Manual Die Krise der Demokratie Boliviens: Demokratisierung als Antwort? (German Edition)

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Contents:


  1. The IMF is having a ‘Groundhog Day’ moment with its economic forecasts - MarketWatch
  2. A New Watchlist
  3. Venezuela – Elections Alone Are Not Enough
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The IMF is having a ‘Groundhog Day’ moment with its economic forecasts - MarketWatch

The particular conditions include the correct indication of the initial publication as GIGA Focus and no changes in or abbreviation of texts. The views and opinions expressed are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the institute. Authors alone are responsible for the content of their articles. GIGA and the authors cannot be held liable for any errors and omissions, or for any consequences arising from the use of the information provided. Daniel Flemes. His research focuses on security regionalisation and regionalism, Latin American foreign policy and politics, authoritarian resilience and survival, and petro-states in world politics.

A New Watchlist

Policy Implications Despite the political instability, the Chavistic regime in Venezuela has managed to survive. Januar Levitsky, Steven, und Lucan A. Riggirozzi, Pia, und Diana Tussie Hrsg. Romero, Carlos A. Victor M. Carlos A.

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Bert Hoffmann The international dimension of authoritarian regime legitimation: insights from the Cuban case Journal of International Relations and Development , 18, , — Research Programmes Accountability and Participation. Research Teams Authoritarian Politics.

Venezuela – Elections Alone Are Not Enough

This approach appears not only to be ineffective but also to suppress the freedom of historical debate and generally the freedom of speech by restricting the range of acceptable interpretations of historical events with a view, primarily, to eliminating those that present Poles as anything less than heroic, in particular as those who assisted Germans in committing Nazi crimes against Jewish people.

Linking the direct responsibility of Poland or Poles to concentration camps created by the Nazi regime as places were millions have perished at the hand of the German Nazi occupiers of Poland is not merely false but also unacceptable in any respect and under any circumstances.

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However, as rightfully noted by Tomasz T. Koncewicz in his chapter recently published ed. The amended Act on the Institute of National Remembrance , with its new article 55a, refers very broadly to the attribution, to the Polish people or to the Polish state, of responsibility for Nazi crimes, crimes against peace, against humanity and other crimes, for which the perpetrator might be imprisoned for up to three years.

Attributing responsibility for very broadly defined crimes amounts not to historical facts, but to opinions. It must not be denied that Poles, such as shmaltsovniks, were complicit in Nazi crimes. On the other hand, attributing the role of individual people in such crimes to the Polish people not even all Polish people, but only a portion of them , does not amount to historical facts, but to opinions about facts.

If the legislative changes become effective as enacted by the Polish Parliament, such opinions could provide too broad a basis for prison sentences for e. Holocaust survivors accusing Polish shmaltsovniks. The rules of freedom of expression clearly established by the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights also in the area of memory laws that individuals can be punished for false statements, lies or slander.

Not for expressing different opinions, though. Now, the new legislation provides for very broadly conceived liability for any acts attributing responsibility to the Polish people.


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Does that mean that the responsibility for these crimes could extend to the Polish people? Some will say that it could, others that it could be attributed only to the individuals involved, not to the whole nation. It is not the task of courts to pass judgment on views which should be dealt with by historians. Is there a way out of this current mace of conflicting memories and historical interpretation, caused by the Polish government, that can now turn into a legal battle between the states and nations?


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