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Applying theories of ritual and performance to the study of the mafia role in religious festivals, this article examines the effects of the role played by mafiosi in local religious festivals on their individual and collective identity, as well as on the social structure of the group as a whole. Specific attention will be dedicated to how —and whether—these practices have been affected by the recent significant successes in judicial investigations into the mafia, the hardening in the civil society's attitude toward organized crime syndicates, and the progressively firmer stand by the Church against the mafia.
The data for analysis are derived from judicial papers, police reports and video footage, together with relevant secondary literature on the subject.
This essay examines the rise of the devotion of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in the eighteenth century and the debates that this devotion stirred within Catholicism concerning its iconographical representations. While images of the fleshy, anatomical heart of Jesus were perceived by the Jansenists as obscene and an ultimate Disrobing of Christ, the devotion, progressively sanitized in its representations, brought Christ to the center of Catholic devotional life again, and helped to move the much-criticized cult of the saints to the margins.
While examining how the ultimate defining image of Christianity was so fiercely opposed and debated, I explore the thorny issue of the role of images in Catholicism. A reconsideration of the four Magdalene images alongside contemporary imagery and a myriad of early Christian, Byzantine, and Italian accounts of the Passion, instead suggest that Savoldo, in these paintings, adds a new, more complex response to a millennium-old discussion about the respective roles of the Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene.
This essay reflects on Giorgio Agamben's The Highest Poverty: Monastic Rules and Form-of-Life with particular attention to the Italian philosopher's detailed analysis of the question of the open, free sharing of goods, or "simple use," as the ultimate point of contention between the Franciscan movement and the Roman Catholic Church. The essay refutes Agamben's contention that such a practice is unthinkable in contemporary society.
Indeed, in the digital domain, the question of the open sharing of goods such as information or network bandwidth has resurfaced with renewed urgency.
Yet it is highly doubtful whether the Internet represents the genuine triumph of simple use. Through examples such as the indictment of Aaron Swartz for downloading scholarly articles from the JSTOR database, the ascendancy of Coursera as a corporate publisher of online educational content via a MOOC Massive Online Open Course model, and the current debate surrounding network neutrality, the essay debates the extent to which the Franciscan idea of simplex usus remains a problematic spectral presence.
Many of Sannazaro's contemporaries took issue with the fact that the moment of Annunciation was likened by the poet to a young girl fearing rape by pirates. In the winter of , the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum held a retrospective of the work of Italian artist and provocateur Maurizio Cattelan. Instead of the usual chronological display, all Cattelan works were suspended from cables in the central rotunda of the museum in what appeared to some viewers as so many salamis hanging in a shop or marionettes in an abandoned theater.
This essay argues that the retrospective, declared by the artist to be his last, instead constituted an intentionally staged, tragi-comic Last Judgment.
Introduzione a I canovacci della Commedia dell'Arte
Cattelan has long been concerned with the themes of failure, guilt, loss, and death. Working with appropriated popular cultural images and arterfacts, he addresses themes including the resurgence of fascism, xenophobia, greed, and the abuse of power, through often shocking collisions of opposing terms. As installed in the Guggenheim, Cattelan's works took on a new site-specific set of meanings and references, provoking an encounter with death and an uncanny afterlife. Viewers were invited to see the works within a new optic, one that draws on the iconography of the Last Judgment to critique attitudes of complacency and indifference.
The Divisionists were a loosely associated group of late nineteenth-century painters intent on creating a distinctly Italian avant-garde. They strove to override current anxieties about backwardness and cultural fragmentation in the recently established, but disconnected, Italian kingdom with a mission underpinned by modernist and nationalist aspirations. The sources for the majority of these images lay in medieval and Renaissance art.
This confluence of a Positivist painting technique for Divisionism drew on scientific theories of chromatics and optics and radical politics with anti-materialist and sacred themes, and modern art with historical prototypes, albeit paradoxical, was not an altogether surprising phenomenon in the s, the decade when Symbolist art and revivalist trends thrived and spiritualism and science overlapped.
Focusing on their sacred works, this essay explores the cultural context within which the Divisionists pursued spirituality and expressed metaphysical and transcendent ideas. This essay addresses issues of vision and the role of the material image in devotional practice at the Sacro Monte di Varallo, a fifteenth-century Italian pilgrimage site built by Franciscans to simulate the experience of visiting the Holy Land through mimetically recreated sacred places. Visitors could interact physically with the tableaux until the mid-sixteenth century when architect Galeazzo Alessi designed glass partitions, or vetriate , to separate the viewers from the figures.
Previously, scholars have viewed the vetriate only as disciplining instruments of the Counter-Reformation, designed to prevent viewers from wrongly venerating the material image by restricting physical access to the tableaux. I argue that the vetriate, by virtue of their construction and decoration, would have signaled to the viewer the importance, even preciousness, of the tableaux. The mimetic qualities of the Sacro Monte as well as contemporaneous literature that addresses reliquaries and the partitioning of ecclesiastical space, support the argument that the vetriate enhanced rather than diminished the material importance of the tableaux and their role as relic-like links between the viewer and the life of Christ.
This paper explores the representation of the sacred in Pasolini's controversial film, La ricotta , including a careful examination of the historical and intellectual contexts of the sacred in Pasolini's art and thought. I contend that Pasolini's positions, which were so pertinent in the s, still have relevance today. Fillia pseudonym of Luigi Colombo was one of the futurist artists who produced paintings on religious themes. Chiavacci Leonardi Paradiso, con il commento di A. Interestingly enough, Aversano Dante daccapo [glosses to the Paradiso ], copia d'eccezione , sent by the author on 11 September , p.
That Beatrice is here presented intrinsically, at least as a masculine leader reminds Aversano Dante daccapo [glosses to the Paradiso ], copia d'eccezione , sent by the author on 11 September , p. We follow Tozer comm. Dante in Conv. Here, however, it seems totally clear that Dante is reiterating his thoughts about the triform Creation see Par. As Aversano Dante daccapo [glosses to the Paradiso ], copia d'eccezione , sent by the author on 11 September , p.
It is quite striking, as Aversano points out, that after Inferno II. It had, in fact, appeared more often in the Convivio twice: II. The poet, in his enthusiasm for incarnation, restrains himself only enough not to insist that the angels are seen as though they, too, are embodied. There is no preexisting tradition that allows this daring invention seeing the blessed as though they were already incarnate on Dante's part. And yet, once we read his instruction, we accept their phantom flesh as a necessary element of his vision. Nolan [Dublin: Irish Academic Press, ], pp. Barblan [Florence: Olschki, ], pp.
Again Dante is blinded by the light, one last time before he begins seeing the higher reality of God's Heaven as it really is. The simile makes use of a fitting biblical precursor, St. Paul see the note to verse Tommaseo comm. Their view was shared by Poletto comm. Beatrice explains that the blinding brightness of the Empyrean welcomes all newcomers just as Dante is welcomed now and will be again, we realize , prepared to see God face-to-face and to flame with love for Him. The protagonist is now ready for the final stage of his journey, as is betokened by the fact that he has internalized Beatrice's words.
Not all commentators agree that such is the case, claiming that Dante is uncertain as to the source of the words, even that he may have spoken them himself.
American Dante Bibliography for 1971
But see Benvenuto comm. It certainly seems a part of the protagonist's preparation for being rapt in his vision of God that distinctions between objective and subjective reality should begin to break down. Zennaro [Rome: Bonacci, ], p. Sapegno comm. Eternal glory is said to be flowing water because of its abundance; the water of life because it has no impurities; shining because of its clarity; like crystal because of its transparency. The second most cited potential biblical source is Daniel See Jacopo della Lana [comm.
Jacopo says that Dante is speaking metaphorically. The word he uses is transumptive. Seeing metaphorically, as it were thus reversing our usual practice, which is to understand the truth of things and then express that in metaphor , the protagonist sees light in the form of a river, its two banks covered with flowers, with sparks flying up and then settling back down on the blossoms. There is, as well there should be, general agreement about the identities of these three elements, resolved from metaphor.
The identity of the light in the form of a river is frequently passed over in silence. However, Benvenuto comm. Exactly what adjective Dante set down and what it means has been a matter of some dispute, with four possible choices fulvido, fulgido, fluvido, fluido doing battle over the centuries. See Scartazzini comm. In the Aeneid VI.
At least they probably seem happy to us when first we see them; but see the note to Par. In simile, they are compared to bees settling in flowers. Yet it is nonetheless true, once we see the allusion, that we can carry it back with us to this passage. And then we may begin to understand that, for all the apparent discarding of Virgil that sets the last cantica apart from the first two, the Latin poet is rewarded by his greatest medieval admirer with a new life in the conclusion of his poem.
Where before, at least in the protagonist's own view, he failed to match up to his two precursors, now he is indeed the new Paul and the new Aeneas:. This is a powerful moment in which Virgil's and Dante's mimetic proclivities are shown in their warmest tones; at least in Dante's case we witness the imitation of nature engineered by another kind of imitation altogether. For the ruby set in gold, it has become commonplace, after Scartazzini comm.
For the inebriation of the angels, Scartazzini comm. Beatrice intervenes again, preparing Dante for his baptismal ingestion of the waters of Life. For more on the figural dimensions of the word umbra , see the note to Paradiso I. John Woodhouse [Oxford: Clarendon, ], p. His previous linear sense of things has moved to a new dimension, the circularity of perfection. This new vision, unlike that of some, maintains its relation to the things of the world, which now for the first time may be really understood. The first moment of face-to-face seeing is presented with this simile.
Poletto comm. Nonetheless, Fallani comm. A potential literary source for this image has apparently never been suggested. It is probably fair to say that most readers feel puzzled as to the poet's motivation at such an important moment. For another sort of unmasking, in which the protagonist again has his initial vision yield to a greater reality, see the note to Paradiso XXXIII. He points out that this repetition of vidi I saw underlines the claim for a poetics based in seeing and making seen.
As several commentators have observed apparently the first was Scartazzini [comm. Responding to the word's presence in verse 61, Aversano Dante daccapo [glosses to the Paradiso ], copia d'eccezione , sent by the author on 11 September , p. Dante uses that form seven times in all in this canto, the most of any canto in the cantica Par. There are occurrences of this form of the verb vedere in the poem, all but fourteen of them spoken by the poet; exceptions include Virgil [at Inf. Vidi is one of Dante's favorite locutions, reflecting his strategic insistence on the reality of his experience.
The fiori flowers are the saved souls, the faville sparks are the angels, as is commonly agreed see the note to vv. We see them again in the next canto, verses , the sparks now transformed, in simile, into bees. This is the eighth and penultimate invocation in the poem see the note to Inf. The first line of this tercet marks a borderline as sharply etched as that, involving similar stylistic traits, separating lower from upper Hell Inf.
Here the light of grace that makes God visible to once mortal souls introduces the final and visionary part of the poem. There is a certain amount of indecision in the commentaries as to whether this lume is reflected light rather than its source which would be luce. Some argue that it is the Holy Spirit, others Jesus as Logos, still others some form of grace.
For this last, see Carroll comm. The change of the river into the circular sea is Dante's symbolic way of stating that the grace by which a soul is saved and strengthened to persevere to the end of the earthly life, is not something different in kind from the glory to which it leads. Aquinas is here laying down the distinction between prevenient and subsequent grace.
Hollander does go on correctly to credit Scartazzini comm. The enormous size of the Rose may come as something of a surprise. Dante never tells us the number of places that are found there, whether it is the precise number , offered in the Apocalypse see the note to Par. There are some questions that we are simply not encouraged to pose.
The disc of the Sun, even populated by souls on thrones with first-class legroom, would hold more saints than are imaginable, millions of millions. See Poletto comm. The Rose is made up of a beam of light the Godhead reflected upward from the convex surface of the Primum Mobile, which rotates because of its love for that beam and spreads its influence through the celestial spheres beneath it. There the poet, in the Primum Mobile, has his first vision of the Godhead and the surrounding spheres of angels. Exactly where he sees them is a matter in dispute.
Nel Proemio , redatto da Puccio Lamoni, si apprende che la stesura dell'opera fu oggetto di lunghe e alterne vicende. La prima edizione vide la luce nel , dodici anni dopo la sua morte, a distanza di circa venti anni dalla sua progettazione congetturabile tra il Mamone, Tra tela e scena. Lippi, Il Malmantile racquistato cit.
La schiava , per Pietro Bartoli, Pavia , riprodotta in F. Scala, Il Teatro delle favole rappresentative, a cura di F. Marotti, Il Polifilo, Milano , vol. Ferrone, Attori mer canti corsari. Burattelli, D. Landolfi e A. Zinanni a cura di , Comici dell'Arte. Corrispondenze , edizione diretta da S. Ferrone, Le Lettere, Firenze , vol. Scala, Il Teatro delle favole rappresentative cit. Andrews, How and why-does one print scenarios?
Falavolti a cura di , Commedie dei comi ci dell'Arte , Utet, Torino , pp. I due prologhi sono trascritti in F. Marotti e G. La professione del teatro , Bulzoni, Roma , pp. Sul dibattito cfr. Tessari, La Commedia dell'Arte nel Seicento.
Testaverde, Della scena de' sogetti comici cit. Barbieri, La Supplica , a cura di F. Taviani, Il Polifilo, Milano , p. Sul Barbieri cfr. Saggi dispersi e inediti , Interlinea, Novara Mariti, Commedia ridicolosa.
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Comici di professione, dilettanti, editoria teatrale n el Seicento. Storia e testi , Bulzoni, Roma , p. Locatelli, Della scena de' sogetti comici cit. Bruni, Prologhi.