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Against this background, the traditional models of urban development are no less important.
In shrinking urban regions, this means, for example, that greater attention must be given to coping with "perforation" in urban regional structures, in other words deconcentration at reasonable cost and decentralized concentration in "viable" locations. Nor is the situation becoming any easier with regard to sustainable urban development. Even where the population is declining, land consumption for settlement and transport continues to increase in many places.http://test5.expandit.io/eves-of-destruction.php
Read PDF Bevölkerungsentwicklung in Ostdeutschland. Ursachen, Merkmale und Folgen (German Edition)
In the face of dispersion, the short-distance city or urban region is more difficult to achieve, at least through "growth. This suggests that, in making decisions on urban expansion, redevelopment, or downsizing, much more attention must be paid in the light of demographic developments to the economic life of facilities and their conditions of use.
Demographic change requires the "uniformity of living standards" model to be rethought and reinterpreted in a broader context. It will not be possible to retain service functions everywhere at the existing level under current conditions. For example, the future of small communities with an overage population also has to be considered.
Not that this is new. As long ago as December , the Advisory Council for Regional Planning - upon publication of the Regional Planning Report and the Regional Planning Forecast - called for changes in planning and stressed that spatial development tendencies needed to be reassessed. They pointed out that clarification was needed on "what orientation is to underlie the 'principle of the uniformity of living standards' and how this principle is to be upheld in the longer term" cf.
This brings us to a second aspect, the growing importance of the region as a level for action.
The Economic Focus of Germany’s Africa Policy: The Right Direction, but Overambitious Aspirations
If demographic growth and decline or differential decline are to be found on a small scale in close proximity, it is not only wise but more important than ever to treat functionally closely interrelated areas as units for planning purposes. If redevelopment and downsizing are on the municipal agenda, adjustment concepts need to be discussed and implemented in regional cooperation. In contrast to traditional policy approaches, the region is becoming more important, less as a level for the order-oriented control of development than as a spatial platform for the efficiency-oriented adjustment of settlement structures.
If a number of municipalities face the same problems of having to close schools or scale-down technical infrastructure, these problems should not be tackled at the level of the single municipality: regional solutions should be sought to "save" facilities and maintain public services in the long term and in keeping with community needs. The same holds for housing construction and many other sectors. Naturally, such adjustment strategies require regional equalization mechanisms and need to be pursued in an integrated mode, i.
In many places, integrated regional adjustment strategies can draw on existing regional planning tools, e. Like such development concepts, these strategies should include four elements, always with demographic decline in mind: first, a careful analysis of the given situation; second, a scenario-like portrayal of development options and required action with a time horizon of at least twenty to thirty years on the basis of realistic assumptions about demographic developments; third, a vision or model for future "desirable" and realistically attainable structures; and fourth, a catalogue or programme of measures for individual areas of action with priorities and stated responsibilities.
Adjustment strategies should be developed on the initiative of municipalities and not from the perspective of superordinate planning e. Nonetheless, the superordinate planning level could provide assistance through expert mediation in inter-municipal cooperation and taking the initiative in overcoming intermunicipal barriers when municipal actors prove reluctant to rethink in shrinkage categories.
Under conditions of demographic decline, regional and state planning are by no means superfluous: they play a decisive role in coping with the consequences of a shrinking population. A look at the differentiated structure of demographic growth and decline in Germany shows that municipalities and regions can no longer rely exclusively on "traditional" growth approaches. They must think in new categories of planning control based on a "decline paradigm.
If the full range of consequences is to be identified and solutions found, it is not enough to consider the individual municipality in isolation. Fatalism is not the answer to radical and long-term demographic developments. It should not be forgotten that population decline can be an opportunity. It can open the way to renewal and modernisation e. But these opportunities can be exploited only if municipalities collaborate with their regions, if they openly thematize the demographic problems in spatial planning and development policy, identify and take account of localized impacts, and find regionally differentiated solutions by exploiting specific resources or through purposive downsizing.
For municipalities and regions with their specific development requirements and perspectives, population decline can provide opportunity for a dialogue on coping with demographic change and, ideally, a basis for developing a new fundamental societal consensus. Aring, J. Bergheim, S. Blotevogel, H. Bucher, H. Dokumentation des Vielfalt der Regionen.
Der Wirtschaftsfokus in der neuen deutschen Afrikapolitik
Friedrichs, J. Gatzweiler, H. Glatter, J. Hallenberg, B. Herfert, G. Polarisierte Raumentwicklung in der ostdeutschen Schrumpfungslandschaft, in: Raumforschung und Raumordnung, H. Koziol, M. Maretzke, S. Vortrag auf der Statistischen Woche , gehalten am Siedentop, S. Topp, H. Strategien, Konzepte, Instrumente, Stuttgart, Zur Navigation springen. Zum Inhalt springen.
Warenkorb [Vollansicht]. Conclusions References Abstract: Demographic change has become a major topic for German municipalities as more and more communities in East and West Germany embark on a "stagnation or decline path" in the coming 20 years. Growth and Shrinkage: The Importance of a Comparative View Demographic change and its effects are currently being discussed on two main levels: firstly on the level of society as a whole in relation to family policy, social security systems, labour market policy, migration, and government finances; secondly on the individual municipality level, with regard to increasingly urgent redevelopment needs and the constraints imposed by tight finances.
Regional Forms of Growth and Shrinkage In the s, the development of settlement structure in Germany can be briefly characterised as follows cf. Differentiation of the Growth and Shrinkage Landscape In the mids there were few regions that did not fit the overall picture of a West-East gap in demographic development. Figure 1: Areas experiencing demographic growth and decline in the periods and Source: own presentation; data from state statistical offices After levelling off in the mids, the decline in the East German population has taken a new plunge, now affecting almost the entire territory.
Interim Conclusion Development in West and East Germany is likely to continue to be strongly polarised. Challenges for Spatial Planning The trends in settlement development described have far-reaching consequences for spatial planning. Overview: Characteristics of growth and decline-oriented planning Growth-oriented planning Decline-oriented planning The focus is on growth, spatial planning as "distribution" of quantitative increases settlement and traffic land, population, jobs, etc.
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The focus is on redevelopment, cost-efficient stock development, stabilisation, revitalisation, qualitative development residential environment, infrastructure, traffic, etc. Building-law and regional-planning tools directed mainly towards new development of land and new construction; infrastructure development as concession and incentive for investment. Importance of derelict land, recycling of land and buildings, differentiated reconversion, adaptation of infrastructure to changed needs. Growth-oriented control land use and constructional development Initiation and organisation of reconversion, rehabilitation, and development with scarce financial resources.
Planning as the basis for distributing growth, separation of spatial functions home, place of work, etc. Planning as management of shrinkage processes, small-scale functional mix. Order-oriented control of land use and constructional development, designation of settlement land, protection of open areas. Strategic planning and integrated concepts, consequence assessment, taking account of life cycle of facilities and demographic changes, model projects, use options, activation, contractual arrangements, efficiency.
Intermunicipal competition residents, industry, etc.
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Intermunicipal cooperation, equalization arrangements, multi-level cooperation, intersectoral coordination. Zeitschriftenartikel - Shrinking Cities - Shrinking Economy? Problematisch allerdings ist die Verquickung von inhaltlicher Priorisierung der Zusammenarbeit auf wirtschaftliche Aspekte auf der einen Seite und der Konditionierung auf Reformbereitschaft auf der anderen.
Es ist durchaus vorstellbar, dass in der Zusammenarbeit zwischen Burkina Faso und Deutschland Direktinvestitionen deutscher Firmen keine zentrale Rolle zukommt. Gleichfalls muss mit Nigeria trotz seiner aus Sicht der bilateralen und multilateralen Geber fehlenden Reformbereitschaft zusammengearbeitet werden, insbesondere wenn es um handelspolitische Fragen und regionale Integration in Afrika geht. Es gibt sie in der Entwicklungspolitik inkl. The particular conditions include the correct indication of the initial publication as GIGA Focus and no changes in or abbreviation of texts.
The views and opinions expressed are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the institute. Authors alone are responsible for the content of their articles. GIGA and the authors cannot be held liable for any errors and omissions, or for any consequences arising from the use of the information provided. Environment and Development Economics , 24, , 2, The Journal of Economic Inequality , 16, , 4, There are good reasons to focus cooperation with Africa on economic development: the increasing income gap between Africa and the rest of the world, the slow structural change on the continent, the lack of productive employment, and too little private and public investment.
This Africa policy needs to be interconnected: it must be multilateral and go well beyond development policy. More policy coherence for economic development in Africa does come at a cost. Policy Implications The implementation of an interconnected policy that emphasises economic development in Africa and an honest and intensive dialogue with Africa requires improved knowledge of the social, economic and political developments on the continent.
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