archbishop Bruno plotted against his brother, offering the crown of Germany to his brother-in-law Hugues "le Grand", but repented of his scheme and was forgiven by King Otto .
Thietmar records the death of Archbishop Bruno on 11 Oct " in the thirteenth year after his ordination " . The precise relationships between the following individuals and Emperor Otto I have not been identified. In each case, the primary sources report an indirect family relationship either between these persons, or members of their families, and the emperor. The connection is not necessarily through the agnatic side: a likely possibility is through the numerous family of Mathilde, second wife of Heinrich I King of Germany, about whom little definite information is known.
The Gesta Treverorum records that " Rubertus archiepiscopus " came from " regno quod Lotharingium vocatur " adding that " soror eius imperatori in matrimonio iuncta fuit " . The existence of a relationship between this family and the Ottonian emperors is confirmed by the Vita Richardi abbatis S Vidoni Virdunensis which names " comes Lietardus, Ottonis imperator consanguineus " .
Bishop of Verdun After his accession, the Bohemians and the Abotrites withheld payment of tribute. Otto's half-brother Thankmar rebelled in Saxony with other magnates dissatisfied with the king's distribution of offices. Thietmar records that he founded the monastery of Magdeburg later Magdeburg Cathedral , encouraged by his first wife, to which the relics of St Innocent were brought .
He sent armed forces which were unsuccessful in taking reprisals against Rouen in , after members of the local nobility had arranged the escape of Richard I Comte [de Normandie] from his captivity by Louis IV King of the West Franks, his brother-in-law, a nepos unidentified of King Otto being killed in the battle . Thietmar records that he invaded Italy in , using the ill-treatment of his future second wife as an excuse, entered Pavia 23 Sep and proclaimed himself king of Italy.
His predecessor Berengario di Ivrea proposed himself as Otto's viceroy in Italy, which was accepted by the Council of Augsburg in Aug King Otto's son Liudolf rebelled in , but was pardoned in Thietmar records that King Otto defeated the Magyars in battle at Lechfeld near Augsburg in  , which marked the end of their marauding in Europe. King Otto forced Berengario's retreat to the fortress of San Leo near Montefeltro , finally capturing him in The necrology of Fulda records the death " Non Mai " of " Otto imp " . Thietmar records his death at Memleben on 7 May in the thirty-eighth year after his consecration and his burial at Magdeburg .
The necrology of Merseburg records the death "7 May" of " Otto maior magnus imperator " . The Book of Hyde names " Edgitham et Elgimam " as fifth and sixth of the six daughters of King Eadweard by his first wife " Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda ", specifying that they were both sent to " Henrico Alemanorum imperatori " and that the former married " filio sui Othoni " . Thietmar names " Edith…daughter of King Edmund of England " when recording her marriage during the lifetime of Otto's father, in a later passage stating that she urged her husband to begin establishing the city of Magdeburg .
Thietmar records her death 26 Jan " in the eleventh year " of the reign of her husband, after 19 years of marriage, and her place of burial . Luitprand names " Adelegidam " daughter of Rudolf and Berta, when recording her marriage to " regi Lothario " . Her birth date range is estimated from having given birth to one child by her first marriage before the death of her husband in She claimed the kingdom of Italy on the death of her husband, as the daughter of one of the rival claimants for the throne earlier in the century.
Willa, wife of Berengario di Ivrea who had been proclaimed king at Pavia 15 Dec , ordered Adelais's imprisonment at Como 20 Apr and " afflicted her with imprisonment and hunger " according to Thietmar . Otto I King of Germany used her ill-treatment as an excuse to invade Italy in Sep , although Adelais had succeeded in escaping 20 Aug to Reggio . King Otto entered Pavia 23 Sep , proclaimed himself king of Italy, and married Adelais as her second husband.
The Annalista Saxo records " Adelheidam reginam " as " coniuge rege Lothario " when she married Otto . Flodoard refers to " uxorem quoque Lotharii regis defuncti, filii Hugonis, sororem Chonradi regis " when recording her second marriage . Thietmar records that she was crowned empress at Rome with her husband 2 Feb . Thietmar records that she replaced her daughter-in-law as regent for her grandson King Otto III in . The necrology of Fulda records the death " 17 Kal Ian " of " Adalheid imperatrix " . The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.
She was a " captured Slavic noblewoman " according to Thietmar, who gives neither her name nor her parentage . His birth date is estimate from Widukind stating that he " was still a tender youth no more than seventeen years of age " when his mother died . His father installed him as Duke of Swabia in , in succession to Liudolf's father-in-law . Thietmar records that he rebelled against his father, together with his brother-in-law Konrad Duke of Lotharingia, was besieged at Mainz, but escaped to capture Regensburg and expel his uncle Heinrich Duke of Bavaria . Thietmar also records that his father deposed him in as Duke of Swabia, but ultimately forgave his rebellion .
His father sent him to Italy to control Berengario di Ivrea, Viceroy in Italy, who was attempting to reassert his independence, but Liudolf died there of a fever. Thietmar places a different slant on the event, stating that Liudolf had once more rebelled against his father and left for Italy . Thietmar records the death of Liudolf in Italy 6 Sep, " after scarcely a year " following his departure from his homeland, but does not specify the year . Regino specifies that he died in Italy and was buried in Mainz St Alban . Widukind names " ducis Herimanni filiam Idam " as wife of Liudolf .
Regino records the marriage of " filiam Herimanni ducis " and " Liutolfus filius regis " in . Regino records the birth of " Mathildis filia Liutolfo " at the end of . Abbess of Essen . Regino records the birth of " Liutolfo filius Otto " in . The death of " Otto dux egregius, filius Liudolfi, fratruelis Ottonis secundi ", soon after this defeat, is recorded in the Annalista Saxo . He is presumably the " Otto dux Sueuorum " whose death is recorded " 1 Nov " in The necrology of Merseburg . Widukind records her marriage to " Conrado " .
According to Thietmar, Liutgard was accused by " a certain Cono " of adultery but her name was cleared after Graf Burkhard fought her accuser in combat in her name . Regino records the death of " Liutgarda filia regis " in . The necrology of Merseburg records the death "18 Nov" of " Liudgard filia imperatoris Ottonis " .
Thietmar records her burial in "the church of…Alban at Mainz" . He rebelled against his father-in-law, together with his brother-in-law Liudolf Duke of Swabia, but was ultimately forgiven although deposed as Duke of Lotharingia. The necrology of Merseburg records the death "7 Apr" of " Heinricus filius Oddonis regis " . Although the year is not indicated, Heinrich's years of birth and death must be approximately as estimated here in view of the tight chronology of the births of King Otto's children. She is referred to as " sorore imperatoris abbatissa Quidelingeburgensi ", but not named, when the Annalista Saxo records her presence with her brother and his wife celebrating Christmas at Rome in .
She is named " Machtilda Quidelingeburgensi abbatissa " in a later passage . Thietmar records that Emperor Otto II bequeathed one quarter of his treasure to his sister Mathilde " who presided over the abbey at Quedlinburg " . Regino records the birth of " Otto filius regis " at the end of . He was crowned associate Emperor 25 Dec at Rome . On his accession, he claimed Byzantium's possessions in Italy as part of his wife's dowry. His chancery adopted the title " imperator Romanorum augustus " in . After holding court at Verona, where his son was elected associate king, Otto II left for Rome where he died of malaria .
Her name is not given in the document. It is unlikely, given the date of the marriage of Emperor Nikeforos Fokas and Theofano in that any daughter of theirs would have been considered marriageable in the late s by Emperor Otto. It is therefore likely that the document was prepared before Luitprand's visit, in ignorance of the details of the emperor's family members. The identity of the proposed bride is therefore not certain.
Prior to Luitprand's arrival in Constantinople, Emperor Nikephoros was murdered. According to Thietmar, his successor Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes sent his niece Theofano back to Germany " not the desired maiden…accompanied by a splendid entourage and magnificent gifts " . Western sources consistently refer to Theofano as " neptis " of Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes, for example the charter dated 14 Apr under which " Otto…imperator augustus " granted property to " Theophanu, Iohannis Constantinopolitani imperatoris neptim " .
Her exact relationship to Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes is unknown. It is possible that she was a relative of the emperor's wife rather than of the emperor himself. Davids suggests that she was the daughter of Konstantinos Skleros and his wife Sofia  , who was probably the sister of the first wife of Emperor Ioannes.
An indication that this may be correct is that Theofano's second daughter was named Sophie, normal Byzantine practice being to name the first daughter after the paternal grandmother and the second after the maternal grandmother . It also appears to be chronologically sustainable. However, too little is known about the families of Emperor Ioannes and his wife to propose this as the only plausible hypothesis, especially as the word " neptis " could cover a wide variety of relationships.
In addition, it cannot even be assumed that the wife of Konstantinos Skleros was the only individual named Sofia in these families at the time. She was regent during the minority of her son Thietmar records the death of Empress Theofano at Nijmegen on 15 Jun and her place of burial . The necrology of Merseburg records the death "15 Jun" of " Theophanu imperatrix " . The birth of a daughter of " Ottoni inperatori et Theophanu auguste…quam nominee matris sue imperatricis insignivit " is recorded in the Annalista Saxo in  , but this appears incorrect assuming that the approximate birth dates of her sisters Sophie and Mathilde are correct and that Adelheid was her parents' oldest daughter as recorded by Thietmar, who also confirmed that she became a nun at Quedlinburg .
She succeeded her paternal aunt as abbess of Quedlinburg in , according to Thietmar who in one part of the text calls Adelheid sister of her predecessor Mathilde and in another part sister of Otto III . Abbess of Gernrode and Verden , and Gandersheim The Vita Godehardi names " Sophia , secundi imperatoris Ottonis filia " when recording that she was brought up at Gandersheim . Thietmar records that Sophie was Theofano's second daughter, and that she became a nun at Gandersheim .
Canoness at Gandersheim, elected abbess in , installed The Annalista Saxo records the death of " domna Sophia…Gandersheimensis abbatissa " in , specifying that she was sister of " Adelheit Quidilingeburgensis abbatissa " . Thietmar records that " Mathilde the emperor's sister married Ezzo, who was the son of Hermann the count palatine ", commenting that " this displeased many " . The Annales Brunwilarenses record the death in of " domna nostra Mathilda " .
The primary source which records the existence of this daughter has not so far been identified. His accession was confirmed at Quedlinburg at Easter . He ruled through the regency of his mother until her death in , and under that of his paternal grandmother until Sep , when he was declared of age at Sohlingen . Crowned Emperor at Rome 21 May He died of a fever, probably smallpox. Thietmar records the death of the emperor on 24 Jan at Paterno and his burial at Aachen . No corroborative sources have been identified, and the report appears unlikely, not only because of what must have been an evident age difference between the parties but also the unlikelihood that the young emperor would appear to condone his enemy's treachery by marrying his widow.
She was named as deceased in a document dated  , although it remains to be clarified whether this is a reference to Theodora, widow of Crescentius [II]'s older brother Ioannes [I] Crescentius. Thietmar records that " Helena from the Greeks " who later married " the king of the Russians Vladimir " had formerly been betrothed to Otto III " but was then denied to him through fraud and cunning " . This betrothal is unlikely or the report of it at best confused. The marriage of Anna of Byzantium, wife of Grand Prince Vladimir, took place in and there is no indication in other sources of her earlier betrothal to Otto.
The Historia Welforum names " filia Ottonis magnis imperatoris…Richlint " as wife of " Couno comes " .
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She may be " domna Rilint " from whom " Heinricus…rex " acquired property " in Halla in pago Salzburcgouui in comitatu Thiemonis comitis ", which he donated to the bishopric of Bamberg by charter dated 1 Nov . Jackman  identifies her as daughter of Liudolf [of Saxony] Duke of Swabia, son of Emperor Otto I, but the question is not without controversy. In view of the clear statement in the Historia Welforum and the spurious charter, it has been decided to show her here as the child of Emperor Otto I despite the unreliability of these sources, but in square brackets to indicate doubt.
If this is correct, she must presumably have been the child of the emperor's second marriage, unless she was illegitimate. Thietmar names Wilhelm as " the offspring of a captured Slavic noblewoman and the king " . The Annales Quedlinburgensis record the installation of " Willihelmus filius regis " as Archbishop of Mainz in . Thietmar records the death of Wilhelm Archbishop of Mainz at Rottleberode on 2 Mar, in the same year as Queen Mathilde died in .
King Otto had one possible illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:. No other reference to this Sicco has been identified. Two other nobleman named Siegfried have been identified at the time: Siegfried Comte de Luxembourg and Siegfried later Graf von Northeim. In addition, in the case of Comte Siegfried, he would have been referred to in such a list with his comital title, and in any case the list in question includes in another section a Lotharingian contingent in which he would have been placed if he had been sent to Italy. Thietmar names " Konrad who had illegally married his own cousin, the widow of Duke Ernst " when recording that he was wounded when Gerhard Graf von Metz his maternal uncle met Godefroi II Duke of Lower Lotharingia for " a judicial duel " 27 Aug .
Crowned King of Italy at Milan in Mar Founded Kloster Limburg The Annales Spirenses record his burial at Speyer . The Annalista Saxo names her three husbands, although the order of her first and second marriages is interchanged which appears impossible chronologically . Crowned empress, with her husband, at Rome 26 Mar Herimannus records her death at Goslar .
The necrology of Merseburg records the death "24 Sep" of " Beatrix filia Cuonradi imperatoris " . Her absence from the list of deceased relatives in the donation of " Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus " to the church of Worms by charter dated 30 Jan suggests that Mathilde died after that date, while her absence from the list of the children of Emperor Konrad named in the same charter is explainable on the basis of her youth . Wipo names " Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris " when recording his first marriage in . Duke of Swabia He was installed as king of Burgundy by his father in Autumn Regent of the duchy of Carinthia He resumed possession of the duchy of Bavaria from to At the same time Emperor Heinrich received the rank of patricius as a hereditary title, which carried the right to cast the first vote in a papal election, the power of which was reflected in the election of six German popes during the following decade .
A deeply religious man, Emperor Heinrich renewed the ban on clerics taking oaths in court proceedings, refused to follow the practice of bestowing church offices for payment, and laid great emphasis on the sacral character of kingship . He founded the convent of St Simon and Jude at Goslar before He died of a fever. Adam of Bremen records that the daughter of King Knud married " imperator filio suo " . Her parentage is given by Orderic Vitalis, who also refers to her marriage . Wipo names " Chnutonis regis Anglorum filiam, nomine Chunehildem " as wife of " Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris " when recording their marriage in .
Herimannus names " Chunihildem, Cnutonis Danorum et Anglorum regis filiam " when recording her marriage to " Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris " in . The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that " uxor imperatoris Henrici Gunhildis imperatrix de Anglia " was accused of adultery, that she was defended in trial by combat, but that after her champion's victory she disdained the success and became a nun . William of Malmesbury also recounts that she was accused of adultery and retired to a convent . Herimannus names her " Agnetam, Willehelmi Pictaviensis filiam " when recording her marriage .
She was crowned empress with her husband at Rome 25 Dec She was regent during the minority of her son from Agnes resigned as regent and went to Rome . Wipo records that " regina Chunehildis " left a single daughter unnamed specifying that she later became a nun . The source which names her has not yet been identified.
Abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim At the end of the passage dealing with , Herimannus records the birth of a daughter to " Agnes regina " but does not name her . This presumably refers to Mathilde, probably her parents' oldest child given the date of her marriage.
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The Annales of Berthold record the marriage in of " Roudolfus Alemmanorum dux " and " Mahthildam, Heinrici regis sororem " and the death in of " Mahthilt soror regis " . The Annales Sancti Blasii record the marriage in of " Roudolfus dux " and " Mahtildam regis sororem " and the death of " Mahtilt uxor Roudolfi ducis " in . He was one of the nobles opposed to his brother-in-law King Heinrich IV. He was elected anti-king of Germany at Forcheim in Feb by the German nobility who were affronted by Pope Gregory VI's withdrawal of the order of excommunication against King Heinrich .
The Pope remained neutral at the time but after repeating his excommunication order against King Heinrich in , he declared support for Rudolf as anti-king . The Annalista Saxo names " sorore regis Adelheida Quidelingeburgensi abbatissa " . Abbess of Gandersheim Abbess of Quedlinburg The Annalista Saxo records the birth of " Heinrico inperatori filius quartus Heinricus " . The Annales Necrologici Fuldenses record the death in of " Cuonrad infans filius imperatoris " . The Annales Yburgenses refer to the wife of " Ungariam…[rex] Salemannum " as " regis Heinrici sororem " but do not name her .
Having left Hungary for Germany after her husband was deposed in , she was living in Regensburg when her husband attempted to reclaim the Hungarian throne. She refused to receive him when he returned in The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum specifies her name " Iudite " . This could only refer to the future Philippe I King of France as it is unlikely that the emperor's daughter would have been betrothed to his younger brother. This betrothal is not corroborated in the western European primary sources so far consulted.
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Emperor Heinrich had one [possible illegitimate] child by [an unknown mistress]:. Her birth date range is estimated on the assumption that the age of her son Johann is correct when he died. Assuming that her paternity is correctly stated, her absence from other contemporary records and her comparatively obscure marriage suggest that she was illegitimate.
Emperor Heinrich IV, who would have been Azela's half-brother if the relationship is correctly stated here, made numerous donations to Speyer cathedral between and , during the bishopric of Azela's son Johann. However, in none of these is any blood relationship with the bishop directly mentioned by using words such as " consanguineus " or " propinquus ". Nevertheless, in the emperor's donation dated 21 Sep he calls Bishop Johann " fidele servicium carissimi ", a phrase which appears more intimate than those usually seen in imperial donations to bishoprics and which could be consistent with family relationship .
His father crowned him associate king of Germany at Aachen 17 Jul King Heinrich faced many difficulties with his nobility. He deprived Otto von Northeim of the duchy of Bavaria in after accusing him of an assassination plot. King Heinrich was eventually forced to leave his fortress of Harzburg and seek protection in Worms, for which he rewarded the town with special privileges in . Under the peace of Gerstungen in early Feb , he was obliged to demolish his castles, except Harzburg although the latter was stormed by Saxon peasantry and destroyed . Difficulties with the papacy centred around the dispute about lay investiture in Germany.
After King Heinrich's accession, the right of patricius to cast the first vote in papal elections was largely ignored, resulting in declining German influence in the selection of new Popes. The Pope, in response, deposed and excommunicated the king, who was forced into obedience. King Heinrich crossed the Alps into Italy with his family and appeared in Jan as a penitent before the castle of Canossa, in which the Pope had taken refuge, and forced a reconciliation. The German princes, affronted by the withdrawal of the excommunication, elected Rudolf von Rheinfelden as rival king of Germany at Forcheim in Feb .
The Pope repeated his excommunication order in , and declared support for the anti-king . In the deepening dispute between Church and empire, Emperor Heinrich enjoyed temporary success against Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, one of the Pope's most ardent supporters, and defeated her troops at Tresenta in . However, the emperor was left without political support and was obliged to remain confined in a castle near Verona to avoid capture .