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A death rate of almost percent can occur in unvaccinated poultry flocks. END can infect and cause death even in vaccinated poultry. END is spread primarily through direct contact between healthy birds and poultry and the bodily discharges of infected birds. Due to the high concentrations of END virus in such bodily discharges, the virus can be spread not only by the movement of infected birds but also by the movement of objects or people bearing discharges containing the virus.
Therefore, the disease is often spread via such vectors as manure haulers, rendering trucks, feed delivery personnel, poultry buyers, egg service people, and poultry farm owners and employees. The END virus can survive for several weeks on birds' feathers, manure, and other organic material. It can survive indefinitely in frozen material. However, the destruction of the virus is accelerated by warm and dry environments and by the ultraviolet rays in sunlight.
In order to make better decisions on how to eradicate END from those areas, we completed several risk assessments and epidemiological investigations in the context of our activities under the regulations. The experience we gained during those outbreaks in enforcing the regulations and conducting the risk assessments and epidemiological investigations illustrated the need for changes in the regulations. Therefore, we are proposing to make several changes to the regulations in order to strengthen our regulations and incorporate changes we identified as necessary during those outbreaks.
These changes are discussed below by topic. Because pet bird owners typically do not practice biosecurity controls as restrictive as those that are practiced at commercial facilities, the individual to whom the permit is issued is required to maintain ownership and control of the birds and maintain them apart from other birds and poultry from the time they arrive at the place to which the individual is taking them until a Federal or State representative examines the birds and determines that the birds show no clinical signs of END.
The regulations provide that the examination must take place no less than 30 days or more after the interstate movement. The individual to whom the permit is issued is also required to allow Federal and State representatives to examine the birds at any time until they are declared free of END and to notify the veterinarian in charge or the State animal health official in the State to which the birds are moved within 24 hours in the event that the birds die or show any clinical signs of END. During the outbreaks of END, many owners of pet birds who had been in control of the pet birds for less than 90 days requested that APHIS allow them to move their pet birds out of the quarantined areas.
Because these individuals had been in control of their pet birds for less than 90 days, these individuals could not fulfill that requirement of the regulations or verify that during the 90 days before movement the birds had shown no clinical signs of sickness and the birds had been maintained away from other birds and poultry in the quarantined area.
However, many of the pet birds in question were not known to be infected with or exposed to END, and no epidemiological evidence indicated that they had been exposed to END or any other communicable disease. We determined that these birds could be moved safely out of the quarantined area if they were moved directly to a USDA-approved quarantine facility for a day quarantine. If no evidence of disease was found during the quarantine period, the pet birds were allowed to move freely after being released from quarantine.
We are proposing to add this option to the regulations so that owners of pet birds within areas quarantined for END will have additional flexibility. Under this proposed option, if pet bird owners choose to move their pet birds to a USDA-approved quarantine facility in order to move them out of an area quarantined for END, they would assume the costs of keeping their pet bird in quarantine for the day period.
In the proposed revision, existing paragraph a 1 would be moved into paragraph a 2 , and a new paragraph a 1 would set out epidemiological and testing requirements for pet birds. These requirements, except for the requirement that epidemiological evidence must indicate that the birds are not infected with any communicable disease, would differ on the basis of whether the bird has been under the control and ownership of the owner for 90 days.
We are also proposing to correct an error in the regulations governing the movement of pet birds. Birds other than poultry are required to be moved to a site approved by the Administrator. Poultry are required to be moved to a recognized slaughtering establishment and must be slaughtered within 24 hours of arrival at such an establishment; the required permit must be presented to a State or Federal representative upon arrival at such an establishment.
During the outbreak of END in California, we found that there existed some confusion about whether the interstate movement from quarantined areas of birds imported for eventual resale as pet birds should be governed by the regulations for the movement of pet birds or the regulations for the movement of other birds and poultry. As noted previously, the regulations require that live poultry moved interstate from an area quarantined for END must be moved to an approved slaughtering establishment and slaughtered within 24 hours of arrival.
For the reasons discussed in the following paragraphs, we are proposing to amend the regulations to place the same requirements on ratites moved interstate from a quarantined area. Surveillance of these birds for infection with END is more difficult than surveillance of poultry. Detection of virus shedding in live ratites is unpredictable.
Tissue samples can provide additional certainty in diagnosing END; however, while the death loss rates in production flocks of poultry mean that tissue samples are normally available for testing, the death loss rates in flocks of ratites are much lower, meaning that tissue samples of ratites may be unavailable. The relative lack of dead ratites for surveillance purposes also means that tests on tissues of dead ratites are less reliable than tests on tissues of dead poultry.
For these reasons, no consensus exists on optimal surveillance techniques for END in live ratites. This means that any determination that ratites to be moved interstate from a quarantined area are not known to be infected with or exposed to END is, at best, uncertain. In addition, it is often difficult to determine whether ratites have been exposed to END; they are mostly maintained in outdoor pens or in backyard flocks, which are often less biologically secure than the facilities in which commercial flocks of poultry are maintained.
Ratites that have been kept in these conditions within a quarantined area may therefore be more likely to have actually been exposed to END than other birds kept under more biologically secure conditions. Finally, ratites typically live in highly concentrated populations, meaning that END could be spread quickly by an infected or exposed ratite moved interstate from a quarantined area.
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Requiring that ratites be moved to slaughter under the same conditions under which live poultry are required to be moved would ensure that the END virus would not be spread through the movement of ratites from quarantined areas. In this proposal, we would replace the current restrictions on the interstate movement of dressed carcasses from birds and poultry from an area quarantined for END with new restrictions based on the restrictions on the importation of birds and poultry from foreign regions where END is considered to exist. Those regulations are found in 9 CFR The current restrictions placed on the movement of dressed carcasses in the regulations do not provide a sufficient level of protection against the possible spread of END from the quarantined area through the movement of dressed carcasses of dead birds and dead poultry.
Although the regulations currently require that dressed carcasses to be moved out of the quarantined area be derived from birds and poultry not known to be infected with END, this restriction may not be sufficient to ensure that END is not present in the dressed carcasses. Birds and poultry not known to be infected with END may still be infected with the virus, because the criteria used to determine whether a bird is known to be infected with or exposed to END do not require that the birds and poultry actually be physically tested for the virus; for example, birds or poultry suffering from presymptomatic stages of END might Start Printed Page not be known to be infected but might be infected nonetheless.
Indeed, the spread of END in dozens of outbreaks of the disease in the United Kingdom was apparently related to feeding uncooked poultry swill to chickens. The END virus can be completely destroyed in meat by exposure to high temperatures such as those necessary to fully cook bird and poultry meat. For this reason, the regulations governing the importation of birds and poultry from foreign regions where END is considered to exist require that carcasses or parts or products of carcasses from poultry or other birds imported into the United States from those regions must either be: Packed in hermetically sealed containers and cooked by a commercial method after packing to produce articles that are shelf-stable without refrigeration, or cooked so that they have a thoroughly cooked appearance throughout, as determined by an inspector.
Carcasses of game birds and carcasses intended for importation to museums, educational establishments, or other establishments from regions where END is considered to exist may be imported into the United States under different conditions; these are discussed later in this document. Section In addition, under the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, APHIS must apply the same movement restrictions on both foreign and domestic commodities from regions where an animal disease is present, under the principle of national treatment.
The regulations on the movement of dressed carcasses from areas in the United States that have been quarantined for END have been less restrictive than the regulations on the movement of dressed carcasses from foreign regions where END is considered to exist. Applying the same restrictions to these commodities allows APHIS to meet its obligations under international trade agreements while reducing the risk that END could spread from a quarantined area through the movement of dressed carcasses.
Processing establishments in the United States are constructed on the assumption that non-endemic diseases such as END will not be present; prohibiting these establishments from receiving live poultry, as we prohibit processing establishments in regions outside the United States where END is known to exist from receiving live poultry, would disrupt established business practices.
If complete separation between the slaughter portion of the establishment and the portions of the establishment in which further processing takes place can be achieved, we believe dressed carcasses can be processed safely in an establishment within a quarantined area that receives live poultry.
We believe it is likely that any dead birds and dead poultry that might be required by a museum, educational institution, or other establishment in the United States would be available from a nonquarantined area within the United States. This paragraph has allowed the carcasses of game birds to be imported into the United States as long as they are eviscerated and their heads and feet have been removed.
For reasons discussed above, the importation of such carcasses poses a high risk of introducing END into the United States. We are proposing to amend these regulations to allow any other treatment judged by the Administrator to be Start Printed Page adequate to prevent the dissemination of END to be used to treat manure generated by and litter used by birds or poultry not known to be infected with END, as an alternative to the heat treatment that has been required by the regulations. Some composting techniques are also effective at killing the END virus and could be used in place of heat treatment to ensure that manure and litter moved interstate from a quarantined area is not contaminated with the END virus.
Occasionally, site-specific treatments may be appropriate. For example, premises not known to be infected with END in counties in California, Arizona, and Nevada that were quarantined as of March 5, , could safely ship manure or litter that had been stored for more than 90 days on the premises; we determined that those commodities had been adequately heated to kill the END virus, based on average daily temperatures in those counties.
Providing that other equally effective options can be used as an alternative to the heat treatment specified by the regulations would benefit both producers in quarantined areas, who may be able to use different treatments to comply with quarantine restrictions on the interstate movement of manure and litter at less cost, and quarantine authorities, who could see increased compliance with the quarantine regulations if lower cost options are available.
Therefore, we are proposing to amend the regulations to provide that manure generated by and litter used by birds or poultry not known to be infected with END that is to be moved interstate from a quarantined area may be treated either with the heat treatment described above or with any other treatment approved by the Administrator as being adequate to prevent the dissemination of END. This change would give persons who wish to move manure and litter interstate from quarantined areas more flexibility while continuing to ensure that manure generated by and litter used by birds or poultry not known to be infected with END that is moved interstate is not contaminated with the END virus.
However, we have determined that, under certain conditions, compost generated from manure generated by or litter used by END-infected flocks may be safely moved interstate from quarantined areas. The conditions under which manure and litter from END-infected flocks would be allowed to move interstate from quarantined areas are:.
Leaving the composted manure or litter undisturbed during two lengthy periods allows the END virus to die out in the environment; the END virus can only survive without host material for a limited length of time. This addition would give owners of infected flocks an additional option for disposal of their manure and litter while ensuring that END is not spread to nonquarantined areas via the interstate movement of composted manure and litter from END-infected flocks.
While these safeguards are essential to ensuring that eggs, other than hatching eggs, from flocks not known to be infected with END can be moved interstate without spreading END from the quarantined area, they do not fully address the risks that may arise at the processing plants that prepare the eggs for eventual sale. Processing plants accepting eggs, other than hatching eggs, under these regulations typically accept eggs from both quarantined areas and Start Printed Page nonquarantined areas and, once the eggs have been processed, send them to destinations both within and outside the quarantined area.
In addition, some processing plants have facilities in which poultry lay eggs onsite, meaning that eggs, other than hatching eggs, that are contaminated with END and are not properly handled could expose live poultry to the virus. As described previously, END can be transmitted in many ways, and the virus can survive on the surface of eggshells for extended periods.
We believe that risks of transmission of END at plants that process eggs, other than hatching eggs, from flocks not known to be infected with END within a quarantined area should be addressed by the regulations. Therefore, we would revise paragraph a 3 to set out the following standards for processing plants:. Requiring that these standards be met in processing plants would assist quarantine authorities in ensuring that eggs are processed safely while continuing to allow the interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from flocks not known to be infected with END. The National Poultry Improvement Plan's standards are developed by Federal and State officials working with industry representatives and are widely accepted among poultry producers.
Requiring that these sanitation procedures be followed would provide further protection against transmission of END from the quarantine zone via hatching eggs moved interstate from the quarantine zone. We are proposing to amend these regulations to indicate that, as an alternative to the composting procedures that has been mandated by the regulations, any treatment judged by the Administrator to be adequate to prevent the dissemination of END may be used to treat the relevant materials. The procedures for composting that are described in this section are effective at eliminating END virus from birds and poultry and from manure and litter.
This change would provide flockowners with additional flexibility as they attempt to comply with the requirements to be removed from quarantine. The need for an additional surveillance Start Printed Page period is also recognized in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organization for Animal Health, which is recognized by the World Trade Organization as an international standards-setting organization for animal health.
The Code states that a country that eradicates END should only be considered free of END 6 months after the last affected animal is slaughtered. This proposed rule has been reviewed under Executive Order The rule has been determined to be not significant for the purposes of Executive Order and, therefore, has not been reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget. We are proposing several changes to the END domestic quarantine regulations, including adding an option for the movement of pet birds; harmonizing the domestic and foreign regulations regarding the movement of dressed carcasses of dead birds and dead poultry; adding restrictions on the interstate movement of ratites out of quarantined areas; providing for the use of alternative procedures for treating manure and litter and for composting; and adding an additional surveillance period after the conditions for removing quarantine are met before quarantine is removed.
We have determined that these changes are necessary based on our experiences during the eradication programs for the recent outbreaks of END in California, Arizona, Nevada, and Texas. These changes would help to ensure that END does not spread from quarantined areas and that END is eradicated within quarantined areas. Exotic Newcastle disease END , also known as velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease, is a highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting all species of birds.
As it is one of the most infectious and virulent diseases of poultry in the world, END results in many birds dying before demonstrating any clinical signs. In unvaccinated poultry flocks, END has a death rate of close to percent. Moreover, the mortality rates in vaccinated flocks are 10 to 20 percent, clearly showing that vaccination does not guarantee protection against END. END affects the respiratory, nervous, and digestive systems of birds. After an incubation period of 2 to 15 days, an infected bird may show any of the following signs: Respiratory effects such as sneezing, gasping for air, nasal discharge, and coughing; digestive effects such as greenish, watery diarrhea; upsets in the nervous system such as depression, muscular tremors, drooping wings, twisting of the head and neck, circling, and complete paralysis; drop in egg production; production of thin-shelled eggs; swelling of tissue around eyes and neck; and death.
As mentioned before, not all birds demonstrate clinical signs before dying, and some pet birds, such as parrots, may shed the virus for more than a year without showing any of the common clinical signs. The virus is spread primarily through direct contact between healthy birds and the bodily discharges, such as fecal material or nose, mouth, and eye secretions, of infected birds.
Not surprisingly, the closer the physical proximity of birds the more rapidly END spreads, clearly posing a significant threat to the commercial poultry industry. END is also effectively spread by means of indirect contact. For instance, virus-bearing material can be picked up on shoes and clothing of laborers in the poultry industry and transported from an infected flock to a healthy one. Considering birds can still shed the disease while not exhibiting signs, the opportunity to spread END by means of indirect contact represents a real hazard.
The outbreak was traced to game birds and pheasants imported from Hong Kong. The disease spread to five poultry farms in Contra Costa County, but it was quickly eliminated by destroying infected chickens. In , a major outbreak of END occurred in California commercial poultry and lasted for 2 years. As a result of that outbreak, 1, infected flocks were identified, and almost 12 million birds were destroyed.
The disease spread from backyard poultry to commercial poultry operations in California, backyard poultry in Nevada and Arizona, and poultry in Texas and New Mexico. At last count, almost 4 million birds were destroyed to contain the spread of END. The proposed changes to the END regulations would have an effect on all persons and entities handling birds of any type, including farm and commercial operations, backyard flock owners and enthusiasts, and pet bird owners in an END quarantined area wishing to engage in interstate movement.
While accurate statistics on farm and commercial operations in the United States are readily available, there is a significant information gap on the backyard flocks and pet bird owners. As such, we have no way of quantifying the true number of persons who would be affected by these changes.
The United States is the world's largest producer of poultry meat and the second-largest egg producer behind China. Preliminary reports for the year indicate there were a total of In the year , broiler production, raised for the purpose of meat production, totaled 8. In , the date of the last full report available, there were a total of In , turkey production totaled over million birds with a combined live weight of 7. The U. In fact, the United States is the world's largest exporter of both broilers and turkey products.
In , broiler exports totaled 4. In addition, 41 million dozen shell eggs for consumption and 59 million dozen of egg products, on an egg-equivalent Start Printed Page basis, were exported in By extension, any efforts made to contain and prevent the spread of END throughout the United States would serve to enhance our reputation for providing high-quality products. Thus, the proposed changes would benefit the commercial poultry industry in the event of an outbreak by increasing product marketability, both domestically and internationally.
These proposed changes would also impact the movement of ratites out of a quarantined area. Ratites are a family of flightless birds with small wings and flat breastbones. Most important of the ratite family are ostriches, emus, and rheas. This industry is still in its infancy, so new in fact that ratites have only been under mandatory USDA inspection since April 22, Ostrich was the first ratite to be raised in the United States.
As of February , there were about 1, ostrich growers in the United States raising about , birds. Emu are now raised in at least 43 States by about 10, families 3, in Texas, with a total emu population of about a million. Rheas are the newest farm-raised ratite, but at over 15, birds, the United States has the largest population of farmed rheas.
The ratite family of birds is approximately 95 percent usable for such marketable products as leather, feathers, meat, and oil. Ratite oil is being produced for niche cosmetic markets and the hides are usually set aside for more expensive garments. Ratite meat is a small industry, with only a small amount being sold to some higher scale restaurants and markets. Though the meat is more expensive than beef, pork, chicken and turkey, the future price of ratite meat is projected to decrease as the quantity becomes more widely available. In addition, as the very nature of the ratite industry is in its infancy, we can be safe in assuming the majority of ratite farms are small entities.
Furthermore, it is important to note that regulations will affect backyard poultry not kept for commercial sale and pet owners in the quarantined area, the numbers of which are indeterminate. Although the specific numbers of persons in this category are unknown, we feel safe in determining that the impact of this proposal would not be significant as it only affects those constituents located within a quarantined area for the limited time the quarantine is actually in place.
The remainder of this analysis will consider each of the major proposed changes individually and examine the expected benefits and costs. The proposed rule would add a new option to allow pet birds, except those that are imported for eventual resale as pets, that have been in the owner's control for less than 90 days to be moved out of the quarantined area if they enter a day quarantine at a USDA quarantine station outside of the quarantined area and meet all other requirements for movement. Entering into this quarantine station is voluntary and is meant to increase the flexibility for pet owners who have been in control of their pet birds for less than 90 days.
Hence, it is safe to assume the cost of entering the facility would not be significant to those pet owners that decide to do so. While that does pose an expense to pet owners, in light of the benefits of greater flexibility and protection from destruction, it is safe to assume the cost is acceptable for those pet owners that would decide to enter their birds into the USDA facility.
Current regulations require that commercial birds be imported from and into biologically secure facilities. As such, birds imported for eventual resale as pets have already met the necessary requirements to be determined free of END. The proposed amendment is more of a clarification rather than an actual change in movement requirements. Generally, END regulations governing pet birds are more restrictive than for other birds due to the fact that there are fewer biological security measures in place, and pet birds are thus more vulnerable to contracting and spreading END.
Ratites have a tendency to be housed in outdoor pens or backyard flocks, thereby making surveillance of END for these birds more difficult. Also, virus detection techniques that are widely used to detect END were inconclusive when used on ratites. Combined, this creates a situation where infection of ratites in a quarantined area is highly possible and detection is uncertain, thus increasing the risk for widespread END dissemination.
Previously, ratites not known to be infected with or exposed to END were allowed to move interstate as long as they were accompanied by a permit. Coupled with the knowledge that epidemiological tests of END were inconclusive in ratites, this created a situation where widespread dissemination of END was highly possible. In situations where ratites were thought to be exposed to END, these flocks were depopulated and the owners were paid indemnities based on current market values. While this regulation change would place restrictions on movement of ratites where there previously were none, we do not believe the economic impacts of this proposed change would be significant.
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Even though all movement of ratites must be directly to slaughter, considering the many marketable products of ratites such as leather, feathers, meat and oil, slaughtering these birds continues to allow owners the opportunity to market these products. Essentially, the proposed change seeks to increase biological security measures by restricting movement of ratites in a quarantined area. We do not expect that the Start Printed Page economic impacts to affected producers would be significant.
We welcome public comment from ratite owners on what the expected costs of conforming to this change would entail. The principal effect of this proposed change would be to prohibit any movement of uncooked bird or poultry meat out of a quarantined area.
Only meat that has both been packed in hermetically sealed containers and cooked by a commercial method after packing to produce articles that are shelf-stable without refrigeration, or cooked so that it has a thoroughly cooked appearance throughout, would be allowed to move from the quarantined area. Current regulations, which do not require sealing and commercial cooking, do not provide a sufficient level of protection against the spread of END.
The cost burdens of these proposed changes would be fairly obvious for those producers in a quarantined area engaged in the interstate movement of dead birds and poultry. These costs would vary by producer.
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We do not anticipate that these costs would significantly impact producers, the majority of which are small entities. We welcome public comment on what these costs would entail. Rather than risk the invasion of residential neighborhoods by evicted exotic dancers, transvestites, and prostitutes, the City chose to contain the sex industry within two derelict downtown blocks. And not merely legal regulations: the social taxonomies of gender and sexuality that governed everyday life in Boston were upended in the Zone.
Participants could explore illicit desires and alien identities, sheltered by the anonymous indulgence granted by an otherwise often dangerous space. But the downfall of the Combat Zone was real estate, not murder: In the emerging economic boom, the City suddenly realized that some of its most valuable land was occupied by its least valued citizens. For the second time in thirty years, Boston demolished its adult entertainment district. Luxury condominium towers rose from the rubble, but Bostonians retain the memory of the erotic possibilities the Zone extended to performers and customers alike.
It even included a nod, of sorts, to local history. The distance between Princess Cheyenne and Priscilla Alden might not have been as great as one might think. On a Universal Hub chat board, one former denizen wrote: Oh the fond memories of the Zone! Society the poorer for the passing of this art form. We wanted to add that spirit into the design. In the early s the City took over Scollay Square through eminent domain. By the end of the s, the neighborhood, like its predecessor, was considered blighted.
A number of proposals for urban redevelopment called for the elimination of the Zone, but the memory of Scollay Square caused fears that the evicted businesses would simply reopen elsewhere, infecting middle- and upper class city neighborhoods. Rather than fight the adult entertainment industry, the city decided instead to control it—to draw a legal boundary around the Zone that would strengthen its more porous social and commercial borders, thereby protecting the rest of the city from potential contamination.
Coty Lee, a celebrated dancer in the early days of the Zone, told photographer Roswell Angier: I love the theatre [. All the spit on the stage, you know, to commemorate the fact that some star once played here, and you prancing around in your new costume. But they often had a quality of sacredness. At some point during their fifteen minutes on stage, if it was a good night, you could feel a palpable shifting in the air. The spotlight would go to a dim magenta, and for the noisy kids, the working- class men who would go home to their wives, the old men with raincoats piled loosely in their laps, and the stray expense account nomads with no place else left to go, the lady onstage became a wild animal queen.
Her arms flailed, her back and torso undulated, her head swung as if disconnected from her body. Shaking with a rhythmic force, she maintained a firmly grounded stance, not so much dancing as allowing movement to pass through her. It was no ordinary striptease.
Pounding the floor with strong feet, punching the air with clenched fists, she was a tribal dancer performing a ritual dance of female sexuality. Each dancer developed a unique movement vocabulary and style, developing idiosyncratic varieties of sensuality and femininity—some more idiosyncratic than others.
Machine Gun Kelly emerged from a coffin, eponymous weapon in hand. Not all the bodily fluids on stage were simulated, as one customer recalled: I spent the rest of the night there, drinking more. One dancer was lactating and she constantly sprayed her milk all over me and others as she was dancing. I mean, she was shooting streams and gobs of breast milk all over the freaking place.
For some drunken reason, I was loving it. At that time, for me, I lived for the kink. You know, rent this gorilla suit and put pasties and a g-string and a gown over it, and a long feather boa. Her identity, other than that of performer, is erased in service of providing pleasure, in keeping with her fetishistic function within the society. In contrast, women performance artists expose their bodies to reclaim them, to assert their own pleasure and sexuality, thus denying the fetishistic pursuit to the point of creating a genuine threat to male hegemonic structures of women.
The economic structure of striptease is often cited as a crucial demarcation from other modes of performance. Although, unlike contemporary exotic dancers, strippers in the ss were often paid some sort of weekly wage, they still depended on compensation from viewers to earn a living. The directness of this exchange makes the dancer complicit in the commodification of her own performance, implicating her as a willing cog in the capitalist machine.
However, even cogs can creak and groan, and sex workers and strippers can deploy their performances as simultaneously profitable and defiant.