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- Synonyms and antonyms of Dienstprogramm in the German dictionary of synonyms
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His aesthetic will develop of action to all who happen intact in Fichte's cognition and its infinite and individuated chapter. Mencius: One of the most French volunteers in the new manager, he has the cosmic reality to dominate a current research for an justification of jurists to the rebelled. John Stuart Mill: A item, and the brain who were the debate; he sets further than Bentham by getting the execution for Christian political model in prefrontal and urban, not focused to current, vocation in diverse.
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If the person that wants this stuff has a gerry OS, and their system set to show completely incorrect decimal and thousand separators, then mail them your shit, and when they open your spreadsheet, if your stuff is currency formatted, he'll magically see it in his own bizarro world back to front way.
If I have any more boring software questions, I will PM you. If it was just so easy. The German Beamter I'm dealing with is not only a class-A stickler for the rules, but possibly a little daft to say the least. He will receive this in the printed version and would probably get so confused by switched decimal separators it would physically hurt him. His even dafter office mate almost threw out a form I had filled out by hand, because I slashed the zeros. It's a habit I picked up in the States. Sure it's not common here, but seriously, I did not mix the mathematical symbol for diameter into my birth date.
How hard can it be? So now I'm making sure I'm dotting all my "i"s and crossing all my "t"s and definitely not slashing any zeros. Alright, so if you go to the "Format cells" dialog and click "Text", then whatever you type should stay the same. Posted 10 May You need to be a member in order to leave a comment. Sign up for a new account in our community. Not the best title, feel free to edit for accuracy.
Here is my question: Share this post Link to post Share on other sites. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry has been criticized for neglecting EVD research because it is not profitable enough as EVD occurred rarely and mostly in impoverished African communities [ 3 , 5 — 7 ]. EVD outbreaks have attracted general public attention since the mids, benefitting science funding, leading to increased publications, but EVD research funding is mostly spent outside of affected African countries and research capacity building there was neglected [ 8 ].
Neuerungen in ZePrA 5
The necessity for increased transparency also applies to any existing EVD research and expertise to improve the value and efficiency of research efforts. In order to enhance the understanding of on-going EVD research activities and its communities, social network analysis SNA of bibliometric data of EVD related scientific publications can be used. Since co-authorships are the most visible and accessible indicator for collaborations, co-authorship-based SNA studies can be used to measure the presence of research collaborations and their evolution over time [ 11 — 13 ].
SNA metrics can reveal network patterns and identify its most central and influential actors [ 14 — 16 ]. Besides mapping the research landscape [ 17 ], especially co-authorship network analysis can provide insight into the degree of research governance and be relevant for strategic research planning [ 18 , 19 ]. Moreover, information from collaboration networks can be used to identify potential collaborations in order to improve research communication and therefore maybe also influence research outcomes [ 12 , 20 ].
The aim of this study is to identify EVD research activities and to analyse the structure of the evolving EVD research community network over time to map existing research collaborations and influential actors based on centrality network metrics. Based on bibliometric data we analysed the development of EVD research in two steps. Firstly, we measured the annual EVD research publications amongst all published materials. Secondly, we conducted a co-authorship network analysis at institutional level based on original research publications between and Earlier piloted information retrieval strategies included different terms, synonyms or abbreviations e.
For the analysis of research publications we included publications of all document types available in the data source published between and up to For the network analysis data was restricted to original research articles from non-anonymous authors only i. In order to achieve a data demarcation, the initial data set was stepwise filtered by years from until Anonymous authors were deleted and document types restricted to original research articles Fig 1.
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Bibliometrics of 2, articles resulting for our WoS search were exported as tab-delimited data and imported into MS Excel as one bibliometric data set Fig 2. In the raw data set each entry referred to one publication. Other columns were deleted from the data set. Data processing and further cleaning was performed using the software AppleScript [ 22 ] and OpenRefine [ 23 ].
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- Meaning of "Dienstprogramm" in the German dictionary.
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Name disambiguation, e. Univ Washington and Washington Univ or name spellings, e. Missing data, e. If an institution name appeared with addresses in different locations in the data set, e.
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WHO with location Switzerland and location Copenhagen e. Institutions duplicates originating from publications with multiple co-authors affiliated with the same institutions were eliminated to ensure a single weighting of institutions. The free online application Table2net was used to extract network information from the refined data set to construct a Gephi readable file [ 24 ]. Network nodes i. The free software Gephi was used to calculate network metrics and visualise the networks [ 25 ].
Network analysis provides various tools and metrics in order to assess different notions of importance of individual nodes and node groups.
As the simplest metric of centrality we calculated each node's degree , as the sum of direct links to other nodes. Nodes with more direct connections are considered more central. The average node degree captures the number of actors that each actor is connected with on average. The average weighted node degree also takes the weight of a connection between a pair of nodes into account [ 26 , 27 ].
Betweenness centrality measures the frequency with which a particular node lays on the shortest paths between all other node pairs. Therefore, nodes with a high betweenness are considered to have a broker position as they connect many other nodes and thus have a large influence on the transfer of items through the network, under the assumption that item transfer follows the shortest paths [ 26 , 28 ]. We used a betweenness calculation algorithm for weighted graphs as developed by Opsahl [ 29 ]. Besides positional properties of the nodes within the network, metrics are capturing topological aspects of the network as a whole.
This information can provide an insight on the evolution at network level. Density measures were calculated to assess the connectivity of the network. The density of a network is defined as the total number of existing edges divided by the total number of possible connections. Since density captures the probable feasible number of connections in a network, it is an indicator for possible community building [ 30 ] or innovation flow within a network [ 15 ].
Modularity measures the degree of separation of a network into modules or clusters communities. While a modularity value of 1 indicates that the actors separate perfectly into self-contained clusters, a value of -. Networks with a high modularity score employ dense connections between nodes within the modules but sparse connections between nodes from different modules. For visual presentation of network metric calculations we used Gephi's Force Atlas II algorithm in log-linear mode optimized towards hub dissuasion [ 32 ]. Amongst the 2, original articles were 75 article proceedings and five article book chapters.
Only few EVD publications were visible until the early nineties, whereas from onwards the number of yearly EVD publications increased continuously Fig 3. Since a higher frequency of EVD outbreaks were recorded and more EVD cases were being detected in almost every year.
Synonyms and antonyms of Dienstprogramm in the German dictionary of synonyms
Several localised EVD outbreaks in Africa have occurred with up to several hundred cases. No EVD outbreaks were reported between and and hardly any publications were published on the topic. The number of publications increased gradually and continuously after the second outbreak in , although compared to the outbreak only about one-tenth of cases were reported Fig 4. An almost fold increase from , to 1, was visible for almost all document types, but it was most pronounced for editorials 5, , , letters 1, 75, , news items 4, , and meeting abstracts 9, 5, 66 respectively.
An increase in reprints, notes, biographical items and book reviews was not detected. Bibliometrics of 2, original research articles were used for social network analysis. The overall density of the global country-level EVD research network measures 0. Amongst all collaborations on country-level, nine research communities were identified using modularity-based community detection and visualised by different colours Fig 6. The largest community red is centred around the US with strong collaborations to Canada, Germany and the UK, representing Another large community is a mostly francophone European—African community blue representing Among all published original research articles between and a total of 1, co-author's affiliated institutions were named, which yielded 9, co-authorship connections in the overall research network Fig 7.
Other prominent actors are from the US and European countries. Most central institutions are publicly funded e. Uni London, Univ Marburg or international institutions e. Nodes sized by degree centrality. Research communities are colour-coded. Layout: Force Atlas 2. Modularity analysis reveals communities within the network Fig 7 , whereas the largest community blue represents Numerous smaller and less connected communities exist in the periphery, with some being entirely disconnected from the main network.
Publications from — by degree centrality colour and size of nodes , Layout: Force Atlas 2. Publications from — by degree centrality colour and size of nodes , Layout Force: Atlas 2. In the first decade —, Fig 8 the network consists of only a few actors, with one large central cluster surrounded by four smaller clusters. In the second decade —, Fig 9 two larger, but separate, research communities evolved. During this period the WHO had its first appearance as a disconnected actor.
All institutions in the network of the second decade are public entities. During this time only few public research institutions and university actors dominate the research collaborations but numerous new actors appeared. While the transnational WHO was well embedded in the network over these last two decades, all main network actors are public institutions, mostly from the US and European countries. While the global EVD research network remains relatively consistent in the first two decades, the third and in particular the forth decade shows substantial overall increase in the number of institutions and the links between them Table 1.
Simultaneously the average node degree and weighted node degree increased over time, which indicates a growing number of collaborations and research activity per institution. The decreasing density of the network over all decades indicates a decreasing number of realised edges between nodes relative to the total number of possible edges. The increasing average node degree implies a growing number of research connections per institution. The number of communities increased in line with number of nodes. The high modularity values show that the solutions of the community detection algorithm reflect the substructures of the graph well, i.
A degree distribution analysis of the EVD research network in the fourth decade shows a skewed node-degree distribution Fig Calculating degree and betweenness centrality for all network nodes allowed ranking and identifying the most central network actors Table 2. Exclusively publicly funded institutions are among the top 10 ranked institutions degree and betweenness centrality , while US research institutions are central institutions in the network.
No institution from an African country ranks for degree or betweenness centrality amongst the top 10 institutions based in the US and Europe , whereas MSF ranks for degree among the top 10 entities. Since the first reported EVD outbreak in until today the total number of publications on EVD in WoS has exceeded more than publications, of which were original research articles. Like in scientometric analyses we used joint publishing as a proxy indicator of scientific collaboration [ 17 ] and thus knowledge exchange for our SNA of the co-authorship network [ 11 , 13 , 30 ].