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  5. NS4552: Fundamentals for Policing

NS Fundamentals for Policing. NS Fundamentals for Policing Please note this module descriptor is indicative of the structure of this course and may be subject to change. Introduction to criminology : What is crime; theoretical perspectives; forms of crime; responses to crime, victims and victimisation, politics of law and order Learning Outcomes A student passing this module should be able to: 1. Recognise the relationship between policing and criminology and vice versa.

What are Course Maps and Module Descriptors? Course Maps A course map contains a list of the individual study units, called modules, that you study to complete your course. Module Descriptors A module is a self-contained, individual unit of study. Course Resources Archive Course maps and module descriptors from previous years can be found in the Course Resources Archive. Email us Contact our enquiries team.

Fees and funding Find out more about fees, funding options and ways to pay. Clearing places available now Call us: View larger map. Police development-aid to weak, failed or failing states is another form of transnational policing that has garnered attention. This form of transnational policing plays an increasingly important role in United Nations peacekeeping and this looks set to grow in the years ahead, especially as the international community seeks to develop the rule of law and reform security institutions in States recovering from conflict Goldsmith and Sheptycki, [73] With transnational police development-aid the imbalances of power between donors and recipients are stark and there are questions about the applicability and transportability of policing models between jurisdictions Hills, Perhaps the greatest question regarding the future development of transnational policing is: in whose interest is it?

At a more practical level, the question translates into one about how to make transnational policing institutions democratically accountable Sheptycki, In many jurisdictions, police officers carry firearms , primarily handguns, in the normal course of their duties. In the United Kingdom except Northern Ireland , Iceland, Ireland, Norway, New Zealand, [77] and Malta, with the exception of specialist units, officers do not carry firearms as a matter of course.

Police often have specialist units for handling armed offenders, and similar dangerous situations, and can depending on local laws , in some extreme circumstances, call on the military since Military Aid to the Civil Power is a role of many armed forces. Perhaps the most high-profile example of this was, in the Metropolitan Police handing control of the Iranian Embassy Siege to the Special Air Service. They can also be armed with non-lethal more accurately known as "less than lethal" or "less-lethal" weaponry, particularly for riot control. Non-lethal weapons include batons , tear gas , riot control agents , rubber bullets , riot shields , water cannons and electroshock weapons.

Police officers often carry handcuffs to restrain suspects. The use of firearms or deadly force is typically a last resort only to be used when necessary to save human life, although some jurisdictions such as Brazil allow its use against fleeing felons and escaped convicts. A "shoot-to-kill" policy was recently introduced in South Africa , which allows police to use deadly force against any person who poses a significant threat to them or civilians. Modern police forces make extensive use of two-way radio communications equipment, carried both on the person and installed in vehicles, to co-ordinate their work, share information, and get help quickly.

In recent years, vehicle-installed mobile data terminals have enhanced the ability of police communications, enabling easier dispatching of calls, criminal background checks on persons of interest to be completed in a matter of seconds, and updating officers' daily activity log and other, required reports on a real-time basis.


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Some police departments have developed advanced computerized data display and communication systems to bring real time data to officers, one example being the NYPD's Domain Awareness System. Police vehicles are used for detaining, patrolling and transporting. The average police patrol vehicle is a specially modified, four door sedan saloon in British English.

Police vehicles are usually marked with appropriate logos and are equipped with sirens and flashing light bars to aid in making others aware of police presence. Unmarked vehicles are used primarily for sting operations or apprehending criminals without alerting them to their presence. Some police forces use unmarked or minimally marked cars for traffic law enforcement, since drivers slow down at the sight of marked police vehicles and unmarked vehicles make it easier for officers to catch speeders and traffic violators. This practice is controversial, with for example, New York State banning this practice in on the grounds that it endangered motorists who might be pulled over by people impersonating police officers.

Motorcycles are also commonly used, particularly in locations that a car may not be able to reach, to control potential public order situations involving meetings of motorcyclists and often in escort duties where motorcycle police officers can quickly clear a path for escorted vehicles. Bicycle patrols are used in some areas because they allow for more open interaction with the public. In addition, their quieter operation can facilitate approaching suspects unawares and can help in pursuing them attempting to escape on foot. Police forces use an array of specialty vehicles such as helicopters, airplanes, watercraft, mobile command posts, vans, trucks, all-terrain vehicles, motorcycles, and armored vehicles.

Police cars may also contain fire extinguishers [81] [82] or defibrillators. The advent of the police car, two-way radio , and telephone in the early 20th century transformed policing into a reactive strategy that focused on responding to calls for service. In the United States, August Vollmer introduced other reforms, including education requirements for police officers. Wilson , a student of Vollmer, helped reduce corruption and introduce professionalism in Wichita, Kansas , and later in the Chicago Police Department.

Wilson included rotating officers from community to community to reduce their vulnerability to corruption, establishing of a non-partisan police board to help govern the police force, a strict merit system for promotions within the department, and an aggressive recruiting drive with higher police salaries to attract professionally qualified officers. The Kansas City Preventive Patrol study in the early s showed flaws in this strategy. It found that aimless car patrols did little to deter crime and often went unnoticed by the public. Patrol officers in cars had insufficient contact and interaction with the community, leading to a social rift between the two.

Broken windows' policing was another, related approach introduced in the s by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling , who suggested that police should pay greater attention to minor "quality of life" offenses and disorderly conduct. The concept behind this method is simple: broken windows, graffiti, and other physical destruction or degradation of property create an environment in which crime and disorder is more likely.

The presence of broken windows and graffiti sends a message that authorities do not care and are not trying to correct problems in these areas. Therefore, correcting these small problems prevents more serious criminal activity. Building upon these earlier models, intelligence-led policing has also become an important strategy. Intelligence-led policing and problem-oriented policing are complementary strategies, both of which involve systematic use of information.

A related development is evidence-based policing. In a similar vein to evidence-based policy , evidence-based policing is the use of controlled experiments to find which methods of policing are more effective. Leading advocates of evidence-based policing include the criminologist Lawrence W.

Sherman and philanthropist Jerry Lee. Findings from controlled experiments include the Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment , [93] evidence that patrols deter crime if they are concentrated in crime hotspots [94] and that restricting police powers to shoot suspects does not cause an increase in crime or violence against police officers.

In many nations, criminal procedure law has been developed to regulate officers' discretion, so that they do not arbitrarily or unjustly exercise their powers of arrest , search and seizure , and use of force.

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In the United States, Miranda v. Arizona led to the widespread use of Miranda warnings or constitutional warnings. In Miranda the court created safeguards against self-incriminating statements made after an arrest. The court held that "The prosecution may not use statements, whether exculpatory or inculpatory, stemming from questioning initiated by law enforcement officers after a person has been taken into custody or otherwise deprived of his freedom of action in any significant way, unless it demonstrates the use of procedural safeguards effective to secure the Fifth Amendment's privilege against self-incrimination" [96].

Police in the United States are also prohibited from holding criminal suspects for more than a reasonable amount of time usually 24—48 hours before arraignment , using torture , abuse or physical threats to extract confessions , using excessive force to effect an arrest, and searching suspects' bodies or their homes without a warrant obtained upon a showing of probable cause.

The four exceptions to the constitutional requirement of a search warrant are:. In Terry v. Ohio the court divided seizure into two parts, the investigatory stop and arrest.

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The court further held that during an investigatory stop a police officer's search " [is] confined to what [is] minimally necessary to determine whether [a suspect] is armed, and the intrusion, which [is] made for the sole purpose of protecting himself and others nearby, [is] confined to ascertaining the presence of weapons" U. Supreme Court. Before Terry, every police encounter constituted an arrest, giving the police officer the full range of search authority.

Search authority during a Terry stop investigatory stop is limited to weapons only. Using deception for confessions is permitted, but not coercion.

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There are exceptions or exigent circumstances such as an articulated need to disarm a suspect or searching a suspect who has already been arrested Search Incident to an Arrest. British police officers are governed by similar rules, such as those introduced to England and Wales under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act PACE , but generally have greater powers. They may, for example, legally search any suspect who has been arrested, or their vehicles, home or business premises, without a warrant, and may seize anything they find in a search as evidence.

All police officers in the United Kingdom, whatever their actual rank, are 'constables' in terms of their legal position. This means that a newly appointed constable has the same arrest powers as a Chief Constable or Commissioner. However, certain higher ranks have additional powers to authorize certain aspects of police operations, such as a power to authorize a search of a suspect's house section 18 PACE in England and Wales by an officer of the rank of Inspector, or the power to authorize a suspect's detention beyond 24 hours by a Superintendent.

Police services commonly include units for investigating crimes committed by the police themselves. These units are typically called Inspectorate-General, or in the US, " internal affairs ". In some countries separate organizations outside the police exist for such purposes, such as the British Independent Office for Police Conduct. Likewise, some state and local jurisdictions, for example, Springfield, Illinois [98] have similar outside review organizations. The Police Service of Northern Ireland is investigated by the Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland , an external agency set up as a result of the Patten report into policing the province.

The Special Investigations Unit of Ontario , Canada , is one of only a few civilian agencies around the world responsible for investigating circumstances involving police and civilians that have resulted in a death, serious injury, or allegations of sexual assault. The agency has made allegations of insufficient cooperation from various police services hindering their investigations. In Hong Kong , any allegations of corruption within the police will be investigated by the Independent Commission Against Corruption and the Independent Police Complaints Council , two agencies which are independent of the police force.

Due to a long-term decline in public confidence for law enforcement in the United States, body cameras worn by police officers are under consideration. Police forces also find themselves under criticism for their use of force, particularly deadly force. Specifically, tension increases when a police officer of one ethnic group harms or kills a suspect of another one. In the United States since the s, concern over such issues has increasingly weighed upon law enforcement agencies, courts and legislatures at every level of government.

Incidents such as the Watts Riots , the videotaped beating by Los Angeles Police officers of Rodney King , and the riot following their acquittal have been suggested by some people to be evidence that U. The fact that this trend has occurred contemporaneously with the rise of the civil rights movement , the " War on Drugs ", and a precipitous rise in violent crime from the s to the s has made questions surrounding the role, administration and scope of police authority increasingly complicated.


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Police departments and the local governments that oversee them in some jurisdictions have attempted to mitigate some of these issues through community outreach programs and community policing to make the police more accessible to the concerns of local communities, by working to increase hiring diversity, by updating training of police in their responsibilities to the community and under the law, and by increased oversight within the department or by civilian commissions.

In cases in which such measures have been lacking or absent, civil lawsuits have been brought by the United States Department of Justice against local law enforcement agencies, authorized under the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act. This has compelled local departments to make organizational changes, enter into consent decree settlements to adopt such measures, and submit to oversight by the Justice Department.

Since , the Supreme Court of the United States has consistently ruled that law enforcement officers have no duty to protect any individual, despite the motto "protect and serve". Their duty is to enforce the law in general. The first such case was in South v. Text and the most recent in Town of Castle Rock v.

In contrast, the police are entitled to protect private rights in some jurisdictions. To ensure that the police would not interfere in the regular competencies of the courts of law, some police acts require that the police may only interfere in such cases where protection from courts cannot be obtained in time, and where, without interference of the police, the realization of the private right would be impeded. In addition, there are Federal law enforcement agencies in the United States whose mission includes providing protection for executives such as the President and accompanying family members, visiting foreign dignitaries, and other high-ranking individuals.

Police forces are usually organized and funded by some level of government. The level of government responsible for policing varies from place to place, and may be at the national, regional or local level. Some countries have police forces that serve the same territory, with their jurisdiction depending on the type of crime or other circumstances. In some places with multiple national police forces, one common arrangement is to have a civilian police force and a paramilitary gendarmerie , such as the Police Nationale and National Gendarmerie in France.

In both France and Spain, the civilian force polices urban areas and the paramilitary force polices rural areas. Italy has a similar arrangement with the Polizia di Stato and Carabinieri , though their jurisdictions overlap more. Some countries have separate agencies for uniformed police and detectives, such as the Military Police and Civil Police in Brazil and the Carabineros and Investigations Police in Chile.

Other countries have sub-national police forces, but for the most part their jurisdictions do not overlap. In many countries, especially federations , there may be two or more tiers of police force, each serving different levels of government and enforcing different subsets of the law. In Australia and Germany , the majority of policing is carried out by state i.

Though not a federation, the United Kingdom has a similar arrangement, where policing is primarily the responsibility of a regional police force and specialist units exist at the national level. In Canada , the Royal Canadian Mounted Police RCMP are the federal police, while municipalities can decide whether to run a local police service or to contract local policing duties to a larger one. Most urban areas have a local police service, while most rural areas contract it to the RCMP, or to the provincial police in Ontario and Quebec.

The United States has a highly decentralized and fragmented system of law enforcement, with over 17, state and local law enforcement agencies. Federal agencies, such as the FBI , only have jurisdiction over federal crimes or those that involve more than one state. Other federal agencies have jurisdiction over a specific type of crime. Examples include the Federal Protective Service , which patrols and protects government buildings; the postal police , which protect postal buildings, vehicles and items; the Park Police , which protect national parks; and Amtrak Police , which patrol Amtrak stations and trains.

There are also some government agencies that perform police functions in addition to other duties, such as the Coast Guard. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about law enforcement organizations. For officers of such organizations, see Police officer. For the British-American rock band, see The Police.

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For the town, see Police, West Pomeranian Voivodeship. For other uses, see Police disambiguation. For other uses, see Department of Police disambiguation. For the Indian film, see City Police film. Law enforcement body. Main article: History of criminal justice. Main article: Law enforcement in Australia. Main article: Law enforcement in Brazil.

Main article: Law enforcement in Canada. Main article: Law enforcement in the United States. Main article: Police transport. Main article: Police misconduct. Main article: Law enforcement by country. Policy Studies Institute. Retrieved Armed Forces in Law Enforcement Operations? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Lexington, MT: Lexington Books. Pluto Press. Thomson Wadsworth. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 4 February University of California, Davis. Archived from the original on Security Journal. Hall A History of Police in England and Wales.

John Podmore. Andrew Keogh. Unlocking Criminal Law. Tony Storey. Evidence Lawcards English Legal System. Law for Student Police Officers. Jonathan Merritt. A Practical Approach to Criminal Procedure. John Sprack. The Crime Writers Casebook. Stephen Wade. Course Notes: Criminal Law. Lisa Cherkassky. Crime and Society in England, — Clive Emsley. Paul Ozin. Public Order: Law and Practice. John Beggs QC.

Mike Molan. Safeguarding Adults and the Law. Michael Mandelstam. Prison Architecture. Leslie Fairweather. Human Rights. Peter Halstead. Police Law. Richard Card. Anthony Chadwick. Law Express: Evidence. Chris Taylor. Blackstone's Custody Officers' Manual. Huw Smart. David Ormerod. Law of Evidence.

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Helen Fenwick. Modern Criminal Law of Australia. Jeremy Gans. Evidence: Law and Context.

The Future of Policing – Challenge and Opportunity - Simon O'Rourke - TEDxFulbrightPerth

Jonathan Doak. The Law of Entry, Search, and Seizure. Richard Stone. Blackstone's Policing for the Special Constable. Bryn Caless. Rant on the Court Martial and Service Law. HHJ Jeff Blackett. The Happy Lawyer. Nancy Levit.