Originally published January 26, on samgraber. Reprinted with permission. Writing a Minute play is easy! All you have to do is come up with an ingenious idea, figure an inventive and enthralling stage mechanism, employ riveting and tender characters, serve boiling hot action, and implant sensational dialog. And get it under 10 minutes.
Oh wait, sorry, when I wrote that it was easy , I meant hard. Rife with the potential danger of turning you into a psychotic mess. And if you thought writing a Minute Play was all this…try teaching it! Last week I twice taught a seminar on writing the Minute Play. I would gauge both sessions as not a total failure since 1 only 5 people fell asleep during my presentations, and 2 no one walked out on me. The Minute Play. The short one-act is the bolt of theatrical lightning which has become a prevalent form of theatrical expressiveness.
We will explore the variations of structure, the positing of character and the emotional impact that make up a tantalizing 10 minutes. And beyond exploration…we will dabble with creation! I kicked off both seminars with the same joke regarding the tribulations of a certain playwright who walked into a bar. The youth of America at the theater festival session gave me grim, impatient glares.
But I became instantly hip once I introduced the framework of the Minute Play. Because I was right in guessing that the attendees, probably like most of you reading, are not writing the Minute play in an isolated vacuum. And most Minute plays today are getting produced by theaters in festivals. A theater company, seeking to either expand revenue streams or grow audiences or broaden a base of artistic contributors, will decide to produce a Minute play festival.
They will put out calls for scripts. They will get inundated with submissions not unlikely totaling around Those directors will cast and then spend a few rehearsals before rushing and sweating through a quick, single Cue-to-Cue run by an overworked and stressed technical director all before each individual play is rushed onstage for a single performance.
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This is stereotypical of the fast and frenetic factory of theater fun that is the Minute play festival. A cast of 15 with lavish set required? Chance of selection: slim. Small cast and minimal props only? Again, if you are building your own personal repertoire, or looking to go straight to publication, or your name is Tony Kushner and you can have staged whatever you write, then disregard.
Otherwise, understand the framework of production constraints for which you are writing. Understand what an audience goes through watching a variety of short plays in back-to-back fashion. Because you are no longer getting automatically produced in the campus festival since you paid tuition. I believe I was asked to lead both seminars because of my small success as a Submitting Playwright in the national Minute play scene. I also continue to serve as a reader on numerous selection committees. So I know just how to screw up a Minute play. The easiest way to screw up a Minute play is to pen what I call the Talking Speaking play.
This is the play where two people sit around an NYC apartment kitchen and drink and attempt to discuss an entire universe of backstory until one of them reveals…a secret! Folks, this is half the pile of scripts coming in. Or do. Totally up to you. Does your play ask a question? It should. It really should. Make sure your Minute play is more than just an interesting scenario with interesting characters.
Let us feel the play beyond the final bows. Make it stand for something. Go as far as to try and make your play the definitive piece on a particular slice of life. For example, a great question I once saw a play ask was: what happens to cities when they die? Another great Minute play I saw will change forever how I see vultures. In fact, and this might be the most important thing I had to offer in the seminar, recognize that what your play is about the question and why your audience is watching the interest are two completely different things.
This is key. Funky question. Your audience is watching because, as a perhaps, they might want to see the romantic interest blossom HA between your mercurial government arboreal expert character and your demanding local industrialist character e. Are you with me? Very key. What your play is about and why the audience watches are more often than not two different things and you have to know both.
Just have your characters sitting around and speaking in deflective and vague utterances, until the purpose is slowly revealed in minute six and then unfurls by the end to entomb the audience within your monument of meaning. Know why? Einstein proved this. An even more phenomenal way to screw up your Minute play is to be broad. Just try to answer all the questions of the universe, or cram gargantuan lineages of family history into a small hole. Both nanorod and hierarchical nanoflower Bi 2 S 3 were synthesized by hydrothermal method.
Photocatalytic systems directly using H 2 S gas dissolved in alkaline solution for hydrogen evolution. One challenge often encounters with alkaline sulfide solution for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution is the interference of by-product. Disulfide and polysulfide ions usually form in alkaline sulfide solution by reaction between S 2— and elemental S immediately after the photooxidation see Eqs. These ions are yellow and can act as an optical filter, which reduces the absorption of photocatalyst.
In addition, polysulfide would compete with protons for reduction. Therefore, with the accumulation of disulfide, the hydrogen evolution efficiency of related systems is slowed down. A common solution for this is the addition of SO 3 2— into the system. The additional sulfite could react with sulfur and avoid the generation of polysulfide; meanwhile, colorless thiosulfate is formed, which is thermodynamically less easily reduced than protons:.
Metal sulfide often suffers from instability in photocatalytic processes as a result of the self-oxidation of sulfide with other sacrificial donors, but this could be effectively inhibited in the presence of sulfide in solution. In contrast, metal oxide is less popular in such system, probably due to their small response in the visible light region. With increasing the proportion of CuInS 2 and AgInS 2 in the solid solution, the absorption spectrum of the photocatalyst could be extended to near-infrared region; however, hydrogen evolution was only observed with light absorption of wavelength less than nm.
When loaded with 0. Furthermore, they have demonstrated that with this photocatalytic system, a solar hydrogen evolution rate of about 2 L m —2 h —1 could be obtained for a reactor of 1 m 2 in November in Tokyo [ 12 ]. In addition, CdS loaded with RuO 2 0. When the CdS-RuO 2 concentration is 2. Adapted with permission from reference [ 10 ].
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Oxidation products like SO 4 2— and S 2 O 6 2— are excluded from the system, and the stoichiometric ratio of S 2— and SO 3 2— is maintained during the whole irradiation time:. Therefore, if a system contains both photocatalytic hydrogen generation Eq. With such a cycle, no sulfur or thiosulfate would accumulate in such system. Figure 3 shows such a possible two-compartment system composed of CdS and TiO 2.
However, whether the efficiency of the two half cycles could match each other effectively is one important question unveiled to us, and there is no further clear report of this system till now. In addition to hydroxide alkaline solution, some other additives are introduced to promote the absorption of H 2 S in solution.
For example, ethanolamine solution is frequently used in gas sweetening industry. Taking monoethanolamine for instance, one monoethanolamine was able to dissolve one molecule of H 2 S see Eqs. However, one big disadvantage of this method is that ethanolamines themselves could be decomposed under light illumination and the amount of ammonia detected from the photocatalytic system could even be higher than that of H 2 :. Furthermore, Li et al. Such a system is also better than system with NaOH-Na 2 S solution from both the point of lifetime and rate for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution.
Although numerous kinds of catalysts have been reported for the decomposition of H 2 S through the above-mentioned method and hydrogen indeed evolves from solution, one problem is that S 2— often transforms into polysulfide, thiosulfate, or sulfite. How to deal with these by-products is another big challenge for us. Elemental S is more favored as the by-product; nevertheless, it could not be recovered from such photocatalytic system.
To obtain pure sulfur, people have developed several ideas. One simple method is to take advantage of the limited acid stability of complex sulfur species. Both polysulfide and thiosulfate would produce S when the pH value of the system decreases to a certain extent. That is, if the outlet reaction solution after photocatalysis containing polysulfide or thiosulfate encounters the inlet acidic gas H 2 S, elemental S could possibly be precipitated from the system with a proper drop of pH:.
In this regard, Linkous et al. The feasibility of this system was conducted. In the photoreactor, hydroxide would be generated along with H 2 evolution, and the pH of the solution would increase. Nevertheless, when this solution flows into the scrubber tower, pH would decrease due to the input H 2 S gas. For the fresh reaction solution constituted of both S 2— and SO 3 2— , S 2 O 3 2— would be generated after photocatalysis, and pH must be lowered to 4.
For fresh reaction solution only constituted of S 2— , polysulfide would be generated and the pH of the solution need to be lower than 10 for precipitation of sulfur. This urges us to reconsider the effect of SO 3 2— under such circumstances: as described above, SO 3 2— are widely used in S 2— involved hydrogen evolution system to avoid the generation of polysufide which competes not only with catalyst from light absorption but also with protons for reduction by electrons , but the acidity necessary for the release of S from the obtained thiosulfate would greatly reduce the photocatalytic activity of the catalysts.
Additionally, another problem of this design is that if the commonly studied suspension system is used for photoreaction, photocatalyst could not be easily separated with the solution. Therefore, catalyst may need to be immobilized for circulating. Generalized scheme for light-driven H2S decomposition using an immobilized photocatalyst. Reprinted from reference , Copyright , with permission from Elsevier.
In addition to the photocatalytic decomposition of H 2 S alone, sometimes photochemical method is combined with electrochemical method for the decomposition of H 2 S, that is, the photoelectron-chemical PEC cell decomposition of H 2 S. In this section, traditional PEC cells with separated anode and cathode connected by wires would be mainly focused. These cells could not only decompose hydrogen sulfide but also generate electricity. In addition, voltage bias could be applied to the cells if the drive force of light is not enough for hydrogen sulfide decomposition.
CdSe film was directly grown on Ti substrate. Using polysulfide prepared by H 2 S dissolution in NaOH and subsequent addition of sulfur as the electrolyte, an open circuit voltage of 0. H 2 bubbles could be observed to leave the Pt cathode when photocurrent flows through the cell and a Faraday efficiency of 0. With the gradual accumulation of polysufide during the reaction, elemental sulfur would precipitates from the solution when polysulfide reaches its solubility limit. Maximum light to chemical energy storage, light to electrical energy, and total cell conversion efficiency occurs at cell voltage of 0, 0.
In this regard, the PEC cell can be operated in a manner that electrical energy or chemical energy can be selectively collected. It is noteworthy that for eliminating the competition of polysulfide with proton for reduction in this cell, which is also a big problem in suspension systems, anode and cathode are placed in two compartments, and Nafion membrane is used to prevent the contact of polysulfide with cathode. If there is no Nafion membrane, only polysulfide is reduced into sulfide, and no H 2 could be detected from the system. Under this circumstance, no net chemical reaction happens in the cell, and light energy could only be converted into electrical energy.
Although indirect strategy may consume more additional energy for H 2 S decomposition from a thermodynamical point of view, it is kinetically more favored and is beneficial for the extraction of elemental sulfur from the system. Lately, Li and Wang et al. In a two-compartment cell separated by Nafion membrane, freshly prepared 0. After H 2 S bubbling into the anode compartment, S and H 2 could be separately produced from the anode and the cathode under light illumination at an applied potential of 0.
In this system, the chemical redox couple is significant for the conversion of H 2 S into H 2 and S Eqs. Nevertheless, due to the low stability of the n-type Si anode, further study in this report is unclear. This is quite novel because most study related to H 2 S decomposition is limited to H 2 as the only reduced product now. In fact, AQ is also an important reaction substrate in Hysulf process, one indirect strategy related to the thermal decomposition of H 2 S. The anode reaction is still the same as Eqs. Solar to chemical conversion efficiency was estimated to be 1.
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If Pt cathode is replaced with carbon plate, a higher photocurrent could be observed. In general, H 2 S is a highly polluted gas that must be carefully handled and removed. The traditional Claus process suffers from high-energy consumption and waste of potential energy, H 2.
The photochemical decomposition of H 2 S, which emerges with the rise of photocatalysis in the last century, could be one improved method for H 2 S disposal.
Lots of progress in the field of the photochemical decomposition of H 2 S has been made in both gaseous phase and liquid phase. The mechanism of such reaction has been studied, and the efficiency of these systems has been calculated. Most often, the photochemical decomposition of H 2 S is indirectly carried out in the form of photocatalytic H 2 production from aqueous sulfide solution. Details of the photochemical decomposition of H 2 S, such as extraction of elemental sulfur from reaction system and the cyclic operation, were also of preliminary consideration. In addition, photochemistry was combined with electrochemistry for H 2 S conversion: photoelectrochemical cells were built to extract H 2 or H 2 O 2 and S from H 2 S with the assistance of redox couples.
This is probably the most efficiency system reported relevant to the photocatalytic decomposition of H 2 S till now. However, a lot of scientific problems are still unsolved, and there is a long, long way to go for the real application of the photocatalytic decomposition of H 2 S in large scale chemical processing. In present, problems below may be considered in priority:. In gaseous phase systems, the concentration studied for H 2 S decomposition is often low with a volume concentration on ppm level ; they are not practical in real industrial process.
Also, people tend to focus on half of the reaction oxidation of S 2— to SO 4 2— or H 2 generation. Without the thorough consideration of both oxidizing and reducing reactions, the photochemical decomposition of H 2 S is not persuasive. Moreover, in solution phase system for H 2 S decomposition, along with H 2 evolution, the simultaneously generated polysulfide or thiosulfate is also a pollutant to environment; subsequent processing of such reaction solution should be cared for meaningful utilization of H 2 S.
Although systems have been designed for sulfur generation from polysulfide or thiosulfate solution, successful trials are limited and the subsequent separation of sulfur from solution is also a challenge. Current catalysts with high efficiency of photochemical H 2 S decomposition are mainly metal sulfide loading with noble metal cocatalyst like Pt, RuO 2 , and so on. Although CdS is considered one of the most efficient photocatalyst for H 2 generation under visible light, the high toxicity of CdS should be taken seriously.
New materials are needed to be exploited, and carbon materials may be alternative photocatalysts in consideration of cost, stability, and toxicity. Besides, noble metal poisoning by sulfide is another problem could happen sometimes and new earth abundant low cost cocatalyst resistive to sulfide poisoning is necessary. Transition metals like Fe, Co, and Ni and their compounds could be promising from the current available data.
To conclude, the photochemical decomposition of H 2 S is still in a relatively early stage. This may be fulfilled with optimized structure design, including chemical composition, electron and band structure, crystal structure and crystallinity, surface state, morphology, and so on, which is currently highlighted in nanoscience and technology. Moreover, people should keep in mind that oxidation and reduction of H 2 S is equally important for H 2 S decomposition if we want to handle H 2 S in a really green way.
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Wolverton, Maria H. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Abstract Hydrogen sulfide is an extremely toxic gas which is generated from both nature factors and human factors. Keywords photocatalysis hydrogen sulfide. Introduction Hydrogen sulfide H 2 S is an extremely toxic and corrosive gas with an odor of rotten eggs.
Photocatalytic hydrogen sulfide decomposition by gas phase reaction Jardim et al. Photocatalytic hydrogen sulfide decomposition in solution 4. H 2 S decomposition in aqueous solution In comparison with solid gas phase photocatalysis, more often H 2 S is first absorbed in solution. Table 1. Table 2. H 2 S decomposition in ethanolamine solution In addition to hydroxide alkaline solution, some other additives are introduced to promote the absorption of H 2 S in solution.
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Extraction of elemental sulfur Although numerous kinds of catalysts have been reported for the decomposition of H 2 S through the above-mentioned method and hydrogen indeed evolves from solution, one problem is that S 2— often transforms into polysulfide, thiosulfate, or sulfite. Photoelectrochemical decomposition of hydrogen sulfide In addition to the photocatalytic decomposition of H 2 S alone, sometimes photochemical method is combined with electrochemical method for the decomposition of H 2 S, that is, the photoelectron-chemical PEC cell decomposition of H 2 S.
Conclusion In general, H 2 S is a highly polluted gas that must be carefully handled and removed. In present, problems below may be considered in priority: In gaseous phase systems, the concentration studied for H 2 S decomposition is often low with a volume concentration on ppm level ; they are not practical in real industrial process. How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard.
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CdS in GeO 2 glass. Bi QD in GeO 2 glass. FeGaO 3. CuGa 2 O 4. CuGa 1.