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Historian Jon Keller is on a trip to Switzerland when the world ends. As the lights go out on civilisation, he wishes he had a way of knowing whether his wife, Nadia, and their two daughters are still alive. Taking us to the heart of the latest thinking about AI, Max Tegmark, the MIT professor whose work has helped mainstream research on how to keep AI beneficial, separates myths from reality, utopias from dystopias, to explore the next phase of our existence.

An electronic book or e-book is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Nevertheless, we are already witnessing new schools in Europe designed for the children of executives of transnational corporations educated in three languages and with no preferences for national histories. When I first read Hollinger 's book, I thought it was a good criticai examina tion of the current situation in the U. However, the problem is that I was reading it as "their problem," that is, an U.

Suddenly I realized that as an U. Why did I fail to react like that from the first moment, the way I may have reacted if I were reading a similar discussion on Argentina or Bolivia? The Spaniards were not the ones who "estaban Nepantlas. Nepantlismo is not located in discourse, like hybridity in Bajtin and Bhabha, even if in Bhabha the discourse in question is the colonial discourse. Briefly, nepantlismo is a way of avoiding the idea of hybridity cultures, where cultures is still conceived as an artifact, an object, and focuses more on the allocation and relocation of identities in the sphere of colonialism and colonial legacies.

Thus, to "be in front and being in between" summarizes my conception of the allocation and relocation of meaning and of the question of transnational ethnic, cultural identities: to be "nepantla" is to be aware of being in-between. I derive two conclusions from the previous discussion: 1. Nepantlismo is not just a local history; it seems to be the global condition in a transnational world. The experience I cali nepantlismo describes neither certain texts nor a certain mode of engagement, but the general activity of Uving in-between and in front within a subaltem condition. This is why we must consider nepantlismo as neither one kind of experience nor a description of certain valorized texts, but as the general condition of the subjective subaltem experience; in-between something that is being lost and something that is being incorporated, and in front of something that has the sturdy force of hegemonic position.

Hegemony and subalternity are being rearticulated in nepantlismo as a complex space of the hegemonic being in conflictive dialogue with the no longer being and the not being yet of subaltem positions. Nepantlismo is the place where local histories and global designs meet; where cultural hybridity and transnational identities can be rethought. However, as far as nepantlismo articulates subaltem perspectives, it becomes not only a politicai but also a necessary epistemological position to break the compUcity between citizenship and scientific epistemology that HoUinger proposes as a viable move towards postethnic societies.

This means to surpass nationalism and to understand transnational identities in the context of colonial legacies. Nepantlismo complicates the notion of hybrid cultures, at the same time that it rearticulates the relations between hegemony and subaltemity at the intersection of local histories and global designs, of the national and transnational, in the conflictive space of hegemonic allocations of being, and the relentless subaltem relocation of no longer being and not being.

The Location of Culture. London, New York: Routledge, Boston: South End Press, Chatterjee, Partha. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Hall, Stuart. King ed. Culture, Globalization and the World-System. Binghamton: Art and Art History, Hollinger, David. Postethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism. New York: Harper and Collins, Lowe, Lisa. Durham: Duke University Press, Ng, Wing-Cheung.

Taylor, Charles. Sources ofthe Self: the Making ofthe Modem Identity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Turner, Frederick C. The Dynamics ofMexican Nationalism. Quito: Abya-Yala, Young, Robert. London; New York: Routiedge, Their proposal was to focus, for the first time, on issues of gender in the niin's famous letter. The result is an unequaled edition of Sor Juana's famous reply that is situated historically and annotated exhaustively, always emphasizing gender issues in Sor Juana's text.

The goals of their criticai edition are to "do justice" to the letter by appreciating the socio-political context in which Sor Juana produced her celebrated document, while simultaneously maintain- ing the rich ambiguities of her letter intact. The two editors identify Sor Juana as a feminist bef ore her time, yet wam that championing her as a feminist may result in obscuring her "greatness as an artist. Therefore, it seems reasonable to ascertain whether Arenal and Powell's translation con- veys feminist characteristics already present in the text or whether it projects upon the document a feminist perspective.

A male translator. At the same time, in the context of reader-response theory, Trueblood's translation may reveal the true necessity for women-cen- tered translations. Finally, in the light of these theoretical considerations, tvvelve passages will be analyzed in order to identify the feminist nature of the translation to determine if Arenal and Powell successfully achieve their stated goals of focusing on gender, maintaining the text's ambi- guities, and not reducing the text's mutliplicities into a fixity.

George Steiner's book, After Babel, is certainly a permanent fix- ture in the realm of translation and translation theory. His first conten- tion postulates that aU acts of communication are translations. Ac- cording to Steiner, to understand is to decipher, thus interpretation is translation and vice-versa. From this position, he is able to muse about how intra-lingual translation comment on the nature of language it- 17 18 Gender and Aesthetics? Steiner makes important observations about the constantiy evolv- ing flux of language and asks the provocative question - do languages actually entropy?

He believes that a text is inherently a prisoner to its historical context and must not be removed from it.

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When we read, we reconstruct the world the author has created, thus we interpret: "When we read or hear any language statement from the past. This internai inter- pretation, in fact, guarantees the importance and continued existence of art and literature. The artistic nature of translations is fundamental for Steiner, even though, paradoxically, man has attempted to define translation in sci- entific terms. The result in his chapter entitled "Claims of Theory" is that very few "original and significant ideas" exist and those that do can be divided into two general camps- literal and free translation.

This concept of free range or interlinearity proposes the ideal in translation: a translation that is so good that it takes the place of the original. Translation can be seen as a process of interpretation, appropriation, and re-cre- ation of the source text. Despite the interpretive nature of translations, translators rarely receive recognition for their work, the translators of Bacon, Descartes, Locke, Kant are unidentifiable. Instead, Steiner wams that no theory of translation should be considered scien tifie: "What we are dealing with is not a science, but an exact art" Paraphrase reflects the content but not the form of the original.

The choice between the two methods appears to be equally undesirable. Schleiermacher proposes that the only two reasonable options - either to produce a translation that is reader-friendly or text-friendly: "Either the translator leaves the author in peace, as much as possible, and moves the reader towards him; or he leaves the reader in peace, as much as possible, and moves the author towards him" 9. TTie two options are mutually exclusive and produce highly disparate results. The reader-friendly option has dominated modem translations, while the text-friendly translation is commonly avoided due to its difficulty to execute and read.

The first option presents the text as if the author had written the original in the target language, whereas the second option is an attempt by the trans- lator to convey the essence of the source text while remaining faithful to its foreignness. By proffering a text-friendly translation, Schleiermacher is actually defending an assimilation of the foreign- ness of a distant culture.

A translator should bend his language to reflect the "foreign likeness" of the original and in doing so, the trans- lator positively influences his own language and his own culture: Our nation may be destined Translation becomes a metaphor for uniting while respecting cultural differences, seeing the world through a different lens, recognizing the other 's othemess while engendering an opportunity to better understand one's own culture.

Jorge Luis Borges' theory of translation purports a much less uto- 20 Gender and Aesthetics? Ac- cording to Kristal, Francis W. Newman and Matthew Amold's famous polemic conceming the translation of Homer's Iliad inspired Borges' approach to translation. Amold was convinced that a faithful translation required certain omissions and rewordings to make it more fluid and clear. Kristal points out that Borges did not consider these two approaches mutually exclu- sive, rather he adopted both, simultaneously. Borges insisted thatboth methods, literal and periphrastic, created necessary and fascinating results.

Literal translations produce new, but unexpectedly fantastic cacophonous results for the document. Periphrastic translation by being so free of the original also brings Ufe to the original that wasn't previ- ously present. This recasting of the original brings a sense of creativity to the "task of the translator.

This skeptical perspective on literature identifies the great neces- sity for translation as an outlet for creativity. Borges emphatically asserted that every writer creates his own precursor. He makes this statement in an essay on Kafka, who influenced some of Borges' literary themes. Paradoxically, Borges stated on a variety of occasions that he only pos- sessed two short stories that were Kafkaesque "The Lottery of Babylon" and "The Library of Babel" but they were, according to him, perhaps his worst stories.

We know these short stories to be some of his most brilliant work, so we must ask ourselves why does he so thoroughly downplay Kafka's influence on his writing? Bloom's theory addresses the overwhelming influence a writer feels when confronted with predecessors like Milton and Shakespeare. A strong writer must survive this encounter and mis- read his precursor 's text as a defensive measure that leads one to de- pose their predecessor.

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A strong writer is able to break free of the orbit of his predecessor and does it convincingly enough so that the reader attributes certain stylistic qualities of a text to the strong writer instead of the original text. Borges, being a strong writer, intuits Bloom's "anxi- ety of influence" in his essay entitled, "Kafka y sus precursores.

It becomes clear that, according to Borges, one can appropriate the text of one's predecessor so well that our perception of the past and the future are irreparably modified. Jean Paris' article, "Translation and Creation" laments that translation is often executed in an exaggerated manner - either it is too literal or too free. Paris also states that the tianslator must maintain the "original spirit" of the text, "it may well happen that the tianslated poem is better than the original, more revealing, closer to the Ideal" It is in this context that we can understand 22 Gender and Aesthetics?

Borges' famous quip - "the original is unfaithful to the translation. The result of his aggressive editorial forays, i. Borges, although only a trans- lator, seems to be more Kafkaesque than Kafka in his Spanish transla- tions of the German's work. Suddenly, Kafka's preoccupation with infinity seems to be a Borgesian concept rather than an appropriation of a Kafkaesque theme.

Literary techniques and themes that had pre- viously been overly influential have been completely recast in a Hght that attributes these themes to Borges and not his predecessor, Kafka. In the realm of reader-response, feminist scholars claim that their predecessors have not considered them at aU in the formulation of their theories. The feminist perspective starts out by simply asserting that men and women "read" in different manners.

Patrocinio P. Schweickart's article, "Reading Ourselves: Toward a Feminist Theory of Reading," maintains that reader-response theory is woefully inadequate in addressing issues of race, class, and sex Gen- der and Reading In other words, in a patriarchal world, one cannot presuppose that texts are gender-neutral, but rather issues of gender and politics must be addressed: "For feminists, the question of how we read is inextricably linked to what we read" Schweickart declares that feminist scholarship must confront the literary canon and expose how male-dominated texts oppress women readers, forcing them to conform to male perspectives, or to read as a man would.

Schweickart proclaims that the reading experience for men affirms their own iden- tity in a male-dominated world: "For the male reader, the text serves as the meeting ground of the personal and the universal. The male reader feels his affinity with the universal. This type of male-centered reading experience results is an immasculation of women readers that pits women against them- selves: "It solicits her compUcity in the elevation of male difference into universality and, accordingly, the denigration of female difference Mester, Vol.

In other words, the literary canon reproduces a patriarchal view of reality that helps to reinforce misogyny. Due to this tendency to force women to read as men, Schweickart issues a call-to-arms to revise the literary canon into a fenriinist per- spective and reject the male oriented perspective of the "canon. Here, she declares that women who read women's texts are getting to know the "voice" of the author, un- derstanding her, embodying the author 's message. Yet, feminist readings must honor the autonomy of the text, re- specting it without appropriating its meaning. However, Schweickart also recognizes a tendency towards the subjectivity of a reader and wams, "the reader also has her own premises.

To forget these is to run the risk of imposing them surreptitiously on the author" She ac- cepts that reading is subjective and suggests that reading may be a form of interpretation, whose "validity is contingent on the agreement of others" Having appropriately reviewed some of the major theoretical documents on translation and simultaneously taken gender into con- sideration through reader-response theory, we can approach the two disparate translations of La Respuesta.

The two translations are significantly different and the goal of this paper is to deduce how both translations affect our reading of the text. Trueblood's translation is being used as a point of reference that serves by comparison to identify the feminist qualities of Arenal and Powell's translation. Yet, while serving as a reflection of the feminist criticai edition of Sor Juana, the comparison may also expose a male- dominated perspective of the text.

A 24 Gender and Aesthetics? The editors reflect one of the major tenets of feminism, i. Gen- der, therefore, is an extremely justifiable frame of reference since Sor Juana's gender seriously affected her intellectual production. After ali, La Respuesta was a response to a male authority, thinly disguised as a woman, attempting to silence Sor Juana for her presumptuousness: "Letters that breed arrogance God does not want in women.

This sentence alone embodies the church's patriarchal position in relation to Sor Juana's attempts at intellectual expression. It appears that gen- der is very much an issue in La Respuesta. Yet, it is not the tianslation alone that establishes a feminist perspective in Arenal and Powell's criticai edition, but rather their historical intioduction and their volu- minous annotations that orient the reader towards a certain reading of Sor Juana's La Repuesta.

Along with the feminist perspective of the editors' introduction and annotatioris. Arenal and Powell define Sor Juana as a feminist be- fore her time. They state Sor Juana's writing must be considered in the context with other writing women of her era, while also being cogni- zant of the fact that Sor Juana entered an already present debate con- ceming women's equality in Letters.

More importantly, according to Arenal and Powell, Sor Juana's arguments were intended for other women: "Because she wrote as a woman aware of her gender status and because she intended her arguments to be applied on behalf of other women as women, she is certainly a precursor to worldviews and activities we cali feminist" ix.

The editors appear convinced that these historical facts justify their feminist reading of La Respuesta. However, the preface warns that to champion Sor Juana in our Anglo- American culture may diminish other important aspects of her work. Paradoxi- cally, the editors claim that to misunderstand the context in which Sor Juana wrote and disregard her ambiguities is not to do justice to the text: "To do otherwise mistianslates the author's multiplicities into a fixity" ix.

Yet, is it possible that by fixating on the feminist aspects of La Respuesta, one diminishes other aesthetic aspects of the text? This Mester, Vol. Although this statement appears to be true, terms like "deconstructed" project a twentieth century viewpoint on Sor Juana, while also serving to im- mediately frame Sor Juana's life in politically, gendered terms. The editors' introduction is not objective, but rather critically assesses Sor Juana's writing within a feminist perspective: Living in a world of real and verbal mirrorings, conscious of the specular role assumed involuntarily by women.

Sor Juana crafted poetic mirrors and lenses that continue to reveal the submerged realities of her times. According to the editors, the twentieth century reader understands the various levei of meanings, while concurrently perceiving the discourse as an " en gendered process. We have learned, as she did, to cross boundaries and read between the lines" Sor Juana not only uses false humility as a social convention, but also brandishes it as a weapon of irony against Sor Philotela.

Finally, by 26 Gender and Aesthetics? If one considers the preface and the introduction as a feminist bookends constructed around this famous text, one may begin to iden- tify the feminist characteristics of this particular translation. And to do so, a male translator, Alan Trueblood, has been chosen to serve as a comparison between a politically charged translation by two women and an apparently politically neutral translation by a man.

Reader- response theory will help to determine the effectiveness of Arenal and Powell's stated goal of "doing justice" to the original document, while simultaneously exposing Trueblood's perspective as male-centered and far from being politically neutral. Also, the stated desire to "preserve the meaningful ambiguities" and maintain the document's multiplic- ity must be addressed.

First of ali, from a comparison standpoint the two transia tions on the surf ace appear completely diff erent. In fact, a mere five sentences are translated exactly the same. This amazing dissimilarity may point towards a conscious dialogue with other male-centered translations. This study will limit itself to identifying these dialogues when conceptual differences in one translation deliver a message that is com- pletely distinct from the other translation.

Arenal and Powell seem to stick more faithfully to the original syntax and paragraph structure of the original text, whereas Trueblood tends to re-order the long sen- tences and dissect the original document with paragraph breaks. Arenal and Powell provide the reader with unparalleled annotations, to be exact, which clarify the historical background of the text. Three are found in the mid-hundreds when Sor Juana first defends her self and her writing from outside attacks with three discrepancies in the s where Sor Juana describes her uncon- trollable epistemological drive.

The twenty-three variances can be divided into three broad categories, 1 a feminist recasting of the original text, 2 a change of emphasis which tends towards a collective rather than an individual conception of the world, 3 omissions of two sentences left out of the translation, both by Arenal and Powell, which may impart the ideo- logical position of the translators. The very first line in Arenal and Powell's translation exposes their ideological tendency to recast the original text into a feminist form. In this sentence Sor Juana alludes to her "justo temor" in replying to Sor Philotela.

Sor Juana is justified in her reticence. A major theme in the feminist translation emphasizes forces outside of Sor Juana's that con- trol and oppress her. This kind of translation, surely, is trying to bring to the forefront the patriarchal forces that weighed so heavily on Sor Juana's literary production.

The next discrepancy exposes this same kind of imposition of a feminist perception of reality. The original phrase addresses Sor Juana's inability to respond to Sor Philotela: "tropezar mi torpe pluma" Line 3. The feminist perspective translates the phrase as "my dull pen stum- bling.

Trueblood translates the sentence as "my bungling pen. In line 15, Sor Juana expresses her concern that a draft of her writing was published without her consent. The original phrase is: "mis borrones. In line , Sor Juana describes a situation in which due to a stom- ach ailment, she was prohibited to study.

However, her curious nature was so vehement that it taxed her health more than studying. Sor Juana comments: "se redujeron a concederme que leyese. Trueblood's translation indicates the doctors "agreed reluctantly to allow me to read. This duplici- tous perspective of women seems to reflect Trueblood's inability to approach this text in a way that allows him to sympathize, or as Schweickart would say, 'to connect' with the author. Instead he em- ploys his own patriarchal views of the world, or as Schweickart per- ceives it, he must do a misreading of the text because in reading a text for women, a man must confront himself.

Finally, Arenal and Powell rewrite yet another example of false humility when Sor Juana states: "Confiesso desde luego mi ruindad y vileza. Arenal and Powell choose to reinterpret the phrase in a totally different light, shrinking its original meaning. Trueblood, on the other hand, goes for a literal translation that misunderstands the false humility inherent Ln the phrase and attributes a defiency in Mester, Vol. The feminist translations defer directly to Schweickart's essay in which she states that "gynocritics" must develop a sense of conununity among women by analyzing other women's writing.

In the editors' translations, a change of emphasis ref ocuses the reader 's gaze to a coUective perspective of reality. Arenal and Powell seem to be in constant dialogue with the male translation's tendency to attribute such weaknesses to Sor Juana. In the foUowing two different discrepancies, the feminist translation takes impersonal terms and transports them to reflect a collective female re- ality.

Neither translator choose to maintain the neutrality of the sentence, rather the feminists insert "our customs" and maintain the impersonal nature of the first half of the sentence. Of course, "our" metamorphisizes the meaning froni an ambiguous personal to a de- fined collective. This defined collective is not present in the original and is certainly imposed on the original. Yet, at the same time, the original wording does leave the matter open to interpretation.

Mean- while, Alan Trueblood also projects a male perspective when he trans- lates it as "my sex. The first appears to be inconsequential, a result of removing a redundancy conceming man's rejection of Christ. Are Arenal and Powell resisting the collective "eUos" which includes and obfuscates the presence of women? Yet, interestingly enough, the omission seems to reflect a desire to revise the text and purge it of any illusions of primacy the text may have in today's world.

In other words, one discovers a revisionist feminist perspective that disHkes the presence of "siempre" or always. Renioving "always" appears to be a revisionary tactic that states: "those days are over. The question remains, however, have they achieved the very goals they themselves Mester, Vol. Indubitably, Arenal and Powell have accomplished their goal of refocusing this famous essay under a feminist light.

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When exposed to their introduction, their translation, and their annotations, one cannot help but "read" Sor Juana's reply within a different frame of reference, a frame of reference that emphasizes gender and politics. According to Schweickart's criterion. Arenal and Powell have successfully brought Sor Juana's feminist voice to the foreground. Yet, Schweickart herself states that "gynocritics" should approach texts by respecting their autonomy and not appropriating their mean- ing or inrposing a certain ideological perspective on the author.

Yet, one can tum this statement around - to fixate on gender and poli- tics, disrespecting the autonomy of the text, and imposing a feminist perspective on a seventeenth century writer, in fact, limits its meaning. If ali tianslation is interpretation, then why should anyone cri- tique a translation that chooses to focus more on one aspect of a text than another? The answer lies in deterinining whether this feminist interpretation of Sor Juana's reply is a reader-friendly or a text-friendly translation. Arenal and Powell's translation boasts exhaustive annotations and thus it appears to fit a text-friendly categorization.

However, the editors seem to have followed the trans- lation theory of Borges, a process of anthropophagization or appro- priation of the text, recasting it in their own feminist intonation. This kind of refocusing of the text is at once respectful of its foreignness because it brings to the foreground issues that help the reader under- stand the othemess of women, while at the same time it fixates exces- sively on one element of an extremiely rich and varied text.

Yet, in an enthusiasm to "give voice" to women writers are feminists writers actually speaking for them? Feminists obviously wish to make women speak; but from another viewpoint [this goal] carries some dubious politicai and aesthetic implications. Is it right that woman now should take up precisely that masculine position in relation to other women? By making that which was previously ambiguous explicit, the text has been di- minished aesthetically.

Aesthetics and feminism have had a stormy relationship and Toril Moi has called for a reassessment of this rela- tionship: Surely, we should ask ourselves if it is not time to revise a feminist aesthetics that seems in these particular respects to lead to the same patriarchal and authoritarian dead end.

In other words, it is time for us to confront the fact that the main problem in Anglo- American feminist criticism lies in the radical contradiction it presents between feminist politics and patriar- chal aesthetics. Indubitably, Arenal and Powell have recast La Respuesta into a feminist form, thus enriching the scholarship on Sor Juana; however, the problem is the mold can be considered extremely myopic and re- strictive.

Now, the emphasis has changes from an aesthetic, non- gendered perspective to an excessively politicai and gender sensitive viewpoint. However, Alan Trueblood's translation of La Respuesta is a shin- ning example of the need for feminist perspectives of Sor Juana's work. On the surface, Trueblood's translation appears to be politicaUy neu- tral; yet, his translation consistently attributes blame to Sor Juana as incapable of writing, while simultaneously ascribing deceitful charac- teristics to her person.

His translation is not historically contextuaHzed; in fact his few annotations exemplify a tendency to "find" errors. At least Arenal and Powell have contributed to the scholarship of Sor Juana's work with their exhaustive historical annotations and their emphasis of the feminist elements of Sor Juana's text. Trueblood, on the other hand, not only frequently misunderstands the text, execut- Mester, Vol. In fact, Trueblood's translation does not contribute to the understanding of Sor Juana's timeless text, but rather hinders its comprehension.

He not only hinders its comprehen- sion, by ignoring the feminist nuances in the text, he, also, boldly reinscribes meaning on the text by leaving out this important aspect of the text.


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Although Arenal and Powell clearly ascribe new meaning to Sor Juana's text by overemphasizing the politicai and gender characteris- tics in her work, one must recognize the invaluable contribution they have made by contextualizing the socio-political environment in which Sor Juana produced her famous Respuesta. Clearly, the time has come for a generation of scholars to weigh equally aes- thetics and gender issues. Arenal and Powell may have overstressed the feminist aspects of Sor Juana's renowned Respuesta, but in doing so they have enriched our understanding of the text.

New York: The Feminist Press, Bloom, Harold. Anxiety of Influence: a Theory ofPoetry. New York: Oxford University Press, Benjamin, Walter. New York: Schoken Books, Borges, Jorge Luis. Bovie, Smith Palmar. William Arrowsmith and Roger Shattuck. Austin: University of Texas Press, Moi, Toril. New York: Methuen, Paris, Jean. Austin: Univer- sity of Texas Press, Schleiermacher, Friedrich. Leslie Wilson.

New York: Continuum, Schweickart, Patrocinio P. Elizabeth A. Flynn, Schweickart, Patiocinio P.

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Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, Steiner, George. After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation. Trueblood, Alan S. A Sor Juana Anthology. This is particularly true of the New World, where the desire for literary innovation was coupled with a powerful new socio-political consciousness.

The dynamic of breaking away and beginning anew characterizes the Latin American avant-garde. Politically, during this period colonies recently independent from Spain struggled to engender their own national iden- tities and systems. It is in the rhetoric of these m. However, the images the texts contain of the new woman are ambiguous.

Others, notably several foundational texts of Brazilian Modernismo, contain depictions of women as active participants in the new society they envision. These generally make 35 36 Woman Scomed the rejection of the pamassian idealization of the "woman-object" a focal point of their rhetoric. However the new woman they propose can also be read as a recasting in avant-garde terms of what remains an essentially passive, supporting role for women.

An examina tion of the images of women and the rhetorical use of the female in several of these manifestos in light of the circumstances of two Brazilian women poets of the early twentieth century suggests much regarding this question. It casts doubt on the degree to which the actual woman of the period was supported in her attempt to break out of her traditional role and raise a voice that was truly her own. Some of the pattems characterizing the rhetorical treatment of the woman in the manifestos of the Latin American avant-garde can be traced to the texts that began the line of avant-garde manifestos: the writings of the Italian Francisco Tomasso Marinetti.

He casts as positive — new, fast, technological, violent — masculine images: young men in speeding cars, a phallic locomotive penetrating the night, war. Maples Arce's text makes use of the same vocabulary of speed, technology, and violence typical of Marinetti's manifestos, as well as making several direct references to the Italian's ideas. The text declares: Mester, Vol. The second group is the "concubinas. Its tone dismisses the daughters as a worthless burden whose only purpose in lif e is to marry.

These and other references in the manifesto belittle women, dismiss- ing them as frivolous, empty-headed, and generally useless. This char- acterization of women condemns the whole class, the bourgeoisie, with which the text associates them. The absence of posi- tive female images in the text subtiy but distinctiy reinforces this mes- sage. Guglielmini, also uses the as- sociation with femaleness to express contempt for their predecessors.

The editors of Inicial, like the estridentistas, associate female images with the rejected literary aesthetic of the previous generation. These young writers, seeking both literary and politicai power, use "feminine" as equivalent to "weak" and "impo- tent. This tendency probably reflects the criticai role female artists played in the Brazilian avant-garde.

For example, the forces that were later to produce the Semana de Arte Moderna, the event marking the birth of the Brazilian avant-garde, gath- ered around painter Anita Malfatti's controversial exhibition of mod- em art in The rhetoric of these texts does, however, give reason Mester, Vol. Like his Spanish American counterparts, Menotti focuses on the image of the woman to embody the charge of superficiality he leveis at the pamassian poetry of the previous literary genera tion: "Na poesia. In this article, Menotti does not present a con- trasting image of the new woman, but in "Arte Moderna," the confer- ence he presented on February 15, , the second night of the Semana de Arte Moderna, he describes in detail an "Eva ativa," a pivotal figure in his contrast of the modernista aesthetic with that of the pamassians.

La ter in the text, the poet elaborates on this point: E a mulher? On the other hand, the actions presented as comprising the new female role can be interpreted as rather servile. Juanchu wasita rikun? Imatan rikun Juan? Wasitachu rikun Juan? Algunos dialectos usan el verbo churay con el significado de 'tener'; en otros dialectos significa 'poner'. Sufijos evidenciales Volvamos ahora a los sufijos evidenciales o validacionales. Cuando conoce lo comentado de segunda mano, p. El conocimiento personal se expresa con el sufijo - wa, correspondiente al - mi en el quechua.

The following are—I believe—true of Quechua culture and perhaps they are to some extent culturally universal : 1. Only one's own experience is reliable. Avoid unnecessary risk, such as by assuming responsibility for information of which one is not absolutely certain. Witness the many Quechua folk tales in which the villain is foiled because of his gullibility. Assume responsibility only if it is safe to do so. Doing so builds stature in the community. With -mi, the speaker assumes responsibility; with -shi, he diverts it to someone else ; and with -chi, he indicates that it is not the sort of information for which anyone should be held responsible.

Cutts , p. Lapesa , p. Se trata de un habla que sobre una base quechua superpone elementos castellanos. Toscano Mateus , pp. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Por lo Zamora—Guitart , p. Penelope Cutts ib. Vaquero , p. Toscano ib. Lima, Por otro lado, Feke ib. Vaquero , pp. Rosenblat , pp. Rosenblat , p. Escobar ib. Otros sufijos posiblemente quechuas son los que se usan en los diminutivos o aumentativos. Uno de ellos es el sufijo -cha. Mi guagua sha. Mi taita sha. Mi ashco sha. Citado en Lee , p. Toscano Mateus , p.

En Toscano Mateus encontramos algunos otros sufijos que probablemente proceden del quechua. Tal es el caso de -aco, que proviene del quechua -ku. Toscano trae tres ejemplos de uso del sufijo -ana. Uno de los ejemplos es una palabra quechua, Toscano Mateus , p. Sin embargo, el uso de estos sustantivos verbales es bastante diferente entre las dos lenguas. Un sujeto plural puede tener un verbo en singular, pero un sujeto singular nunca ocurre con un verbo en plural. La Paz, Citado en Calvo , pp. Citado en Pozzi-Escot , p.

Un nombre plural puede ser modificado por un adjetivo en forma singular, pero nunca se usa un adjetivo plural para modificar un nombre singular. Caravedo , pp. Calvo , pp. Es posible que tenga que ver con el orden de palabras en quechua SOV vs. El uso del pronombre lo con verbos intransitivos, en muchos casos los de movimiento, parece que se debe a uno de los sufijos quechuas -pu y -rqu -ru o a los dos.

Se trata de frases como: ya lo Cf. Caravedo , p. Como se ve, los modificadores siempre preceden al elemento modificado. Kany , p. Pedroq wasin, lit. Lima, ; en Pozzi-Escot , p. Kany , pp. Terneros, ovejas … pasaban orondamente por su delante. Lee , pp. Aparte del pluscuamperfecto dispone de otros medios para expresar la evidencialidad, la fuente de las informaciones. Empecemos, sin embargo, con el presente. Calvo , p. Esta diferencia ha entrado en el castellano andino. Kany , — Feke , p. A veces es posible considerar un calco de quechua o aymara.

Vaquero , II, p. Gerundios en vez de oraciones subordinadas aparecen con mucha frecuencia. El significado es igual, la diferencia es en que el sufijo -spa se usa con sujetos iguales y -qti- con sujetos diferentes. El gerundio tiene el significado de simultaneidad, p. Se trata de un calco exacto del quechua: mikhuyta munspaqa llank'ay.