The slow introduction bb. It is more plausible instead that both partook of a common practice, used in symphonies as well as in string quartets. The most striking is a phenomenon identified by two scholars simultaneously. Seiffert described a characteristic method of structural period building by Mozart with the term Absatzformel : harmonic organization between sections in sonata form movements is achieved by semi cadences, clearly separated from the next section usually by a rest and highlighted by the use of formula-like signs.
Later, for instance in the recapitulation, the same caesura is followed by the tonic instead of the dominant. With regard to the harmonic progression in the exposition and recapitulation of sonata-form movements, Seiffert lists three types of Absatzformeln : Mozart, String Quartet in F major, K. Carl Friedrich Abel, Quartett [ i ] del Sig.
Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi, Sei Quartetti per Clavicembalo, due Violini e Violoncello … London, : quartet in C major, first movement; in B flat major, first movement; in D major, first movement all Absatzformel type 2. Anton Kammel, Quartett [ o ] del Sig. Hammell [ sic ] copies of Six Quartettos for two Violins, a Tenor, and Violoncello obligato, opera IV London, : quartet in D major, first movement; in A major, first movement; in C major, first movement; in B flat major, first and second movements all Absatzformel type 1.
Giuseppe Michl : quartet in B flat major, first movement Absatzformel type 2.
Giovanni Mosel, Quartetti : quartet in D major, second movement; in B flat major, first movement both Absatzformel type 1. Cirri, String Quartet in E flat major, 1st mvt. As mentioned above, with their four movements and further details coda-forms, for instance they are also related to a German-Austrian tradition.
Above and beyond the undisputed qualities of his Op. By way of illustration, it may be helpful to take a closer look at a few specific examples:. Haydn, String Quartet in B minor, Op. Mozart, String Quartet in G major, K. Mozart, String Quartet in B flat major, K. Mozart, String Quartet in E flat major, K. Mozart seems not to have made use of such procedures before. This cannot be taken for granted, since linguistic and musical accentuation must coincide. This is also a typical feature of the Milanese first-movement Allegros K. By contrast, in his Viennese series we find quinario declamation more often in the slow movements, for instance at the beginning of the third movement of K.
Giovanni Carli Ballola Milan, Pugnani, String Quartet in E flat major, 4th mvt. Menuetto Grazioso , first part of the minuet, bb. Mozart proceeded similarly in the finale minuets the last of three movements of his Milanese quartets in G major K. Although with fifty-two bars it is shorter than his Milanese finale minuets, it shows a short contrasting motif in the dominant key area bb. This motif is varied in the development section bb.
Similarly built is the Menuetto of the string quartet in C major K. So when Mozart, in the third movement of his G major quartet K. Both the declamation style and the sonata form minuet are witnesses to the continued existence of Italian practice in these works. The last part of this article will consider the formal implications of these experiences. In his Elementi teorico-pratici di musica 2 vols. Secondo motivo Uscita di tono Passo caratteristico, o Passo di mezzo Periodo di cadenza Coda Galeazzi, Elementi teorico-pratici della musica , ii Rome, , table 7, example 1, first part exposition.
As Galeazzi apparently did not know Mozart, we may assume that his description is based on Italian compositions and that Mozart was closer to this practice than Haydn was. A striking example is the first of the Milanese quartets, K. In the recapitulation this part is augmented to twelve bars bb. Harmonically, this new motif is integrated into the transitional process, comparable to K. In the transition, Haydn usually works with material from the first motif. Table 3 presents an overview of the expositions in the first movements of Op. T able 3 Expositions in first movements in Haydn's Op.
Haydn Op. Details of these overviews may be open to discussion. This new theme leads directly into a series of cadential bars bb. The five chromatic crotchets in bars —4 serve as a very short codetta. Obviously, the contrast of fugal and galant style within the same movement is integrated in a conventional sonata-form exposition as described by Galeazzi.
This is continued in the development and recapitulation. The first part bb. After sixty-seven bars bb. His response, however, seems to have been much more pluralistic in inspiration than hitherto assumed. This should not be at all surprising. Traditional readings, especially of his motivic work in the widest sense, do not represent the whole picture. In the context of this cultural-historical construction, as momentous as it was tenacious, Mozart had to learn from Haydn, or at least from a mainly Viennese or German-Austrian tradition. Wegman Princeton in the wording of this article as well as the insightful comments by the anonymous reviewers.
Mozart Piano Sonatas / G. Henle Verlag
Georg Feder and Sonja Gerlach Werke, ser. Examples 2 b , 3 b , 11—14, and 16 a are quoted from Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Streichquartette , ii, ed. Ludwig Finscher Neue Mozart-Ausgabe, ser. Examples 6 and 15 are quoted from Mozart, Streichquartette , i, ed. Abel, Carl Friedrich, Quartett [ i ] del Sig. Carlo Federico Abel. Barbici, Michele, 12 Quartetti.
Brussels, Koninklijk Conservatorium Brussel, Bibliotheek, Antonio de Almeida Diletto Musicale, ; Vienna, Brunetti, Gaetano, Nine Symphonies , ed. Newell Jenkins The Symphony, —; ser. A, vol.
Modena, Biblioteca Estense, Mus. Horst Heussner Diletto Musicale 94—5, —20, —9; Vienna, — III , ed. Guglielmi, Pietro Alessandro, Quartetto 4 del Sig. Pietro Guglielmi. Kammel, Anton, Quartett [ o ] del Sig. Hammell [ sic ]. Giuseppe Michl. Rutini, Giovanni Marco, Sonate per pianoforte , ed. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account.
Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Rainer Kleinertz. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. The first to identify any analytical detail that might demonstrate a qualitative leap in Op. As the quartets Op. View large Download slide.
This has not, however, been underlined by scholarly publications on the topic. Where so few authors have managed to pinpoint the originality of Op. Mark Evan Bonds, in an article on these quartets and the question of influence, mentions some presumed similarities between Op. Neither in Op. Mozart did not need to go back to the older genres to become acquainted with it. The first type is the simplest. The second and third types, by contrast, require more harmonic and melodic changes in the recapitulation before reaching the caesura bars.
The first type with its Scharnier bar Ex. In his Viennese quartets, this strict symmetry is suspended. Winter points out that the complementary bifocal close is used less frequently during the s and s by other composers. His assumptions, however, are based exclusively upon works available in modern editions, mainly symphonies and keyboard works. The first is the above-mentioned example by Rosen from the B minor quartet Ex. At the same time, the accompanying quavers in the first violin bb. Even at the very beginning of the movement the intrinsic relationship between subject and accompaniment is subliminally present.
Then in bar 11 a short figure with dotted semiquavers is introduced and repeated in the following bars, seemingly without being of greater importance Ex. Later in the movement, in the recapitulation, this figure reveals itself as one of the central motifs of the movement bb. The same happens in the following six bars bb. Later, in bars 27—32 Ex. Here the musical foreground and background are exchanged. I n the process it will also be necessary to explore those zyxwvu zyxwv byways which turn out in retrospect to lead nowhere.
They can, in any case, zyxwvut only be followed because they are suggested by the specific musical 0 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. T h e fact that the method resists written formulation has to do with its initial origins. It is typical of the particular mode of analytical access associated with practical musicians. One surrounds a segment or passage with alterations, collages and rearrange- ments in order to establish b y transformation the specific construction or content.
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With this analytical method the focus is on the level at which a composition comes into existence. In a musical language which, to a crucial extent, works with pre-existent models and material, the musical work can be understood as the outcome of a process of decision-making and combination, in which the most diverse compositional possibilities and forms are subjected to a selection process. The method attempts to trace these processes. What the musical example lends permanence to, through schematic representation, is in real-time practice a fleeting moment of experimental exploration which fades into silence.
What language has to dissect and paraphrase laboriously in order to explain and interpret takes place in a matter of minutes or seconds for the ear.
Presenting thoughts in language requires every single step taken along the analytical path to be analysed and the decision-making and cognitive processes that determine its direction to be traced. At the same time, apparent fundamentals, or self-evident compositional zyxw zyx procedures, have to be made verbally explicit, when in real-time practice they are in effect processed unconsciously.
It is only through linguistic formulation that the method is forced to account for these decisions taken unconsciously, to investigate and scrutinise them, and to subject the whole process to analytical logic. Only by removing the oral element from the method can it reveal its full zyxwv strengths and achieve the status of a scientific technique.
If one wishes to zyx recall it after an interval of time, the attempt regularly fails because of its subtle irregularity, and straightaway one reaches for the score again Ex. We need zy only take out the second group of triplets in bar 17, relocate the barline a crotchet later from bar 18 onwards, and insert a new triplet group - like the one zyxw removed from the F major context - in bar 22 Ex. In Mozart's original version the unity of the sequence's harmonic zyxwvu motion is in opposition to the direction of movement in the right hand's triplet figure: downwards-upwards in the V-I progression in C major bar IS , upwards-downwards in the Bb progression bar 19 , and so on.
A re- notation of the rhythm brings out the complexity of the passage: Ex.
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The first two triplet groups in bar 18 appear as if rotated around the axis of their middle note in bar 19 - that is certainly the visual impression. However, the third triplet group in bar 19 does not obey this principle. Mozart does not write: Ex. In this passage Mozart is clearly aiming for a 'total' chromaticising of the texture. Four voices are in simultaneous chromatic descent: Ex.
For all that, the chromatic motion unfolds within the constraints of four-part counterpoint devoid of parallel motion. Here, we are not looking at the classical technique of harmonic arpeggiation [Auffucherung] in typically pianistic figuration, which allows parallel voice-leading in order to complete the texture, a technique Mozart employs frequently in his early works, and not only there.
Rather, the triplet groups in the right hand are arpeggiations of a 'strict' four-part chordal texture. Total chromaticism is, however, not possible within strict four-part counterpoint. The function of the right hand's duple metre is to promote the illusion of total chromaticism. The F in the right hand in bar 17 Ex. It is not perceptible because the duple metre in the right hand denies the ear the recognition effect and, therefore, retrospective integration.
As early as the second bar of the zyxwvutsrq zyxwv sequence the voices in the right hand are to be found at different rhythmic locations. In this way, the linear forces and relationships are emancipated from their dependency on their vertical harmonic integration. Comparing this with a rhythmically entirely regular arpeggiation makes this immediately obvious: Ex. In the regular sequential model in Ex. A harmonic fracture separates the sequential sections, which in Mozart's version interlock organically from the outset.
Mozart avoids these abrupt transitions - plausible enough in the harmonic language of the time - in order to achieve a quite specific rhythmic-harmonic effect. It creates the illusion that the preceding octave, which continues to resonate through it, functions as part of a substitute chord. Behind this unusual sequence lies a familiar sequence model which inevitably enough" emerges in the recapitulation, where it is accompanied by other surprises: l 3 Ex. I1 zyxwvutsrqpon 17 zyxwv 18 19 20 i zy It seems reasonable to want to explain the deviation from regularity within the zyxwvuts sequence model by referring to the intrinsic problems of the tonal sequence, which has to negotiate the diminished-fifth step between bar 19 and Mozart 0 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
But it is precisely this alteration, intended to smooth the harmonic flow over this obstacle implicit in the tonal sequential model, which leads to disruption in a different place. There are no serious objections to the harmonic flow of Ex. What matters is that it disrupts the pattern of total chromaticism. The illusion of total chromaticism forbids the regularity of the sequence in Ex. But should we trust this analysis? Does not its demonstration of deviations, irregularities and complex combinations of technical procedures contradict our own listening experience, which in this case perceives no more than a slight element of confusion within a self-sufficient musical process?
What is the point of highlighting complex processes and relationships when such complexity cannot occupy centre stage within the music? To put it more directly: how is it that the complexity is not more forcefully evident in the musical foreground? In order to understand why, let us examine the sequence more closely. I stated that the total chromaticism unfolds within a strict four-part texture. But what does this four-part texture look like? The beginning of the sequence Ex. Then a rest occurs in the bass voice while the top three voices carry on in the right hand.
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That is the illusion the sequence creates. It is the perceptual dominance of this ordering - and this alone - which creates the sense of confusion. Some of the works he produced during this early period are very widely performed today. For instance, during the period between April and December of , Mozart developed an enthusiasm for violin concertos, producing a series of five the only ones he ever wrote , steadily increasing in their musical sophistication.
The last three K. The E flat piano concerto K.
Biography of Mozart
Nevertheless, Mozart gradually grew more discontented with Salzburg and made increasingly strenuous efforts to find a position elsewhere. The reason seems to be in part his low salary, florins per year Leopold, the vice-Kapellmeister, made The situation became worse in when the court theater was closed, and the other theater in Salzburg was largely reserved for visiting troupes. Two long job-hunting expeditions interrupted this long Salzburg stay: Wolfgang and Leopold they were both looking visited Vienna from 14 July to 26 September and Munich from 6 December to March Neither visit was successful, though the Munich journey resulted in a popular success with the premiere of Mozart's opera La finta giardiniera.
On September 23, , Mozart began yet another job-hunting tour, this time accompanied by his mother Anna Maria. The visit included Munich, Mannheim, and Paris. In Mannheim he became acquainted with members of the Mannheim orchestra, the best in Europe at the time. He also fell in love with Aloysia Weber, one of four daughters in a musical family. Mozart moved on to Paris and attempted to build his career there, but was unsuccessful he did obtain a job offer as organist at Versailles, but it was a job he did not want.
The visit to Paris was an especially unhappy one because Mozart's mother took ill and died there, June 23, On his way back to Salzburg Mozart passed through Munich again, where Aloysia, now employed at the opera there as a singer, indicated she was no longer interested in him. Mozart's discontent with Salzburg continued after his return. The question arises why Mozart, despite his talent, was unable to find a job on this trip.
Maynard Solomon has suggested that the problem lay in conflict with father Leopold, who insisted that Mozart find a high-level position that would support the entire family. Wolfgang favored the alternative strategy of settling in a major city, working as a freelance, and cultivating the aristocracy to the point that he would be favored for an important job; this had worked earlier for other musicians such as Haydn. The plan Leopold imposed, coupled with Mozart's youth he was only 21 when he left Salzburg , seems to have had foreordained failure.
The following March, the composer was summoned to Vienna, where his employer, Prince-Archbishop Colloredo of Salzburg, was attending the celebrations for the installation of the Emperor Joseph II. Mozart, who had just experienced success in Munich, was offended when Colloredo treated him as a mere servant, and particularly when the Archbishop forbade him to perform before the Emperor at Countess Thun's for a fee that would have been fully half of his Salzburg salary.
In May the resulting quarrel intensified: Mozart attempted to resign, and was refused. The following month, however, the delayed permission was granted, but a grossly insulting way: Mozart was dismissed literally "with a kick in the arse", administered by the Archbishop's steward, Count Arco. In the meantime, Mozart had been noticing opportunities to earn a good living in Vienna, and he chose to stay there and develop his own freelance career. In fact, Mozart's Vienna career began very well.
He performed often as a pianist, notably in a competition before the Emperor with Muzio Clementi, December 24, , and according to the New Grove, he soon "had established himself as the finest keyboard player in Vienna. The work was soon being performed "throughout German-speaking Europe", and fully established Mozart's reputation as a composer. Near the height of his quarrels with Archbishop Colloredo, Mozart moved in May 1 or May 2, with the Weber family, who had moved to Vienna from Mannheim.
The father, Fridolin, had died, and the Webers were now taking in lodgers to make ends meet. Aloysia, who had earlier rejected Mozart's suit, was now married to the actor Joseph Lange, and Mozart's interest shifted to the third daughter, Constanze. The couple were married, with father Leopold's "grudging consent" New Grove , on August 4, They had six children, of whom only two survived infancy: Carl Thomas — and Franz Xaver Wolfgang —; later a minor composer himself. During —, Mozart became closely acquainted with the work of J.
Bach and G. Handel as a result of the influence of Baron Gottfried van Swieten, who owned many manuscripts of works by the Baroque masters. In , Wolfgang and Constanze visited Wolfgang's family in Salzburg, but the visit was not a success, as Leopold and Nannerl were, at best, only polite to Constanze. However, the visit sparked the composition of one of Mozart's great liturgical pieces, the Mass in C Minor, which, though not completed, was premiered in Salzburg.
Constanze sang in the premiere. At some unknown time following his move to Vienna, Mozart met Joseph Haydn and the two composers became friends; see Haydn and Mozart. When Haydn visited Vienna, they sometimes played together in an impromptu string quartet. Mozart's six quartets dedicated to Haydn K.
Haydn was soon in awe of Mozart, and when he first heard the last three of Mozart's series he told the visiting Leopold, "Before God and as an honest man I tell you that your son is the greatest composer known to me either in person or by name: He has taste, and, furthermore, the most profound knowledge of composition.
During the years —, Mozart put on a series of concerts in which he appeared as soloist in his own piano concertos.