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Another high priority site identified in planning the global OOI nodes was the high latitude South Pacific. Like the Irminger Sea it is strongly forced and a region of CO 2 sequestration with a large fetch and powerful storms regularly moving west to east. This site would provide new insight into the challenges that weather, climate, and ocean models face in regions where very little data exist for initialization and for verification. Like the Irminger Sea site, there was interest in regional collaboration, and Chilean oceanographers and meteorologists looked forward to data from this site, which is located in a region where weather systems that move toward Chile originate.
From a biological perspective, the Southern Ocean site provided a sought-after contrast with the Irminger Sea, as although it was nutrient rich it had low biological productivity due to iron limitation Morrissey and Bowler, Further, from a climate perspective, whereas climate models pointed to a warmer and fresher water column in the Irminger Sea, climate models suggested a cooling of surface waters off southern Chile. As planning proceeded, the NSF placed increasing emphasis on investigating the carbon cycle.
Productivity is believed to be limited by iron, but there is also the possibility that micronutrients reach that region when transported from the continent in dust Li et al. There is also CO 2 sequestration, and strong atmospheric forcing. Unique to this site in the global OOI array are very strong currents and elevated eddy kinetic energy. Strong currents reach the seafloor and suspended particulate matter Richardson et al.
Dymocks - (ebook) Evolving Life: The Reclamation Story 3, eBook ()
Eddy kinetic energy levels are similar there to those in the Gulf Stream Stammer, , and the site will be an excellent location for investigation of mesoscale variability and its role in ocean processes. The confluence of currents there leads to interest in the interaction of different water masses and exchange between gyres of mass, heat and salt there e. In planning this site, interest arose from physical oceanographers and fisheries scientists in Argentina and from the UK GEOTRACES program, which planned a shipboard sampling line to investigate cycles of trace elements and isotopes that would pass near the site and through the Argentine Basin.
Observing at this site has had a long history. Over the years, PAPA data was used in the development of ocean models. Canadian oceanographers have maintained shipboard sampling in the years following the removal of the weather ship. There is CO 2 sequestration, but the site has the lowest level of anthropogenic CO 2 of the four global nodes.
Biologically productivity is thought to be limited by iron, but the region has an important and productive fishery. There is long-period variability related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, which may be reflected in the biology as well as in physical variability.
PAPA has low eddy variability compared to the other sites. The scientific drivers set the capabilities required at a global node to address the science: surface meteorology and air-sea fluxes, including of CO 2 ; structure and variability of temperature, salinity, and velocity from the sea surface to the sea floor; biological and chemical sampling, including of pH, chlorophyll, biomass, and nutrients; and provision of as much data as possible to users in near real time. While sampling in the upper ocean, including the euphotic zone and the surface mixed layer and seasonal thermocline, the ability to obtain observations with good vertical resolution up to and through the sea surface was sought.
In addition, the goal was to push beyond sampling in time and just the vertical dimension, and to provide the capabilities to sample the horizontal variability at the mesoscale and smaller scales. The design of an OOI global scale node developed for high latitude deployment is shown in Figure A schematic of the Global Irminger Sea Array, with four moorings and several ocean gliders. Four moorings are at each site, pairing a surface mooring and a taut subsurface mooring with a profiler together at one corner of the triangular moored array and placing two taut subsurface moorings called Flanking Moorings at the other corners of the triangle.
To complement the moorings, two ocean gliders are deployed to sample in scales within and around the moored array and two more gliders collect vertical profiles up through the sea surface. Thus one corner of the triangle provides the sampling from the sea surface to the sea floor. The surface mooring has a well-instrumented surface buoy and carries ocean sensors in the upper m of the water column.
To sample the full water column, the adjacent taut subsurface mooring is deployed next to the surface mooring with profiling instruments that move up and down the wire rope, covering the depths not sampled by the surface mooring. The full water column and surface sampling at that corner is complemented by taut subsurface moorings at the other two corners.
These moorings, the flanking moorings, have surface flotation close to 30 m and discrete instruments at fixed depths. The sides of the mooring triangle are roughly 10 times the water depth, with the intent of sampling the variability associated with the characteristic eddy scales. Additional sampling of spatial variability within and around the moored array was to be done with ocean gilders.
Community input emphasized the importance of near-surface profiles that penetrated the sea surface, and two ocean gliders were included in the global node design to obtain profiles through the sea surface. Further design features were driven by environmental conditions. The height of the tower of the surface buoy was set at 5 m in recognition of the anticipated sea states and freezing spray. The surface buoy had comprehensive and redundant telemetry systems including Fleet Broadband. To support these systems and provide power up to about W, rechargeable lead-acid batteries together with wind turbines and solar panels were mounted.
Two redundant bulk meteorological systems were deployed together with a direct covariance flux system at Irminger and Southern Ocean. Access to the data from the subsurface moorings and the ability to interact with them was planned via ocean gliders. The subsurface moorings had controllers that aggregated data from instruments. Gliders with acoustic modems downloaded these observations and when back at the surface telemetered these data and could carry commands from shore back to the subsurface moorings The two vertically profiling gliders carried between them a 3-wavelength fluorometer, a CTD, dissolved oxygen sensor, nitrate sensor, and a photosynthetically available radiation sensor.
The gliders tasked to sample within the volume of the moored array dove to 1, m and carried a 2-wavelength fluorometer, CTD, and dissolved oxygen sensor. Very strong air-sea fluxes of heat and momentum are anticipated at the Southern Ocean. Ogle et al. These extreme heat losses lead to convective deepening of the mixed layer and formation of Subantarctic Mode Water.
Figure 12 from Ogle et al. Figure 3 from Ogle et al. Figure 13 , taken from that paper, is an amazing distillation of the surface forcing and ocean observations across the six moorings. Strong eddy variability was evident and the role of these eddies in modulating surface layer response to the atmosphere is of great interest. In addition, the biological and biogeochemical data from the array are being used to better understand the biological pump that transports carbon into the deep ocean and the contributions to the biological pump from the spring bloom of plankton as well as the deep winter mixed layer formation and accompanying sinking of particles Palevsky and Nicholson, From de Jong et al.
B summarizes mixed layer depth size of the shaded circles and temperature color and velocities arrows. C shows daily maximum mixed layer depth blue and m depth temperatures from four of the moorings. Submarine cabled observatories are an emerging technological trend as shown by the installation of observatories in Japan, Taiwan, Norway, China, and Canada, as well as numerous smaller ones in the Mediterranean Delaney and Kelley, These cutting edge capabilities include, but are not limited to, nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, in situ genomic analysis, mass spectrometry, computational modeling, imaging technologies, and robotics.
More powerful than any single technology will be their progressive integration into highly sophisticated submarine systems designed to conduct challenging remote operations in novel ways coupled with Cloud Computing and Ocean Informatics. Science questions pertaining to coastal ocean dynamics and ecosystems change drove much of the design of the Endurance Array. Science drivers such as hypoxia, ocean acidification, swings between zooplankton species, and harmful algal blooms remain a focus of the array.
However, in the 10 years since the array design, additional significant, and in some cases unanticipated, rapid ecosystem changes have been observed. Events like sea star wasting disease Menge et al. The Endurance Array glider grid occupies the northern end of a west-coast underwater glider array that spans from the Strait of Juan de Fuca in the north to San Diego, California, in the south, and includes about ten, long cross-margin lines. Like other elements of OOI, the Endurance Array has the expansion capability to accommodate sensors added by individual principal investigators.
The Endurance Array and Cabled Array can host additional hydrophones to help track tagged fish species of interest in the Pacific Northwest, e. Emerging technologies such as genomic sensors e. The mean frontal conditions appear to be impacted by these changes Gawarkiewicz et al.
Within this backdrop of environmental change and societal impacts, the sustained, multi-scale, multi-platform observations from the Pioneer Array are of increasing importance. The approach to design and implementation of the Pioneer Array serves as guidance for these efforts Gawarkiewicz and Plueddemann, in press. Furthermore, an open competition for relocation of the Pioneer Array is anticipated after 5 years of operation, which will stimulate new scientific applications in new geographic regions that can benefit from the Array infrastructure.
The two southern hemisphere sites fill large areas of data sparse ocean. The surface moorings from these sites and their data are drawing high interest and use. Some investigators working to make global ocean fields of air-sea fluxes the transfers of heat, freshwater and momentum blends satellite observations together with data from the surface analyses from weather prediction models.
They make an optimal combination by weighting the satellite and model data to correct for errors and biases. These investigators have found that quality time series from a surface buoy of air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, incoming solar and longwave radiation, rain, barometric pressure, and SST are needed to develop these adjustments and tunings and that the optimization varies region to region.
The Southern Ocean and Argentine Basin are in cold, dry areas that require a region-specific tuning, and these investigators have used the surface mooring data from these sites. Continuation of the Southern Ocean array is desired to examine the interannual variability in the surface forcing, mixed layer deepening, and mode water formation.
The Southern Ocean site has drawn interest from investigators looking at change and variability in Antarctic. At the highest level, there was high interest in the Irminger Node from several perspectives. First, the array was located where we believe there are very large ocean heat losses and where this cooling makes surface water dense, causing sinking or convection that converts surface water to the deeper water that flows southward as part of the large-scale global circulation.
Improved understanding and prediction of the formation of deeper water at the surface in this region is the goal of many researchers. Second, there is a strong desire to get accurate observations of the air-sea fluxes in the Irminger Sea and thus improve understanding of how the atmosphere drives the formation of deep water there.
So even though the Irminger Sea surface mooring has had challenges with icing; the four seasons of partial records are being analyzed and looked at as the means to identify errors and biases in model-based estimates of the air-sea fluxes. Josey et al. Looking at following years, year to year variability in net heat loss was large and linked to the frequency of the Greenland tip jets.
The workshop recommended: sustain OOI Irminger, including additional sampling on flanking moorings to match OSNAP; make every effort to improve data return on OOI Irminger surface buoy, with attention to the surface meteorology and air-sea fluxes, as these are key to improving understanding of the surface forcing for the region; deploy routinely gliders as their non-physical data provide unique, valued information; sustain the OOI Irminger profiler, as the Dutch LOCO and German CIS moorings will be discontinued and the OOI Irminger profiler used to return the profile data needed to observe deep convection and other processes.
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The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The authors are grateful for the consistent support and guidance provided by NSF and for the vision, professionalism, hard work, and dedication of the many colleagues who have participated in the conception and realization of the OOI.
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Adams, K. Temporal variability of near-bottom dissolved oxygen during upwelling off central Oregon. Andres, M. On the recent destabilization of the gulf stream path downstream of Cape Hatteras. Barnard, A. III, Derr, A. Barth, J. Better regional ocean observing through cross-nation cooperation: a case study from the Northeast Pacific. Google Scholar.
Warm blobs, low-oxygen events and an eclipse: the ocean observatories initiative endurance array captures them all. Oceanography 31, 90— Barton, A. The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas , shows negative correlation to naturally elevated carbon dioxide levels: implications for near-term ocean acidification effects. Bond, N. Causes and impacts of the warm anomaly in the NE Pacific.
Butterfield, D. Geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids from axial seamount emissions study vent field, Juan de Fuca Ridge: subseafloor boiling and subsequent fluid rock interaction. Caplan-Auerbach, J. Explosive processes during the eruption of axial seamount, as recorded by seafloor hydrophones.
Cavole, L. Biological impacts of the — warm-water anomaly in the Northeast Pacific: winners, losers, and the future. Oceanography 29, — Chadwick, W. Voluminous eruption from a zoned magma body after an increase in supply rate at Axial Seamount. Chan, F. Novel emergence of anoxia in the California current system. Science Chen, K. Diagnosing the warming of the northeastern US coastal ocean in a linkage between the atmospheric jet stream variability and ocean response.
Deep convection in the Irminger Sea observed with a dense mooring array. Oceanography 31, 50— Delaney, J. Favali, A. Beranzoli Chichester: Praxis publishing , — Dickson, B. Rapid freshening of the deep North Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature , — Feely, R. Science , — Flood, R. Mud waves in the Argentine Basin and their relationship to regional bottom circulation patterns.
Deep Sea Res. Part A 35, — Forsyth, J. Recent accelerated warming of the continental shelf off New Jersey: observations from the CMV Oleander expendable bathythermograph line. Gawarkiewicz, G. Scientific rationale and conceptual design of a process-oriented shelfbreak observatory: the ooi pioneer array. Operational Oceanogr. Direct interaction between the Gulf Stream and the shelfbreak south of New England.
Oceanography 31, 60— Gislason, A. Long-term changes in abundance of Calanus finmarchicus south and north of Iceland in relation to environmental conditions and regional diversity in spring ICES J. Grantham, B. Upwelling-driven nearshore hypoxia signals ecosystem and oceanographic changes in the northeast Pacific.
Hare, J. A vulnerability assessment of fish and invertebrates to climate change on the northeast US continental shelf. PLoS One e Henderikx Freitas, F. Temporal and spatial dynamics of physical and biological properties along the Endurance Array of the California current ecosystem. Oceanography 31, 80— Jahnke, R.
Josey, S. Extreme variability in irminger sea winter heat loss revealed by ocean observatories initiative mooring and the ERA5 reanalysis. Jullion, L. Circulation and water mass modification in the Brazil-Malvinas confluence. Kelley, D. Volcanoes, fluids, and life in submarine environments. Earth Planet. Establishing a New Era of submarine volcanic observatories: cabling axial seamount and the endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge.
Klinger, T. Using integrated, ecosystem-level management to address intensifying ocean acidification and hypoxia in the California current large marine ecosystem. Li, F. Distribution, transport, and deposition of mineral dust in the Southern Ocean and Antarctica: contribution of major sources. Lozier, M. Overturning in the subpolar North Atlantic program: a new imternational ocean observing system. The Reclamation is an adventure into a parallel world, where magic continues to exist.
Read the tale of the other world, discuss your thoughts, partake in the Reclamation! Strings of Fate is Story 1 in The Reclamation series. This work is between short story and novella length at 10, words. Buy Now! Constant Forces Story 2 of The Reclamation series. The sprouting civilizations seeded and nourished by the two mages continue in their slow crawl outward, reclaiming and transforming the Unclaimed Lands, unaware they face a looming cataclysm. Improbability fills the universe as opposing wills collide and great powers prepare for a climax and ultimatum that will change the universe forever.
In "The Constant Forces", an elite band of students and Scholars works to build a new Wall, but when mages mysteriously disappear, it is up to the strange newcomer to save them all. Constant Forces is Story 2 in The Reclamation series. As the south bank occupied a lowlying marsh that was prone to flooding, a hillock near where Battery Road is located today was levelled to provide earth to fill the wetlands.
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The process took about four months and gave rise to a crescent-shaped area known today as Boat Quay. By the late s, the mercantile community had outgrown the site, spilling over to another reclaimed strip of land to the south. Collyer wanted to build a seawall to serve as a landing site and a road behind it so that merchants could have their establishments facing the waterfront. Indeed, some of the first buildings constructed along Collyer Quay were linked at the second storey by a verandah that faced the sea.
Peons armed with telescopes would be stationed along the verandah to announce the arrival of their company ships. In the foreground is Telok Ayer Basin where small vessels once anchored. The tidal basin was eventually reclaimed in the s. All rights reserved.
As work on the foundation of the seawall could be carried out only when the tide was at its lowest ebb, an occurrence that took place once every fortnight, the reclamation proceeded at a glacial pace. It took three years for the seawall to be completed and another year to lay the road behind it. Carried out between and , it altered the shoreline of Telok Ayer by extending it seaward with a acre tract. The earth from the excavations was then used as landfill to create Telok Ayer Bay.
The work was tedious as the hills were rocky and the sides had to be cut and graded. In addition, the shoreline had to be drained while keeping a section of it accessible so that fishermen could continue their trade. By , the stretch extending into Cecil Street was completed, allowing the colonial government to start leasing the reclaimed land to merchants. This led to the development of Tanjong Pagar and the growing importance of New Harbour renamed Keppel Harbour in as the main port-of-call in Singapore. Between and , the arrival of such vessels mushroomed from 7, to 10,, causing the Singapore River to become congested and polluted.
In October , a Commission was appointed to address this problem. The report, issued in June , recommended that a new harbour be built along Raffles Quay, precipitating the second reclamation project at Telok Ayer. The initial plans were more ambitious but, in the end, the authorities decided to scale back their plans due to budgetary constraints. Work began smoothly at first but in , problems began to surface when dredging operations commenced. When engineers discovered that the seawall was sinking, work was suspended. At the time, 65 out of the 88 acres of land had been reclaimed and 4, feet of the seawall erected.
However, as the construction of the seawall had been carried out simultaneously on both ends, the engineers were left with an incomplete seawall and a gaping ft space in between. To salvage the project, engineers reinforced the foundations of the seawall and allowed it to settle for the next 10 years. Thereafter, the unclaimed area would be converted into a tidal basin for anchoring small vessels with the gap in the seawall serving as an entrance. Kallang Basin and Beach Road The hefty cost of the Telok Ayer Tidal Basin project did not stop the colonial government from commissioning more reclamations.
In August , it unveiled a massive reclamation project at Kallang Basin for the construction of Kallang Airport. Due to the complexity and cost, the PWD was asked to lead the project. And perhaps to prevent the repetition of the Telok Ayer Basin fiasco, the PWD first carried out extensive soil surveys. It also allowed large areas of the basin to dry out completely first before filling it.
The filling operation started in May using a workforce of over coolies. When completed in October , the construction of the airport had already started. Even as Kallang Basin was being reclaimed, the authorities had embarked on another project in June This would add 47 acres to the Beach Road Reclamation site to create a foreshore that would stretch from Stamford Road to Rochor River.
The site, also known as Raffles Reclamation Ground, was created by two earlier reclamations that took place in the s and s. The open land also regularly hosted football matches and circus shows. To complement this vision, a 6-acre reclamation project was commissioned in to enlarge the Esplanade along Connaught Drive to create a yard tract linking Anderson Bridge to Stamford Canal. The Beach Road and Esplanade reclamations were completed at a cost of about 1.
The Kallang Basin and Beach Road reclamations would be the last major land reclamation projects in colonial Singapore. It would take another 30 years before any more new land would be reclaimed from the sea. In total, about hectares 3 sq km were added during the colonial period. Between and , Singapore would reclaim an astounding 13, hectares sq km of land. But first, before any work began, a pilot project was carried out by the HDB in to reclaim 48 acres in the Bedok area. Work on the East Coast Reclamation site began officially in and would continue for a remarkable 30 years over seven phases.
Phase V involved the reclamation of Telok Ayer Basin. Starting in , it extended the already reclaimed foreshore by 34 hectares and expanded the basin.