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- "Sí quiero, Querido Líder"
- Expressions and own features of the Spanish releases
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Discogs Forum - Expressions and own features of the Spanish releases
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Houston TX contacto metropolisdisco. Eres una Estrella Azul View credits, reviews, tracks and shop for the CD release of Verano on Discogs. Although in this essay I will not thoroughly analyze the metaphor of the ocean in their works, I suggest that a Transatlantic comparative study of both Castro and Burgos explores the intersections, the points of contact, and the possibilities and complexities in the discourses of two authors who can be cultural nationalists and also writers critical of the nationalist vision of gender roles and stereotypes.
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Throughout this essay, I contend that one can practice a Transatlantic reading of these texts that does not replicate the ideological models of Hispanism. Instead of expunging the internal others of their nations or the elements of discord and disagreement from their discourses, the poetics of Castro and Burgos embraced gender equality and a more heterogeneous, multigendered or multiracial vision of identity in comparable ways. Such a reading of their poems would express an obvious, though polemical, stance: they were cultural nationalists and feminists.
It is difficult to define a nineteenth-century feminist. I argue that their multi-layered gender constructions demystify the victimized woman poet and the poetic process of creation by giving the female speaker a form of historical, political, and literary agency. In the case of Burgos, her critique of U. It aims, paradoxically, to situate the author within and apart from the Spanish literary canon and its cultural hegemonic discourse. Mayoral clarifies that she was never able to write again in Galician because of her untimely death in Mayoral The myth of Burgos and its incorporation in popular and elitist Puerto Rican culture is very selective, often reducing her to discourses of victimhood, a common practice in the process of canonization.
In both cases, they reduce their work to biographical references and narratives of victimhood, rather than studying the complex web of identities their work explores. Why are there so many famous women writers, particularly poets, who are only referred to by their first names?
Expressions and own features of the Spanish releases
They did not sign their works only with their first names or nicknames. I suggest that besides the domestication of women poets, this is a way of signaling their sexual difference, their role as women who happen to write. Although some poems may contradict a negative response, the speaker who stresses their artificial character in both poetic projects suggests that both women challenge an essentialist vision of the self.
Cixous evokes the myth to demystify it, to transform the myths that prolong the fear of women as the epitome of death and the unknown. One cannot reduce her poetry to feminine writing, but Castro, in a similar move to Cixous, revives the myth of Penelope to demystify it and to give her creative power. The irony that permeates these lines is evident: even the personified planet is worried— while it is young, it nonetheless shows signs of early decay with all of those wrinkles, probably caused by contamination and stress, the ultimate illness of modernity.
Elsewhere, it is a dialogue between lovers, in which the woman wants to understand her man, but in the moment of revelation, when she finds out what he is thinking about, she dies poem The feminine speaker in this poem is curious but too weak to endure the revelation of his pain, strengthening nineteenth-century constructions of women as outside the realm of knowledge. Her active curiosity and her desire to know leads directly to her death.
The disturbing conclusion of the poem addresses the well-established representations of women as frail and vulnerable, incapable of surviving the dangers posed by the realm of male knowledge, and yet it does not seem to challenge them explicitly; it might be challenging them implicitly by presenting the stereotypes of female vulnerability.
How can madness, in a similar way, be conceived outside of its dichotomous opposition to sanity, without being subjugated to reason? It might be saying that alienation from nature is also alienation from Galician society. There were poets such as Carolina Coronado, who decades before Castro defied these traditional depictions of women as flowers by ironically embracing the metaphor. This poem has been read as a metaphor of a failed maternity; for example, Elizabeth Scarlett focuses on the bird and the rose as emblems of maternal protection. John C. In poem 95, the speaker is a poet, a weaver like Penelope, powerful and wise, and in poem 74 the speaker is an insect, whose story warns female readers that if one behaves like the rose, giving and trusting, letting insects into her cave, one becomes vulnerable and weak.
What is their ultimate effect? Labeling her an antifeminist thinker or a feminist thinker would not consider her contradictions, and the diversity of positions throughout years of writing in a male dominated literary world. Burgos, by contrast, never pretends to be less gifted when facing an intellectual challenge, and as we will see, her verse evades the definitions of men and their historical time. Both Burgos and Castro embrace a discourse of poetic motherhood, and in some poems they explore metaphors that allude to the physicality of writing.
Yet, decades later Lorca and Neruda also use the metaphor of ink as blood to describe their avant-garde, politically committed works. The speaker makes poetry, the verse itself, a historical agent, a revolutionary subject, the new self and will, not a product of men but born from her; therefore, through this poetic motherhood, the woman poet defines herself. The materiality of the verse and her recognition of herself transcend the impositions of patriarchal society and a linear, progressive vision of historical time.
Instead, she seems to favor an essentialist vision of the feminine. Burgos structures the whole poem through the contrast between the free woman poet and the socially constructed and constrained woman. Describing the speaker as the emblem of truth, ephemeral as a shimmer or a flash, but strong because of its virility, may be read as both transgressing or reinforcing the social construction of what should be the feminine model.
The speaker is constantly underlining that it is a poetic construction, and the author is consciously pointing to the process of definition. Here we have two poetic personae, two Julias, and the poet clearly privileges the woman who wants to kill her social shadow, her patriarchal self, and thus, at the end, stir up a sexual and social revolutionary movement.
I have argued so far that the mythifying discourse that predominates in some of the critical scholarship on Burgos has often misunderstood her poetic project with autobiographical readings. Thus she is not just a poetic voice. The speaker privileges the male roles of valiant, rebellious men, who fight for freedom in different ways. Don Juan is the epitome of the seducer, who only thinks of his own sexual freedom; here, because he fails to seduce the fictionalized poet, Julia de Burgos, he can only aspire to rape her.
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Once again, the hyperbolic voice aims to shock its reader by creating a weird discomfort. Burgos does not dress herself up as the mythical, national poet of Puerto Rico, yet I certainly argue that she does contribute to that myth; while Castro does present herself frequently as the daughter or the mother of Galicia, and the voice of the voiceless, this does not mean that she is echoing the conservative circles of Galician nationalism. So far, we have seen that through various ways, both Burgos and Castro demystify the woman poet and emphasize the artificiality of their poetic constructions.
But I have not thoroughly discussed yet how these poems propose a redefinition of the national landscape. In the more nationalist or anti-imperialist poems, they both deploy the myth of the woman poet, the mother, the lover, the voice of the people for their political agenda. Llanto grande. The river is often portrayed as a witness to history, and here Burgos chooses to allude to the longest river in the national landscape in order to evoke the extreme pain of political and social opression.
Her characterization of the people and the Island as enslaved is a common trope in Puerto Rican poetry; it is used to denounce the colonial situation. Her poem itself is the symbol of the cry, ironically bigger and longer than the male river. Once again, the apostrophe to the river, itself a recurrent metaphor of fluidity, serves as a tool, the vehicle from which the speaker can voice her claim. In a way, the poem ends by strengthening her voice, rather than the river, symbol of the personified national landscape. This final move can also be read as part of the reversal of roles conveyed in this erotic poem.
Embracing the rhythm and the metaphor of fluidity, the poem transitions from the erotic to the national realm. And at the same time, Burgos consciously adds that it could also be the other way around, that is, the white race darkens with the shadows of the African race.
Here we find a nationalist poet who defies nationalist patriarchal discourse, by celebrating how the female black body can become the symbol of a common Latin American history of racial and cultural identity. She embraced a more heterogeneous sense of identity, inclusive of racial and gender differences, that encouraged hemispheric bonds of solidarity with migrant Latinos in New York City from across Latin America and the Caribbean. This does not imply that she falls for the straightjacket of identity politics; on the contrary, her version of a left-wing Hispanism is not particularly obsessed with spiritual values, and her vision of what it means to be Puerto Rican becomes more plural and heterogeneous as her work develops.
In her three poetry books, by writing in Galician and in Spanish, Castro expresses her ideological position at the time. The contradictions that I have pointed out within her poetic project, and even in her essays, introductions, and commentaries, also emphasize how that conflict becomes productive.
This national space is one that embraces plurality, which is also connected to the multiple sexual personae that I pointed out earlier. At the same time, it embraces the otherness and marginality of their poetic subjects. Their poetic projects are complex and varied, and sometimes some poems from diverse stages might seem to contradict each other. It is key to recognize that this poem is written in Spanish, as part of En las orillas del Sar.
Although proposing a more progressive, more inclusive version of the Galician nation, Castro contributed to the myth- making project of Galician nationalism with her last book, but unlike her previous proposals it did so through its existentialist musings. Even though this statement is problematic, and contradicts some of my arguments so far, it does not mean that the construction of Burgos and Castro as myths has no political capital.
It also does not imply that all of their poems contribute to this mythification of the self. Trying to avoid generalizations, this transnational, Transatlantic reading of their poetic projects aims to reflect on some of their points of intersection. I do not mean to invalidate single-nation studies of their art. Nevertheless, even though they come from diverse geopolitical locations and from progressive, alternative visions of nationalist politics, they are both questioning patriarchal society.
In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Galicia and Puerto Rico remain in the margins of modernity, isolated from the sphere of Spanish and U. Puerto Rico symbolizes precisely the decadence of the Spanish empire and its lost colonies, and the emergence of the U. A Transatlantic reading of their poetic projects shows that both writers are defying the homogeneous identity discourse imposed by the metropolis. A Transatlantic reading also shows that these authors are not working in a historical vacuum; they are in dialogue with poets from both sides of the Atlantic.
Esthetically, both poetry books can be situated in the border, searching for and then finding their own voice but exploring with late Romantic and modernist poetics in the case of Castro, and avant-garde and neo-Romantic esthetics in the case of Burgos. Traditionally, Castro is read as a late Romantic, literally and metaphorically isolated from the world; although she was not socially privileged, she was a well-read intellectual. Especially after the arrival of the Spanish Civil war exiles in the Americas, they defended the spiritual connection of all Hispanic people and their common struggle against the Fascist forces.
Even if Castro and Burgos are situated in diverse historical and geographical contexts, they were both marked by migration and displacement, and can be considered aesthetic and political Transatlantic subjects. Written in Galician, the tone and the style, which celebrate popular culture, its orality, its traditions, prejudices, stereotypes and humor, differ from her last poetry book in Spanish.
When it comes to gender politics, Castro and Burgos are both transgressing social norms, and creating a voice of their own. Still, they both present themselves as women poets, who because of their femininity can assume the voice of their oppressed people, and in this way they both contribute to the myth-making process of their respective public personae. They both redefine national and gender politics by weaving a feminist esthetics that encourages us to draw and redraw these Transatlantic poetic maps. However, more than a meta-literary reflection on the lonely process of writing poetry, the poem becomes a complaint: the speaker has to do everything alone, and has no social support.
The fact that they were in Spanish and published in should also be read as her reaction to the scandal and criticism she suffered from the Galician nationalist intellectual circles. In Julia de Burgos, ed. Manuel de la Puebla. Benjamin, Walter. The Arcades Project. Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin. Burgos, Julia de. Yo misma fui mi ruta.
Song of the Simple Truth.
The Complete Poems. Willimantic, CT: Curbstone Press. Estudios preliminares de Iris M. Madrid: Ediciones de la Discreta. Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge. Juan Barja. Madrid: Akal. Obras Completas. Madrid: Aguilar. En las orillas del Sar. Marina Mayoral. Madrid: Castalia. Anna-Marie Aldaz, Barbara N. Gantt, and Anne C.
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Madrid: Alianza Editorial. El poeta y la ciudad. Nueva York y los escritores hispanos. The Laugh of the Medusa. Robyn R. Warhol and Diane Price Herndl. Davies, Catherine. Lisa Vollendorf. Faber, Sebastiaan.