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The two had met in in Venice. The affair, which started in , lasted on and off for close to a decade. Additionally, the depth of their intimacy provided him material for his novels. Her letters are full of love, but also visions of professional dreams and descriptions of her increasing reliance on her work to forget his frequent slights and escapades, and on opium for her increasing solitude.

Those many pages were the highest testimony of nobility for my loved one and myself. It is not true that she gave you orders to destroy them. I swear it is not true. Bernhardt was also very adept in the favorable use of publicity and relished it, while Duse rarely gave interviews and when not on stage avoided publicity and the press. George Bernard Shaw, who saw them both in June acting the same role in the same play in London, also gave his vote to Duse as the better actress.

The tour had been a triumph, and in Washington President Grover Cleveland and his wife attended all her performances. The First Lady even went so far as to invite Duse for tea, a first at the White House for an actress, and had thus shocked the staid Washington society.

Further, I am forty-one years old …and I love him. Still more slights followed. He would return from such excursions, sometimes lasting two or three days, in great spirits and charged with boundless energy. Once, while he was out, she arrived at his villa unannounced, searched the bed and found two hairpins, proof that the poet was taking women to the bed they had shared. In a jealous, hysterical rage, she went about looking for matches so that she could burn La Capponcina.

A veterinarian who was at the villa treating some of the animals reminded her that no one in the villa smoked, and hence there were no matches. I am tired of these words! On April 5, , in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, walking from the hotel to the theater, she was caught in a rainstorm. That night she came down with high fever and never recovered, dying on Easter Monday, April 21 at the age of Although she was buried in Asolo, her wishes concerning the private character of the funeral were not respected, since her death and funeral became a political issue. Converted by her lover to a philosophy of excess, extravagance, and decadence, she used the considerable fortune she had inherited from her father, a textile magnate, to pay for this lifestyle.

From this grand residence, with its retinue of servants and a menagerie of exotic animals, Casati would take late evening strolls, naked under her furs, parading her pet cheetahs, held by diamond-studded leashes, and accompanied by black male servants whose bodies were covered in gold paint. By the early s Casati was totally broke, unable to obtain further loans, and in debt for 25 million dollars. Her palaces, art collection, and other possessions were seized and sold at auction and she fled to London, where she was still able, for a time, to move in the intellectual circles of Peter Quennell and Quentin Crisp.

During her last years, she kept moving from one rooming house to another, sometimes rummaging for food through garbage cans, a forlorn, strange, pitiful figure. Casati died on June 1, , poor and forgotten, a figure of oblivious pity and curiosity.

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She was buried near London at Brompton Cemetery with one of her beloved dogs, stuffed, buried at her feet. Certainly, politics was not his consuming passion but only the means for displaying his enormous ego. Literature and women were more important to him. The poet met the beautiful, statuesque year-old mother of two children when he had acted as a witness to the marriage of her brother, count Carlo di Rudini. He saw her again in Milan at the Club Leonardo da Vinci, and continued to pursue her. Slowly, the initial distrust and antipathy Alessandra felt for him turned first to admiration and then to blind love, creating a great public scandal.

Unlike Duse, whose place she had seemingly taken, Alessandra wanted the poet all for herself and did not think twice about spending her money to keep him happy and in style. The servants at the villa increased from seven to twenty-one, the horses from four to eight, and the dogs from four to thirty-nine. Their stormy relationship verged in some respects on the kinky; recently a contract about the rules of their relationship they had both signed on November 27, , has come to light.

He had been pursuing her since and finally seduced her in February In September , while she was on her way to see him, two men sent by her husband had abducted her on the street and brought her back home. In any case, because she had been showing signs of mental malady, the affair had virtually petered. Mancini was institutionalized until He lived in Paris, on and off, about five years, continuing his promiscuous, unstable life: among his new conquests were Countess Natalie De Golubeff, the wife of Russian Count Viktor Golubeff, with whom he had an affair from to , and Romaine Brooks, an American lesbian painter.

During World War I, between and , a period in which he primarily devoted his energies to military exploits, he frequented Olga Brunner Levi, a singer and musician who was married to Venetian Ugo Levi and lived in Palazzo Giustiniani Lolin in Venice. Olga, then thirty years old, fell for the talk of the poet, and the affair started, known to those in their social circle in the city, except Ugo who remained in the dark.

The passionate affair lasted several years, and Olga kept hidden in a small trunk the over three hundred love letters he sent her. In he abandoned Brunner Levi for classical pianist, Luisa Baccara. She was 27, he Baccara followed him when in he headed the military invasion of Fiume he had organized.

Such was her influence on him during those days, that two of his lieutenants, Guido Keller and future novelist Giovanni Comisso hatched a secret plot to kidnap her during a party and drop her off in one of the deserted Dalmatian islands. She subsequently moved to Venice with him, and installed herself at his retirement villa, Il Vittoriale, in the town of Gardone Riviera on the shores of Lake Garda, as the mistress of the house.

He nicknamed her Jouvence and visited her frequently; however when she demanded that he send Luisa away and move her to the villa, he demurred and in August sent her packing. Many others succeeded her. In , it was year-old Emy Heufler, employed at the villa as a maid, who on and off stayed put until he died.

He was treated nearby, and a young part-time coin dealer, Thomas L. Heath reminisced that, of the 61 ANA members active in its founding year of , only 16 remained by During the year, new members signed up, of whom 14 were age 50 or older. Gold Commemoratives. In early , the ANA roster comprised names. The coin market was strong, and the American economy was growing.

Zerbe landed a contract as the official distributor of the first American gold commemoratives—two varieties of gold dollars dated Sales were poor, and from a mintage of , each, only 17, of each specimen were saved from melting. Max Mehl of Ft. Worth, Texas. He eventually became the most successful and famous rare coin dealer of his time, and remained so until passing in A relatively new fad was the issuing of brass and aluminum tokens by coin collectors and dealers. Dozens of different varieties were made, and many were described and illustrated in print.

Heath tried to keep readers up-to-date on Association membership, elections which typically were conducted at conventions, with some attendees holding many proxies from others and other news, but information from the officers was sporadic and often incomplete. The October convention was held in St. Louis, with low attendance.

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Each month, The Numismatist contained numerous classified advertisements. In the January issue, for example, J. It is the cream of my reading matter. Huntington, a property had been purchased on Audubon Terrace. There, a beautiful new headquarters, museum and library would be erected. Louis Comparette, who had recently been named curator of the National Coin Collection at the Philadelphia Mint, was soon found to be rather light on numismatic knowledge. In other news, several numismatists, including Zerbe, were in the San Francisco area on April 17, , when the great earthquake struck and a fire started.

Their experiences were later relayed in print. Although the San Francisco Mint was endangered, it was one of the few structures spared from damage. Afterward, it served for a time as a depot for relief and banking. In February , great American rarities were showcased in The Numismatist , including the Brasher doubloon; an half eagle so rare that it had been given little publicity over the years ; an dollar; and Nova Constellatio silver patterns.

Colonials, Early American coins, copper cents, various tokens and medals, and old paper money continued to be marketplace favorites. The Association had members—a number that was more or less unchanged in recent years—of whom 28 went to the gathering, plus some spouses. It was supposed that the current ANA president Albert Frey would stand for re-election, but he surprised everyone by declining. This set in motion a series of fierce backroom deals by six or seven members who held about proxies. Zerbe wielded significant influence and was elected president. A nationwide commotion arose in the press when it was baselessly stated that Mary Cunningham, an attractive Irish immigrant and waitress, was the model.

Meanwhile, Baltimore collector Frank G. Duffield discussed at length the flaws in the proxy system used to elect ANA officers. The process encouraged abuse, and those chosen might not really represent the membership. Nevertheless, no specific charges were made in the election. He was widely mourned and fondly remembered. He journeyed to Monroe, Michigan, during the third week in July, and spent three days completing arrangements for the immediate future publication of The Numismatist.

Zerbe and collector How-land Wood made arrangements to take it over, relieving the Heath estate from the obligations of fulfilling subscriptions.

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But Zerbe purchased the magazine, not on behalf of the Association, as many thought was the case, but for himself. As of January , he published it in Philadelphia. Henry Chapman were the social hosts. About 30 of the members attended. Wood proposed that the ANA constitution be revised to formulate a better method than proxies to determine elections, and Zerbe pro-tested. The discussion was at a stalemate, and it was agreed to keep the old system in place for another year. The still-influential Zerbe was re-elected president.

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On August 9, , the annual convention opened in Montreal, Canada—its first time outside the United States. Running for president were Francis C. Higgins, a well-known New York City collector, and Dr. In retaliation, Zerbe sent out a mailing that declared Higgins unfit for office. Your oily, oozy, slimy phrases will make about as much impression as a pea shooter against a belt of armor plate.

Never again will the American collectors be deceived. Close to 50 members attended the Montreal convention, about proxies were exercised, and Henderson won the election. The enmity of Elder, Higgins and others continued against Zerbe, his personal ownership of The Numismatist , the hucksterism they felt characterized his numismatic activities at fairs and expositions, and his general dishonesty. Zerbe sold The Numismatist to Canadian W.

Wilson, who gifted it to the Association. Around the same time, further steps were made to adopt an official standard for grading coins. He also noted:. Nicks, scratches, corrosion, tarnish, marks, faults in striking and in the planchet, file marks, discoloration, spots, etc. The color of the coins, especially copper coins, should be stated if the piece is of any value.

The book was intended to be an annual issue, but the idea faded. Alas, it was not until the s that the ANA adopted official grading standards. By , The Numismatist was edited by Albert R. Blake and Edgar H. Adams assisting. Partly because of finances, the appearance of the magazine suffered a great set-back. This rather plain format would continue for many years. In this era, the investment aspect of coins was taken for granted by advanced collectors, although occasional articles pointed out past successes.

There are 27 names on the page of officers, Board of Governors, and district secretaries which is to be found in every number of The Numismatist. Of these not more than 12, or less than half those who are directly responsible for the prosperity of the Association, have taken the trouble to communicate with the editor since the January number appeared! In December , it was reported that there were members, but by August of the next year, the number dropped to The convention was held in Chicago starting on August 28, and about 50 people attended. Around this time, there was an anti-dealer feeling among some members, and it was suggested that they not be allowed to serve in an ANA office or on the Board.

Judson Brenner, an Illinois collector, was elected president. Frey cashed in his chips and resigned in December , stating he had suffered from misunderstanding and little support. By this time, ANA membership was declining, and it was not a happy time for the Association. Printing of The Numismatist was transferred to The Stowell Press in Federalsburg, Maryland, a firm that would produce the publication for many years after. The good news was that the highly accomplished and personable Edgar H.

Adams was given the editorial chair. Classified ads, absent for a long time, also resumed. A milestone in the history of the Association took place in , when Representative William Ashbrook D-Ohio , an ardent collector, introduced a House bill to give the ANA a rare federal charter. For some time, there had been controversy within the Associa-tion as to what position had the most power: the presidency or the chairmanship of the Board of Governors. Other issues within the ANA included changing the bylaws and deciding whether dealers were desirable as members.

In the meantime, The Numismatist remained far and away the major benefit to members, as only 15 percent of them attended the annual conventions. Minute die varieties of federal coins were described in many articles over a long period of time—ranging from colonials and early cents and tokens to Morgan silver dollars and a series about small cents by U. Navy Commodore W. I have to now report that the Denver Mint is already using, or has used, three different dies for the cents of These three varieties were all mixed in one lot of 25 I have just received from the Mint.

Membership stood at , 55 of whom attended the meeting. Judson Brenner was re-elected president. Max Mehl start-led Adams by running a two-page notice that year. Official production began on February Meanwhile, an employee at the Philadelphia Mint, Samuel W. Brown, secretly struck at least five nickels with the old Liberty Head design, one in proof and four with a lusterous finish, igniting a numismatic frenzy that continues today.

Duffield was elected president with votes. Rules were changed, and effective in , elections would take place via mail before the convention so the results could be announced the day of the event. This procedure remains in effect today. This also meant the recently elected officers would serve for only about eight months instead of a full year. The annual convention was held in Springfield, Massachusetts, on August , , and all officers were re-elected. Members totaled , of whom 68 attended the gathering. With a fond farewell, Adams resigned as editor of The Numismatist on July 28, The convention was held in San Francisco from August 30 to September 1.

Neither the president nor the vice president made an appearance. The gathering set a record for low member attendance. Some attributed this to widespread dislike for Zerbe, who was present at the show. By , various medals had been issued by Germany, the aggressor, as well as by the British and other Allies. The Numismatist devoted much space to chronicling these pieces from through the end of the decade. Those produced by Karl Goetz in Germany had particularly innovative and often provocative designs.

The year was highlighted by the long-hoped-for issuance of new circulating coin designs. Sculptor Adolph A. MacNeil designed the Standing Liberty quarter. The coins were released near the end of to widespread acclaim. While many factories ran day and night to supply war materials to Europe, the mints were busy stamping out large quantities of coins.

Although commerce was robust, this activity did not translate to the hobby. At the annual convention held in Baltimore in September , only 38 members attended, and it was reported that membership had declined to Acclaim for the coins continued well into , when MacNeil modified the quarter to depict Liberty in a suit of armor, signifying military preparedness.

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That same year, America joined the war in Europe. Duffield resolved to record in The Numismatist as many as possible of the hundreds of medals that had already been issued by both sides and the pieces to come. The convention was held in a familiar venue, the Hotel Rochester, August Membership had increased to , with 80 members in attendance, and Carl Wurtzbach was elected president. Editor Duffield later commented that:. The increasing popularity of ANA conventions and their power to attract members from a radius of several hundred miles can be attributed to two reasons.

In the May issue, Dr. While by no means complete, it treated major citations from The American Journal of Numismatics , The Numismatist and other important references, although at the time, numismatic bibliophilia was of little interest to people outside of museums. Later that month, the U. Department of the Treasury began melting million long-stored silver dollars under the Pittman Act, so that the resulting bullion could be shipped to England, whose own supplies were short. No accounting was made of the quantities destroyed. A later generation of collectors surmised that the melt included many varieties that later proved to be rare, despite generous mintages.

The postponed convention was scheduled for Philadelphia, but canceled because of an outbreak of influenza. The convention was held October , President Wurtzbach reported that membership stood at just Waldo C. Moore, a prolific researcher and writer, was elected president for the coming year. Peace at Last. After the war, there was a general feeling that peace would result in a continuation of economic prosperity. The outlook for appeared bright. It was reported that in Europe, rare-coin auctions were setting records as pent-up reserves of buying power and enthusiasm were unleashed.

In May, M. Sorenson proposed that a new silver dollar design be made to observe the victory in Europe.

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When such a commemorative became a reality in , Zerbe claimed he thought of it first. Countermarks or counterstamps were placed on coins for many reasons, including the revaluation of a denomination; advertising; and vandalism. The initial series covered coins of Angola through Bolivia. In March , Duffield reflected that, unlike the prices of goods and services that rose sharply during the war, the coin market was relatively unchanged. The wise collector will not need to be urged to buy now to the extent of his ability.

The annual convention was held in Chicago, August , at the Hotel Sherman. Membership had increased to , and there was an aura of good feeling about the hobby and the market. At the time, the most active collecting specialties in the United States were colonial and post-revolution coins; state coinage popularized by a book by Hillyer C. Ryder and Henry Miller listing New England issues ; Washington pieces; half cents catalyzed by a book on the series by E.

Gilbert ; copper cents from to ; early silver and gold federal coins; patterns; and territorial gold. Tokens of the early years through the Civil War had many advocates, as did Continental paper money, obsolete bank notes, fractional currency and Confederate paper. Interest in regular, large-size notes from to date was lukewarm and generally did not include notes from National Banks after the 19th century. Apart from U. Canadian coins were especially in demand. As drew to a close, the Association and the hobby remained in good health, but more challenges were on the horizon.

Businesses were growing rapidly, and coin production increased substantially at the start of the First World War. Continuing challenges included the lack of standardized coin grading and how to generate interest in the hobby. Heath in , the future of the hobby was bright by , and Association membership was climbing steadily. After World War I ended with the Armistice of November 11, , nearly everyone thought businesses would continue to expand.

Wartime conditions had brought nearly full employment, prosperity and, not as desirable, inflation. Silver dollars had not been struck since The postwar momentum ran out of steam, however, and in , the call for consumer goods and services diminished, and coin production was sharply reduced from the spirited end of the last decade.

In the first ANA election of the new decade, only members bothered to cast ballots. Moritz Wormser was elected president, succeeding Waldo C. Moore a regular contributor to The Numismatist. The former would go on to serve a record six terms as president. Fred Joy won the post of first vice president; Frank H. Shumway, second vice president; and Alden Scott Boyer, treasurer. Editor Frank G. Popular collecting areas in the s included colonial and Early American coins, with copper cents dated being a particular focus for collectors of die varieties.

This was in stark contrast to the ANA, which had no headquarters at the time. Tokens and medals also were favorites, with Civil War and Hard Times issues leading the pack. Federal coins were nearly always collected by date, as mintmarks were not particularly popular. Looking through pocket change for potential finds was a rare pursuit. Commemoratives had a large following, and thousands of numismatists formed sets of the silver issues dating back to New commemorative half dollars were plentiful, including the and Pilgrim Tercentenary piece, Alabama and Missouri Centennial specimens, Grant Memorial issue, S Monroe Doctrine coin and many others.

Each of these received wide coverage in The Numismatist. In the Oregon Trail series was launched, leading to more than a dozen date and mintmark combinations through Gold commemoratives also com- manded great interest. Lyman H. There were no coin albums or holders available, and most collectors and dealers kept their treasures in paper envelopes measuring 2 x 2 inches. Paper money enthusiasts would track down obsolete bank notes from the era in particular, but also sought colonial and Continental notes, Fractional currency and Confederate bills. In a January article for The Numismatist , D.

Among the advertisers in , B. Max Mehl announced the sale of the Honorable James H. Manning Collection, which included an silver dollar. Byrle B. Davis, a Los Angeles dealer, offered several varieties of privately minted gold coins, as well as other issues at fixed prices. Thomas L. No guides listed market prices for coins, so this knowledge was gained by reading catalogs and advertisements, and tracking prices at auctions. While it was perfectly fine to let copper coins mellow from orange-red to various shades of brown, and while gold pieces often remained mint-fresh in appearance, silver specimens had the nasty habit of tarnishing.

Heaven forbid! Throughout this era, contributors to The Numismatist gave advice on how to keep coins bright. Sanford Saltus brightened his silver coins with potassium cyanide. This chemical, despite its lethal nature, was widely used. Gone were tiny hairlines and evidences of friction.

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Saltus mistook a glassof the cleaner for ginger ale. America was prosperous in , prices were rising and the outlook was rosy. Coins circulating in the s included Indian Head cents dating back to and the occasional Flying Eagle cent dated even earlier. Silver dollars circulated in some Rocky Mountain states, but hardly anywhere else. The denomination was officially terminated in , which had a positive effect a few years later. A number of parallel series were in commerce, each backed by authorizing legislation specifying the amounts that could be issued.

Treasury accounting in part for large numbers of such coins being minted in the s ; Gold Certificates backed by gold coins; Federal Reserve Bank notes; Federal Reserve notes; and National Bank notes. The last were mainly the Series of and were paid out by thousands of banks across the country. If a bank failed, as some did, the notes were still backed by the Treasury.

Membership in the Association climbed to Dealers were tolerated at conventions, but not widely welcomed. The buying and selling of coins was apt to draw cold stares. While dealing at such gatherings was frowned upon, it was typical to have an official auction. Boyd, who was rising rapidly in the ranks of dealers, conducted the affair.

After the convention, Boyd hosted an evening at Coney Island, giving convention attendees tickets to Luna Park and other brilliantly illuminated attractions. The convention took place at the Hollenden Hotel in Cleveland, where it was announced that membership stood at The gathering was heldin Detroit, where a new high of members was announced.

In August , members gathered in Washington, D. Membership stood at Need for Books In the early-to-mid s, ample advertising space in The Numismatist attracted more collectors. Julius Guttag offered an explanation as to the lassitude in numismatics:. Years ago the dealer gave freely of his knowledge and endeavored to educate the new collector as much as possible. Today many dealers make it their aim to keep the collector uninformed.

During the past 20 years how many books or lists have been published by dealers? Outside of the books which Mr. Edgar H. Adams has issued, and through which interest in a new class of coins [patterns] has been stimulated, practically nothing of import has been contributed to our numismatic libraries. If each and every dealer would show a live and honest interest in every new collector, encouraging him to join our Association, and perhaps the local numismatic club, I am sure it would not be long before a very live interest in numismatics would be revived.

Further, a small pamphlet should be printed to give the history of coinage and the appeals of coin collecting. It was true that books on Amer-ican coinage were few and outdated. Sylvester S. The standard, but poorly compiled and uninteresting reference by J. Haseltine on early silver quarters, half dollars and dollars was issued in There was nothing of use on gold coins, early or modern. No publication featured mintage figures for coins from to date and, as noted, there were no price guides. The lack of useful information was a deterrent to newcomers.

Many people talked about the need for new books, but few did anything about it. There was lots of potential, but he noted that he was ashamed there was not even one book about numismatics suitable for the new collector. Each issue of The Numismatist devoted at least a half page to numismatic societies and clubs. The convention was held in Hartford, Connecticut. Finally, membership crossed a magic line and stood at 1, Elections, which had been very disruptive in previous years, were now quiet affairs—no name-calling, no defamatory pamphlets and no satirical tokens.

About half were sold in the islands, with the rest going to collectors. The product was not yet released to the general public, and caused a frenzy among convention attendees. Skyscrapers were erected at a rapid pace in larger cities, art auctions set new records, luxury automobiles were all the rage, and many people could throw darts at a list of stocks, buy them and immediately make a profit. The text was illustrated with six black-and-white plates and provided the retail values of all U.

No mintages were given, and historical information was virtually nonexistent. New small-size paper money was issued to replace the large notes that had circulated since Record prices for certain coins, especially private and territorial gold issues, caused a stir in the auction room. Although hardly anyone noticed, storm clouds were rising on the economic horizon in early The annual convention was held that August at the Congress Hotel in Chicago, and in October the stock market crashed. Into the Depression. In early , there was still hope that the stock market would recover.

However, too much damage had been done. Margin calls were made, and investors were wiped out. Although projects already underway were continued—the Empire State Building and Radio City Music Hall being examples—new construction was put on hold. Thus began a steep decline that destroyed the U. No one bought coins on margin or borrowed against them. In the coin market remained stable. No one could have predicted that as the American economy went down, interest in rare coins went up! Meanwhile, J. It was great sport for many collectors to look through pocket change and fill the holes.

Within a year or two, coins were no longer priced generically. In the summer of , the ANA convention took place at the Hotel Statler in Buffalo, New York, the site of the first large commercial installation of a Wurlitzer theatre pipe organ. ANA membership had increased to 1, names—a new high. The 71 new members that year included no youngsters, as the required age to join was Many unqualified applicants had been rejected. Local and regional coin clubs were expanding rapidly. The market also grew apace. Bauer said:. In the face of an economic condition that has not only strained the resources of individuals but governments as well and threatened the stability of our social structure, your Association has made steady progress and you will be pleased to learn that our membership in good standing has increased from 1, to 1,, a net gain of Because of the weak economy in , coinage production was low.

The only denominations struck were the cent, nickel, dime and double eagle. Mintages remained low in as well. The big news that year was the advent of the Washington quarter, replacing the Standing Liberty design minted from to Duffield commented:. This demand has had the effect of boosting prices, and many small cents in Uncirculated condition are selling today for a greater price than some of the late dates of large cents. To accommodate collectors, the Treasury Department stated it had a variety of coins from the Philadelphia, Denver and San Francisco Mints available to collectors for face value plus postage , including cents, nickels, dimes, quarters, half dollars, Morgan and Peace dollars, and eagles and double eagles.

Alden Scott Boyer was elected president. In the s, he became the first person to assemble a private museum of coin-operated vending, amusement and music machines. He also had a collection of gold assay bars and related items from the U. West, the nature of which is not known today. Improving The Numismatist was a hot topic of discussion. Some said it was fine as is, while others commented that it should be more scholarly, like the discontinued American Numismatic Journal. Roosevelt won by a landslide.

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Inaugurated on March 4, , Roosevelt set about making changes immediately. William H. Woodin, a longtime numismatist and student of patterns and gold coins, was named Secretary of the Treasury. Banks were failing left and right, and the Depression showed no signs of letting up.

Merriment, buying and selling, programs and other activities contributed to an enjoyable event. These gold regulations had a far-reaching effect on numismatics. Some collectors, including Louis E. Eliasberg Sr. Interest multiplied, and Charlotte and Dahlonega gold in particular increased in value. Dozens of people started collecting double eagles by date and mint. Around this time, U. Mint and Treasury employees saved many rarities from the melting pot and became numismatic Robin Hoods. There was no loss to the government, for common coins of equal gold content had replaced them.

In time, the gold was stored at Fort Knox, Kentucky. It was the first widely distributed guide to coin values that would be updated on a reg-ular basis. On August , , the convention was held at the Carter Hotel in Cleveland. A dealer bourse was set up in the exhibit area. By this time, the ANA realized that attendees liked buying and selling coins at shows. About people attended, including spouses.

In the City of Hudson, New York, celebrated its th anniversary with a commemorative half dollar. A few advertisements were placed in advance, including one in The Numismatist. Those in charge of their distribution stopped to think: America was in the Depression, and after the coins arrived, there were no lines of buyers forming at the bank. What would be done if they did not sell? Julius Guttag, who had been a prominent dealer in the s and now was quietly buying and selling coins, learned of the dilemma and went to Hudson.

Not long after, advertisements for them began appearing. The expansion of the hobby resulted in a membership high of 1, names, a gain of over the previous year.

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  • In commemorative half dollars dominated the news, overwhelming the coverage of just about everything else. The news spread nationwide, and thousands of citizens became coin collectors. Toward the end of the year, the market ran out of new buyers and prices dropped, not to recover their levels until about Anderson in his Chicago shop.

    Coins were put on exhibition 10 days before each closing date. Proof coins were issued for the first time since Just 3, quarters were sold, the lowest figure, which affected the number of sets that could be formed. The convention took place in Minneapolis in late August. Mehl bought his collection, which included an half eagle and dollar, and began privately selling the coins. In the Depression still pervaded America, the Dust Bowl was recent history and the economy was looking up. The worst era in financial history was balanced by the best era in numismatics.

    Coin albums and pages were available for all U. Collecting coins from cents to half dollars by date and mint was the most popular specialty. A certain low-mintage Lincoln cent was a hot ticket. These will sell very high in the future, each 50 cents. Silver dollars were of interest to fewer numismatists. Paper money, colonial coins, Civil War tokens and other pieces were not in the news as they had been in earlier decades. Commemoratives were dead in the water, but as many proposals for new issues were still in the pipeline, news of such filled pages in The Numismatist.

    I first attended auction sales in and got used to the low prices at which coins were selling then. Now I go to a sale and often come out without having spent a cent. Prices today seem to be about double what they were a year ago, at which time I also thought prices were high. Coin clubs proliferated across the country and were the ideal way to spend an evening. Incredible growth in membership was reported—a jump of names, for a new high of 2,! The store was a virtual coin club, especially on Saturdays when collectors gathered to exchange ideas.

    The Jefferson nickel also made its debut that year. My friends are so mad that they do not know how I have all the high quality ebook which they do not! Just select your click then download button, and complete an offer to start downloading the ebook. If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you. Register for FREE 1st month. Download your desired books 3. Easy to cancel your membership.