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In the British government claimed the interior as far west as Lake Naivasha; it set up the East Africa Protectorate. The border was extended to Uganda in , and in most of the enlarged protectorate became a crown colony. With the beginning of colonial rule in , the Rift Valley and the surrounding Highlands became the enclave of white immigrants engaged in large-scale coffee farming dependent on mostly Kikuyu labour.

There were no significant mineral resources—none of the gold or diamonds that attracted so many to South Africa. In the initial stage of colonial rule, the administration relied on traditional communicators, usually chiefs. When colonial rule was established and efficiency was sought, partly because of settler pressure, newly educated younger men were associated with old chiefs in local Native Councils. Following severe financial difficulties of the British East Africa Company , the British government on 1 July established direct rule through the East African Protectorate , subsequently opening the fertile highlands to white settlers.

A key to the development of Kenya's interior was the construction, started in , of a railway from Mombasa to Kisumu , on Lake Victoria , completed in Some 32, workers were imported from British India to do the manual labour. Many stayed, as did most of the Indian traders and small businessmen who saw opportunity in the opening up of the interior of Kenya. Portugal, a small poor agrarian nation with a strong seafaring tradition, built up a large empire, and kept it longer than anyone else by avoiding wars and remaining largely under the protection of Britain.

In it renewed its Treaty of Windsor with Britain originally written in Portugal also established trading stations open to all nations off the coasts of Africa, South Asia, and East Asia. Portugal had imported slaves as domestic servants and farm workers in Portugal itself, and used its experience to make slave trading a major economic activity.

Portuguese businessmen set up slave plantations on the nearby islands of Madeira, Cape Verde, and the Azores, focusing on sugar production. In , the enlightened despot Pombal declared trade to be a noble and necessary profession, allowing businessmen to enter the Portuguese nobility. Many settlers moved to Brazil, which became independent in After , the Portuguese expanded their trading ports along the African coast, moving inland to take control of Angola and Portuguese East Africa Mozambique. The slave trade was abolished in , in part because many foreign slave ships were flying the Portuguese flag.

In India, trade flourished in the colony of Goa , with its subsidiary colonies of Macau , near Hong Kong on the China coast, and Timor , north of Australia. The Portuguese successfully introduced Catholicism and the Portuguese language into their colonies, while most settlers continued to head to Brazil. Italy was often called the Least of the Great Powers for its weak industry and weak military.

In the Scramble for Africa of the s, leaders of the new nation of Italy were enthusiastic about acquiring colonies in Africa, expecting it would legitimize their status as a power and help unify the people. Weak and diplomatically isolated, Italy was helpless and angered when France assumed a protectorate over Tunis in Turning to East Africa, Italy tried to conquer independent Ethiopia, but was massively defeated at the Battle of Adwa in Public opinion was angered at the national humiliation by an inept government.

In the Italian people supported the seizure of what is now Libya. Italian diplomacy over a twenty-year period succeeded in getting permission to seize Libya, with approval coming from Germany, France, Austria, Britain and Russia. A centerpiece of the Italo-Turkish War of —12 came when Italian forces took control of a few coastal cities against stiff resistance by Ottoman troops as well as the local tribesmen.

After the peace treaty gave Italy control it sent in Italian settlers, but suffered extensive casualties in its brutal campaign against the tribes. Starting in the s Japan rapidly modernized along Western lines, adding industry, bureaucracy, institutions and military capabilities that provided the base for imperial expansion into Korea, China, Taiwan and islands to the south. It took control of Okinawa and Formosa. The war with China made Japan the world's first Eastern, modern imperial power, and the war with Russia proved that a Western power could be defeated by an Eastern state.

The aftermath of these two wars left Japan the dominant power in the Far East with a sphere of influence extending over southern Manchuria and Korea, which was formally annexed as part of the Japanese Empire in Okinawa island is the largest of the Ryukyu Islands, and paid tribute to China from the late 14th century. Japan took control of the entire Ryukyu island chain in and formally incorporated it into Japan in Friction between China and Japan arose from the s from Japan's control over the Ryukyu Islands , rivalry for political influence in Korea and trade issues.

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China further paid an indemnity of million silver taels, opened five new ports to international trade, and allowed Japan and other Western powers to set up and operate factories in these cities. However, Russia, France, and Germany saw themselves disadvantaged by the treaty and in the Triple Intervention forced Japan to return the Liaotung Peninsula in return for a larger indemnity.

The only positive result for China came when those factories led the industrialization of urban China, spinning off a local class of entrepreneurs and skilled mechanics. The island of Formosa Taiwan had an indigenous population when Dutch traders in need of an Asian base to trade with Japan and China arrived in They soon began to rule the natives. China took control in the s, and sent in settlers. By the s there were about 2. After its victory in the First Sino-Japanese War in —95, the peace treaty ceded the island to Japan.

It was Japan's first colony. Japan expected far more benefits from the occupation of Taiwan than the limited benefits it actually received. Japan realized that its home islands could only support a limited resource base, and it hoped that Taiwan, with its fertile farmlands, would make up the shortage. By , Taiwan was producing rice and sugar and paying for itself with a small surplus.

Perhaps more important, Japan gained Asia-wide prestige by being the first non-European country to operate a modern colony. It learned how to adjust its German-based bureaucratic standards to actual conditions, and how to deal with frequent insurrections. The ultimate goal was to promote Japanese language and culture, but the administrators realized they first had to adjust to the Chinese culture of the people.

Japan had a civilizing mission, and it opened schools so that the peasants could become productive and patriotic manual workers. Medical facilities were modernized, and the death rate plunged. To maintain order, Japan installed a police state that closely monitored everyone. In , Japan was stripped of its empire and Taiwan was returned to China. Japan felt humiliated when the spoils from its decisive victory over China were partly reversed by the Western Powers including Russia , which revised the Treaty of Shimonoseki.

The Boxer Rebellion of — saw Japan and Russia as allies who fought together against the Chinese, with Russians playing the leading role on the battlefield.

Japan offered to recognize Russian dominance in Manchuria in exchange for recognition of Korea as being within the Japanese sphere of influence. Russia refused and demanded Korea north of the 39th parallel to be a neutral buffer zone between Russia and Japan. The Japanese government decided on war to stop the perceived Russian threat to its plans for expansion into Asia.

Russia suffered multiple defeats but Tsar Nicholas II fought on with the expectation that Russia would win decisive naval battles. When that proved illusory he fought to preserve the dignity of Russia by averting a "humiliating peace". The complete victory of the Japanese military surprised world observers. The consequences transformed the balance of power in East Asia, resulting in a reassessment of Japan's recent entry onto the world stage. It was the first major military victory in the modern era of an Asian power over a European one.

In , the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire signed the Eulsa Treaty , which brought Korea into the Japanese sphere of influence as a protectorate. The Eulsa Treaty led to the signing of the Treaty two years later. The Treaty ensured that Korea would act under the guidance of a Japanese resident general and Korean internal affairs would be under Japanese control.

Korean Emperor Gojong was forced to abdicate in favour of his son, Sunjong , as he protested Japanese actions in the Hague Conference. Finally in , the Annexation Treaty formally annexed Korea to Japan. Officially, China remained a unified country. In practice, European powers and Japan took effective control of certain port cities and their surrounding areas from the middle nineteenth century until the s.

In — the United States won international acceptance for the Open Door Policy whereby all nations would have access to Chinese ports, rather than having them reserved to just one nation. Britain, in addition to taking control of new territories, developed an enormous power in economic and financial affairs in numerous independent countries, especially in Latin America and Asia. It lent money, built railways, and engaged in trade. The Great London Exhibition of clearly demonstrated Britain's dominance in engineering, communications and industry; that lasted until the rise of the United States and Germany in the s.

Historians agree that Lord Salisbury as foreign minister and prime minister — was a strong and effective leader in foreign affairs. He had a superb grasp of the issues, and proved:. In — under Salisbury, Britain continued its policy of Splendid isolation with no formal allies. Britain and Germany each tried to improve relations, but British distrust of the Kaiser for his recklessness ran deep. The Kaiser did indeed meddle in Africa in support of the Boers, which soured relations.

The main accomplishment was a friendly treaty. Germany gave up its small Zanzibar colony in Africa and acquired the Heligoland islands, off Hamburg, which were essential to the security of Germany's ports. Liberal Party policy after was shaped by William Gladstone as he repeatedly attacked Disraeli's imperialism. The Conservatives took pride in their imperialism and it proved quite popular with the voters.

A generation later, a minority faction of Liberals became active " Liberal Imperialists ". After a protracted hard-fought war, with severe hardships for Boer civilians, the Boers lost and were absorbed into the British Empire. The war bitterly divided with Liberals, with the majority faction denouncing it. The "Eastern Question" involved the slow steady disintegration of the " Sick man of Europe " the Ottoman Empire , often called "Turkey" , the rise of nationalism in the Balkans, and the general issue of alliances in Eastern Europe.

In the s the "Eastern Question" focused on the mistreatment of Christians in the Balkans by the Ottoman Empire, and what the European great powers ought to do about it. Each of the countries paid close attention to its own long-term interests, usually in cooperation with its allies and friends. The Ottoman Empire was hard-pressed by nationalistic movements among the Christian populations.

After , the large Arab population would also grow nationalistic. The threat of disintegration was real. Egypt for example although still nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, have been independent for century. Turkish nationalists were emerging, and the Young Turk movement indeed took over the Empire. While the previous rulers had been pluralistic, the Young Turks were hostile to all other nationalities and to non-Muslims. Wars were usually defeats, in which another slice of territory was sliced off and became semi-independent, including Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia, and Albania.

The Austro-Hungarian Empire, headquartered at Vienna, was a largely rural, poor, multicultural state. It was operated by and for the Habsburg family, who demanded loyalty to the throne, but not to the nation.

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Nationalistic movements were growing rapidly. The most powerful were the Hungarians, who preserved their separate status within the Habsburg Monarchy and with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of , the creation of the Dual Monarchy they were getting practical equality. Other minorities, were highly frustrated, although some — especially the Jews — felt protected by the Empire. German nationalists, especially in the Sudetenland part of Bohemia however, looked to Berlin in the new German Empire. That is it did not demand an independent state, rather it flourished by holding most of the high military and diplomatic offices in the Empire.

Russia was the main enemy, As well as Slavic and nationalist groups inside the Empire especially in Bosnia-Herzegovina and in nearby Serbia. Although Austria, Germany, and Italy had a defensive military alliance — the Triple Alliance — Italy was dissatisfied and wanted a slice of territory controlled by Vienna. He saw Russia as the main adversary, because of its own expansionist policies toward Slavic and Orthodox areas.

He distrusted Slavic nationalist movements as a threat to his multi-ethnic empire. He was thoroughly convinced that the Slavic minorities could never come together, and the Balkan League would never accomplish any damage to Austria. His policies alienated the Bulgarians, who turned instead to Russia and Serbia. Although Austria had no intention to embark on additional expansion to the south, Aehrenthal encouraged speculation to that effect, expecting it would paralyze the Balkan states.

Instead, it incited them to feverish activity to create a defensive block to stop Austria. A series of grave miscalculations at the highest level thus significantly strengthened Austria's enemies. Russia was growing in strength, and wanted access to the warm waters of the Mediterranean. To get that it needed control of the Straits, connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, and if possible, control of Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire.

Slavic nationalism was strongly on the rise in the Balkans. It gave Russia the opportunity to protect Slavic and Orthodox Christians. This put it in sharp opposition to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Serbia had multiple national goals. The large number of Serbs living in Bosnia looked to Serbia as the focus of their nationalism, but they were ruled by the Germans of the Austrian Empire.

Railways and International Politics: Paths of Empire, (Military History and Policy)

Austria's annexation of Bosnia in deeply alienated the Serbian peoples. Plotters swore revenge, which they achieved in by assassination of the Austrian heir. Austria worked hard to block Serbian access to the sea, for example by helping with the creation of Albania in Montenegro, Serbia's main ally, did have a small port, but Austrian territory intervened, blocking access until Serbia acquired Novi Pazar and part of Macedonia from the Ottoman Empire in To the south, Bulgaria blocked Serbian access to the Aegean Sea. They won decisively and expelled that Empire from almost all of the Balkans.

Expansion of Serbia would block Austrian and German aspirations for direct rail connections to Constantinople and the Middle East. Serbia relied primarily on Russia for Great Power support but Russia was very hesitant at first to support Pan-Slavism, and counselled caution. However, in it reversed positions and promised military support to Serbia. Germany had no direct involvement in the Balkans, but indirectly Bismarck realized that it was a major source of tension between his two key allies, Russia and Austria. Therefore, Germany's policy was to minimize conflict in the Balkans.

In Serbia and Montenegro declared war on Turkey, and were badly defeated, notably at the battle of Alexinatz Sept. Russia, which supported Serbia, threatened war against Turkey. In August , Russia declared war on Turkey, and steadily defeated its armies. In early January Turkey asked for an armistice; the British fleet arrived at Constantinople too late.

Britain, France, and Austria opposed the Treaty of San Stefano because it gave Russia and Bulgaria too much influence in the Balkans, where insurrections were frequent. War threatened. After numerous attempts a grand diplomatic settlement was reached at the Congress of Berlin June—July The new Treaty of Berlin revised the earlier treaty. Germany's Otto von Bismarck —98 presided over the congress and brokered the compromises.

Bosnia was eventually annexed by Austria-Hungary in The Treaty of Berlin had a new type of provision that protected minorities in the Balkans and newly independent states Great Power recognition was nominally conditional on the promise of guarantees of religious and civic freedoms for local religious minorities. Historian Carol Fink argues:.

Fink reports that these provisions were generally not enforced—no suitable mechanism existed and the Great Powers had little interest in doing so. Britain stayed aloof from alliances in the late 19th century, with an independence made possible by its island location, its dominant navy, its dominant position in finance and trade, and its strong industrial base. It rejected tariffs and practiced free trade.

After losing power in Britain in , Liberal leader Gladstone returned to center stage in by calling for a moralistic foreign policy, as opposed to the realism of his great adversary Benjamin Disraeli. The issue drew the party line between Gladstone's Liberals who denounced the immoral Ottomans and Disraeli's Conservatives who downplayed the atrocities and supported the Ottoman Empire as an offset to Russian power.

Disraeli had threatened war with Russia on the issue and Gladstone argued he was wrong. Liberal opinion was convulsed by atrocities in the Balkans, in particular the massacre of more than 10, Christian Bulgars by Turkish irregulars. Gladstone denounced the Turks for committing "abominable and bestial lusts His pamphlet sold an astonishing , copies. The climax was his " Midlothian campaign " of when he charged Disraeli's government with financial incompetence, neglecting domestic legislation, and mismanagement of foreign affairs.

Gladstone felt a call from God to aid the Serbians and Bulgarians who were Eastern Orthodox Christians ; he spoke out like an ancient Hebrew prophet denouncing tyranny and oppression. The real audience was not the local electorate but Britain as a whole, especially the evangelical elements. By appealing to vast audiences denouncing Disraeli's pro-Turkish foreign policy, Gladstone made himself a moral force in Europe, unified his party, and was carried back to power. Chancellor Bismarck took full charge of German foreign policy from to his dismissal in Bismarck made clear to all that Germany had no wish to add any territory in Europe, and he tried to oppose German colonial expansion.

Bismarck feared that a hostile combination of Austria, France and Russia could overwhelm Germany. If two of them were allied, then the third would ally with Germany only if Germany conceded excessive demands. The solution was to ally with two of the three. In he formed the League of the Three Emperors , an alliance of the kaiser of Germany, the tsar of Russia, and the emperor of Austria-Hungary.

It protected Germany against a war with France. The three emperors together could control Eastern Europe, making sure that restive ethnic groups such as the Poles were kept in control. The Balkans posed a more serious issue, and Bismarck's solution was to give Austria predominance in the western areas, and Russia in the eastern areas.

The system collapsed in Kaiser Wilhelm ousted Bismarck in and developed his own aggressive foreign policy. The Kaiser rejected the Russian alliance, and Russia in turn turned to an alliance with France. Between and , Germany repeatedly intervened in the internal affairs of France's neighbors. This was part of an integrated strategy to promote republicanism in France by strategically and ideologically isolating the clerical-monarchist regime of President Patrice de Mac-Mahon.

It was hoped that by ringing France with a number of liberal states, French republicans could defeat MacMahon and his reactionary supporters. The modern concept of containment provides a useful model for understanding the dynamics of this policy. Containment almost got out of hand in in the "War in Sight" crisis. It was sparked by an editorial entitled "Krieg-in-Sicht" in an influential Berlin newspaper the Post. It indicated some highly influential Germans, alarmed by France's rapid recovery from defeat in and its rearmament program, talked of launching a preventive war against France to hold it down.

There was a war scare in Germany and France, and Britain and Russia made it clear they would not tolerate a preventive war. Bismarck did not want any war either, but the unexpected crisis forced him to take into account the fear and alarm that his bullying and Germany's fast-growing power was causing among its neighbors. The crisis reinforced Bismarck's determination that Germany had to work in proactive fashion to preserve the peace in Europe, rather than passively let events take their own course and react to them.

The central development in Russian foreign policy was to move away from Germany and toward France. This became possible in , when Bismarck was dismissed from office, and Germany refused to renew the secret Reinsurance Treaty with Russia. That encouraged Russian expansion into Bulgaria and the Straits. It meant that both France and Russia were without major allies; France took the initiative and funding Russian economic development, and in exploring a military alliance. France, which had been shut out of the entire alliance system by Bismarck, decided to improve relations with Russia.

It lent money to the Russians, expanded trade, and began selling warships after Meanwhile, after Bismarck lost office in , there was no renewal of the Reinsurance treaty between Russia and Germany. The German bankers stopped lending to Russia, which increasingly depended on Paris banks.

In a secret treaty stipulated that Russia would come to the aid of France if France was attacked by Germany. Another stipulation was that in a war against Germany, France would immediately mobilize 1. It provided that if any of the Triple Alliance Germany, Austria, Italy mobilized its reserves in preparation for war, then both Russia and France would mobilize theirs. George F. Kennan argues that Russia was primarily responsible for the collapse of Bismarck's alliance policy in Europe, and starting the downward slope to the First World War. Kennan blames poor Russian diplomacy centered on its ambitions in the Balkans.

Kennan says Bismarck's foreign policy was designed to prevent any major war even in the face of improved Franco-Russian relations.


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Russia left Bismarck's Three Emperors' League with Germany and Austria and instead took up the French proposal for closer relationships and a military alliance. The Bosnian crisis of —09 began on 8 October , when Vienna announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. These territories were nominally owned by the Ottoman Empire but had been awarded in custody to Austria-Hungary in the Congress of Berlin in This unilateral action—timed to coincide with Bulgaria's declaration of independence 5 October from the Ottoman Empire—sparked protestations from all the Great Powers and especially Serbia and Montenegro.

In April the Treaty of Berlin was amended to reflect the fait accompli and bring the crisis to an end. The crisis permanently damaged relations between Austria-Hungary on one hand and Serbia, Italy and Russia on the other. At the time it appeared to be a total diplomatic victory for Vienna, but Russia became determined not to back down again and hastened its military build-up. Austrian—Serbian relations became permanently stressed. It aroused intense anger among Serbian nationalists that led to the assassination of Franz Ferdinand in The continuing collapse of the Ottoman Empire led to two wars in the Balkans, in and , which were a prelude to World War I.

Nevertheless, many of their ethnic compatriots lived under the control of the Ottoman Empire. In , these countries formed the Balkan League. There were three main causes of the First Balkan War. The Ottoman Empire was unable to reform itself, govern satisfactorily, or deal with the rising ethnic nationalism of its diverse peoples. Secondly, the Great Powers quarreled among themselves and failed to ensure that the Ottomans would carry out the needed reforms.

This led the Balkan states to impose their own solution. Most important, the members of the Balkan League were confident that it could defeat the Turks. Their prediction was accurate, as Constantinople called for terms after six weeks of fighting. After five centuries, the Ottoman Empire lost virtually all of its possessions in the Balkans. The Treaty had been imposed by the Great Powers, and the victorious Balkan states were dissatisfied with it.

Bulgaria was dissatisfied over the division of the spoils in Macedonia , made in secret by its former allies, Serbia and Greece. Bulgaria attacked to force them out of Macedonia, beginning the Second Balkan War. The Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked into Bulgaria, while Romania and the Ottoman Empire also attacked Bulgaria and gained or regained territory.

The long-term result was heightened tension in the Balkans.


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Relations between Austria and Serbia became increasingly bitter. Russia felt humiliated after Austria and Germany prevented it from helping Serbia. The main causes of World War I , which broke out unexpectedly in central Europe in summer , included many factors, such as the conflicts and hostility of the four decades leading up to the war. Militarism, alliances, imperialism, and ethnic nationalism played major roles.

However the immediate origins of the war lay in the decisions taken by statesmen and generals during the Crisis of , which was sparked by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand the Archduke of Austria Hungary by a Serbian secret organization, the Black Hand. By the s or s all the major powers were preparing for a large-scale war, although none expected one. Britain focused on building up its Royal Navy, already stronger than the next two navies combined. Germany, France, Austria, Italy and Russia, and some smaller countries, set up conscription systems whereby young men would serve from 1 to 3 years in the army, then spend the next 20 years or so in the reserves with annual summer training.

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Men from higher social statuses became officers. Each country devised a mobilisation system whereby the reserves could be called up quickly and sent to key points by rail. Every year the plans were updated and expanded in terms of complexity. Each country stockpiled arms and supplies for an army that ran into the millions. Germany in had a regular professional army of , with an additional 1. By the regular army was , strong and the reserves 3. The French in had 3. The various national war plans had been perfected by , albeit with Russia and Austria trailing in effectiveness. All plans called for a decisive opening and a short war.

For a few years after its defeat in France displayed a bitter Revanchism : a deep sense of bitterness, hatred and demand for revenge against Germany, especially because of the loss of Alsace and Lorraine. French policy makers were not fixated on revenge. However strong public opinion regarding Alsace-Lorraine meant that friendship with Germany was impossible unless the provinces were returned, and public opinion in Germany would not allow a return to happen. In the chief pressure group was the Parti colonial , a coalition of 50 organizations with a combined total of members.

France had colonies in Asia and looked for alliances and found in Japan a possible ally. At Japan's request Paris sent military missions in — , in — and in — to help modernize the Japanese army. Admiral Courbet destroyed the Chinese fleet anchored at Foochow. The treaty ending the war, put France in a protectorate over northern and central Vietnam, which it divided into Tonkin and Annam. Bismarck's foreign policies had successfully isolated France from the other great powers. After Bismarck was fired, Kaiser Wilhelm took erratic positions that baffled diplomats.

No one could quite figure out his goals. Germany ended its secret treaties with Russia, and rejected close ties with Britain. France saw its opportunity, as Russia was looking for a new partner and French financiers invested heavily in Russian economic development. In Paris and St. Petersburg signed an alliance. France was no longer isolated — but Germany was increasingly isolated and distrusted, with only Austria as a serious ally. The Triple Alliance included Germany, Austria, and Italy, but Italy had serious disputes with Austria, and switched sides when the world war erupted.

Britain was also moving toward alliances, having abandoned its policy of splendid isolation. By , France settled its disputes with Britain. It formed the basis of the Allies of the First World War. France was deeply split between the monarchists on one side, and the Republicans on the other.

The Republicans at first seemed highly unlikely to welcome any military alliance with Russia. That large nation was poor and not industrialized; it was intensely religious and authoritarian, with no sense of democracy or freedom for its peoples. It oppressed Poland, and exiled, and even executed political liberals and radicals. At a time when French Republicans were rallying in the Dreyfus affair against anti-Semitism, Russia was the most notorious center in the world of anti-Semitic outrages, including multiple murderous large-scale pogroms against the Jews.

On the other hand, France was increasingly frustrated by Bismarck's success in isolating it diplomatically. While the effect of railways on economic development is self-evident, little attention has been paid to their impact on international relations. This is unfortunate, for in the period from to , railways were an important element in the struggle between the Great Powers.

This took many forms. Often, as in East Asia, the competition for railway concessions reflected the clash of rival imperial interests. The success or failure of this competition could determine which of the European Powers was to dominate and exploit the markets of China and Siam. Just as often, railways were linked with military matters. So, too, did they for the Russians, whose vast Empire required rail links capable of moving the Tsarist army quickly and competently.

Just as importantly, railways could be vital for Imperial defence, as the British discovered on the North-West frontier of India. See details. Buy It Now. Add to cart. Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Product Information This new study brings together leading experts to show how the modern world began with the coming of the railway. They clearly explain why it had a greater impact than any other technical or industrial innovation before and completely redefined the limits of the civilized world. While the effect of railways on economic development is self-evident, little attention has been paid to their impact on international relations.

This is unfortunate, for in the period from to , railways were an important element in the struggle between the Great Powers. The success or failure of this competition could determine which of the European Powers was to dominate and exploit the markets of China and Siam. So, too, did they for the Russians, whose vast Empire required rail links capable of moving the Tsarist army quickly and competently.

Just as importantly, railways could be vital for Imperial defence, as the British discovered on the North-West frontier of India. This book will be of much interest to students of international history, military history and strategic studies. Additional Product Features Dewey Edition.

Otte 2. Showalter 3.