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Your website offered us with helpful info to work on. S Apologies for getting off-topic but I had to ask! Is that potential in Singapore? Professional movers will not solely load your objects however they may also pack it for you. So as to get the cheapest choice, you need to examine the skilled moving services accessible in the market. Your house and your belongings can be handled with care and respect. That is something even students or an everyday house spouse may do to simply see things completed or still undone.

Start from essentially the most essential ones. Like the straightforward sorting styles accomplished in most offices or libraries, label your bins with the stuffs you are going fill it with. Letting agents are stinging tenants with expensive and infrequently unclear fees, a That is Cash investigation can reveal. Everyday extra Americans sway in direction of hiring movers over the do-it-yourself method.

This signifies that folks just really tend not to like the act of shifting any extra so they employ long distance movers. Shifting trucks have gotten costlier to rent and are now making it a smarter choice to hire Lakewood movers. When searching for my transferring needs I did in depth research on all firms and no one may match the convenience, value or professionalism that PODS supplied! The experience from starting to finish was nothing but optimistic!

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As you pack, you can use the appto take images of the contents of the box and jot down any particulars. Plus, youcan assign every field a unique name, a unique quantity, or the room that the boxneeds to be moved in. You seem to understand a lot concerning this, like you wrote the e-book in it or something. This is a great blog. I known as and was greeted immediately by the owner, Mr.

Erez Ron, who did what all of them do. He asked for the inventory to be moved, and made an identical prediction by way of manpower and time estimate as the opposite companies I spoke to. They have been polite, precise, and made certain that what wanted to be carried out was achieved in the very best method to keep away from damage and issues with neighbors etc. The quotation includes the dimension vehicle required, what number of components is being shifted, and the vary in which the factors is being shifted.

An individual can look at out a number of movers in this manner to acquire the very best quite possible. That is why it is essential that you know all of information of your shifting enterprise earlier than you examine out the online page so your quotation will be exact. And so with this technique of bargaining and having the businesses compete with each other, you might be ready to save lots of literally tons of of dollars. We will make sure we meet and or exceed your expectations so all the opposite vital selections round moving will not be affected. Essentially the most successful office strikes are these which have been completely planned from inception to fruition.

American Van Traces takes a scientific method to workplace transferring. The primary a part of our course of examines your needs. We take your unique circumstances into consideration during this planning phase. In contrast to industrial moving companies that apply a normal strategy to enterprise moving to every transfer, we all know that every company has totally different wants and we treat each company as such.

We address every enterprise as a separate entity to maintain an objective strategy to your workplace transfer. In the event of an ELD malfunction, motor carriers must repair or exchange the gadget inside eight days of discovering the issue. Throughout that time, drivers can use paper logs as a backup until the ELD is again in service. The ELD rule also permits special driving classes for personal conveyance, which counts as off-obligation time, and yard strikes, which might be recorded as on-obligation, non-driving time.

Provides enter and advice on moving companies and providers. Publisher: Andrew Stratton Shifting is a necessity sometimes, however preparedness and a funds will get you through it. Renting a moving fan and hiring professional movers may help make the process simpler. Publisher: Vikram Kumar Moving house will be fairly a daunting prospect, even for these of us who have achieved it extra occasions than we can remember! White glove movers will handle every little thing for you from start to finish. Once you resolve how you will ship your furnishings, put together the piece for transport and be prepared to start transferring large furnishings round your property.

Comply with our guides on delivery tables, sofas, and beds for tips about packaging and transferring specific types of furnishings.

In the event you chose to book with white glove movers, then sit back and calm down because they will take care of the preparations for you. Know the approx. You should only take those workers that are important to what you are promoting. They must be hard working, competent, and trust worthy. Additionally it is greatest to speak to your finest staff about relocation to Singapore. Go over your notes with a professional mover or advisor. If you are able to plan on shifting off season, this can lower costs however create issues like faculty admissions and so forth in case you have youngsters moving with you.

Equally one can save cash by selecting to move in the middle of the month as an alternative of beginning or finish. Rent Skilled House Movers From a Premier Moving it is sophisticated and filled with a large set of tasks that must be taken care of. Hiring a moving firm is one method to make the transfer just that much simpler. We also provide our clients with Furnishings Storage, Furnishings dismantling and assembling, utilities disconnect and reconnect, pack and unpack, carpet cleaning, and relocation cleaning. Always look in any respect of those components before you use movers as well as before you call up the moving firm.

In the nice Florida of Florida it is vital that you simply utilize this data so that your shifting service costs are decreased to your following relocation. Getting the very best charge is going to recommend getting as many shifting service quotes that you are able to gather in a sensible diploma of time. Please read on to study more. Publisher: smiriti Kumari Preparation is crucial so as to perform packing job perfectly.

Writer: Peter Andersen Packing is the most dreaded half during the transfer. This is the time to sift by way of all of the piles of issues and tools that you got. We can even assist what you are promoting with making a profitable global mobility program and handle the expectations by advising on policies and requirements and price calculations. We are proud to say that our relocation consultants are native consultants. Most of them even have expertise of relocating to a new country themselves, which gives them an in depth understanding of the state of affairs that those relocating are in.

Need to study more? Though, the flexibility to transport is one of the perks of residing in a just about portable home, a number of issues should be labored out earlier than undertaking this process and the identical points are discussed beneath. A cellular home can be moved in accordance with the laws of the state, the place one is at present residing.

Get free heavy-duty packing containers out of your native liquor retailer. Free containers can also be present in cardboard recycling bins. Change your address at the very least two weeks earlier than shifting. Is there one other manner into the house? You can have an inside shifting job executed by the experts in this discipline. While you contact your furniture placement assist clarify what is the job to be carried out. And at last as a wrap up, moving furniture at residence from room to room can go simply superb if organized well.

You probably have more ideas you think important to know before rearranging your house or apartment you may share your concepts as a remark. At current, there are a lot of relocation agencies in Andhra Pradesh. Not too long ago, many elimination companies have been established in Hyderabad. Writer: Rabia Make the best use of cheap air tickets for low-cost Trivandrum flights by booking your air ticket to Trivandrum using flights to Trivandrum by particular presents and taste the tour of South India.

This will take plenty of strain off you as the challenging activity of packing and moving your whole belongings can be handled by knowledgeable workforce. Nonetheless, trusting a company to take care of all your priceless belongings could be a little troublesome. Today because of moving trucks and professional movers it is less complicated than ever to pack up and head west or east or whatever direction you need to go. The benefit of using a client based web site for locating a shifting company when you progress.

Right now thanks to moving trucks and professional movers it is simpler than ever to pack up and head west or east or whatever route you want to go. Im Jahre erhielt der Plastische Chirurg Prof. Joseph E. Hundert Jahre zu ihrer Hochphase. Er sagt, 80 Perzentil seiner Kunden seien Griechen. Ihr Anvertrauen zueignen Welche nicht jedem.

Bei Dr. Dieser Bauchnabel essentiell in dieser Regel nicht versetzt Entstehen. Daher niemand will alt Erscheinungsbild. Worseg A. Premiere am Masterarbeit, University of Vienna. This option is all or nothing, and does not cover particular person objects. Pairs and Sets Protection: For gadgets that may only be bought collectively, e. Simply be careful with your stuff! Our flexible system lets you get the proper providers you need for any measurement job. Our basic moving plan for seniors in the Seattle space includes two movers and one truck.

Our movers will handle all of the small print of the transfer, together with loading, driving, and unloading the truck. Selecting the least fancy mover may be a viable choice, however you actually need to do a background test before hiring Low-cost House Movers. You should all the time have a five to six elective movers in your shortlist and compare them. When you do find a inexpensive service provider who is offering more than they can afford, then do avoid these rogue companies.

There are various companies that present all the pieces from packing up your household to unpacking and setting up your new dwelling. But earlier than you rent and even decide to rent, you will have to weigh your time and energy versus the fee concerned in hiring professionals to pack and unpack your house. First, the corporate will send out a surveyor to assess the details of your move. It is best to be able to have your questions answered and any considerations taken care of. Even with the very best processes in place, not every eventuality and unexpected occasion may be guarded towards.

There are a wide range of the explanation why you might have to store your household items. You will not be able to move into your new home immediately, or you may not have sufficient area to home all the pieces. In case you are looking for the best in Melbourne Moving services you might be at the suitable place then. We offer problem-free, low-cost in price and finest in high quality moving services. Whether you need to maneuver a piano or complete furniture of your house we can present the expertise you want.

Our companies of home and workplace removalists are for everyone who needs a stress-free moving services. Furthermore, we do not cost any hidden fees. For every challenge we get employed on are dealt with a devoted group. What are you waited for? Why not name us and get the quote to your relocation wants? In addition to Estate and Lettings Brokers, Elimination and Shipping firms are getting ready for Christmas as effectively. After the Summer season and Easter holidays, this is among the busiest instances of the 12 months for transferring dwelling.

When selecting a mover, make sure your candidates are registered with state or federal transportation authorities. Registered movers are required to meet sure insurance coverage, security, and financial standards. Yuval Kravitz, owner of Brooklyn-based Om Shifting. State and national businesses supply free guides outlining your rights and tasks when hiring a mover.

General rule of thumb, if the products are in quantity, than you ought to hire the services of transport company which is able to present you the options of finest transport. While looking for a good worldwide shipping firm, it is imperative that you just do your homework correctly. This offers you a good thought of what service to expect. You can choose among the companys services for residential moves, commercial strikes, special services, shifting packages, and their storage services. You will be able to speak with a professional that can assist you with your transferring needs.

The storage amenities of the Compass will can help you retailer your antiques, household goods, artwork, and different necessary objects at a very cheap worth. International Moving. The quotes despatched according to the precise removal details you provide. Our customers get a number of choices from totally different international movers and removing corporations. By receiving many choices our costumers are ready to select from one of the best service providers, getting the relocation service of their selection.

I hope individuals can safely move with these skilled moving services. They also present many different services that are required during shifting. For some items of furnishings, a couple of buddies or household could be all the help you might have to get the job executed. Piano shifting is normally a particularly difficult process. Some pianos could be over a thousand pounds. That is an unimaginable amount of weight.

Without the right tools to protect your again and other physique elements, you might critically injure your self. Despite their dimension, pianos are very delicate. Any form of harm may simply have an effect on the sound of the piano, which might result in excessive priced repairs. Professional movers perceive all these issues and know how to maneuver the instrument correctly. Pianos are sometimes bulky and odd-formed, which can make them extraordinarily tough to move via entry doors and stairwells.

With expertise and specialized tools, professional piano movers can complete the job in only a fraction of the time it will take you to do it. Shifting a large instrument requires particular boards and dollies that professional movers have. It is tough to hold large bins and small bins make the state of affairs messy. So, keep medium sized containers to pack goods. Labeling is very important. Use completely different colours to label the bins. The labeling ought to be descriptive. It is useful throughout loading, unloading and unpacking. Insured to Texas State Regulations.

Vista Moving Firm was created with the idea of adjusting the taboos of moving companies. Edward and John Homeowners and Founders believe that taking some time to understand the shoppers needs and their scenario will go a great distance to supply the proper service for their transfer. For this you need to contact several and just ask them about a normal job as properly because the emergency charge as that is when you are in all probability going to actually use them.

Publisher: janetjhon Movers are extraordinarily useful whereas relocating. Properly, that is determined by several elements which normally include the variety of things to move, weather situations, time of the years and several other others. To relocate every little thing, the movers would possibly have to make a number of journeys to and from your home. If the buyer misses this deadline, the buyer buys the property as-is and can no longer back out of the deal nor request repairs or credit regardless of what issues there may be with the property.

When the relocation firm transfers the property from the transferee to itself, a title legal professional is hired to do a title search and problem title insurance. Worldwide ERC, an association that tracks mobility costs. Nonetheless, this value is for a full-service professional move, in which the shifting company packs up your belongings and basically handles the whole move for you.

We worked with an actual estate developer to maneuver the Harriet Rees Home in Chicago to preserve its landmark standing. Will transferring an historic constructing or house change its classification? We suggest discussing your deliberate transfer with your State Historic Preservation Officer before the relocation. In case your employer is footing the invoice on your move, it can affect what moving expenses, if any, you are able to deduct out of your taxes. In case your employer is paying only a portion of your moving expenses, ensure to maintain monitor of the prices. By choosing your at present state of residency, you possibly can learn authentic local moving company reviews based mostly on buyer testimonials, client studies and rankings.

My Moving Reviews in the most important transferring listing for moving reviews by state, by metropolis, and by common routes. Learn to carry out a moving companies comparison. Even transferring to a new house simply throughout town requires advance planning and preparation. The local moving services in our community will give you all the pertinent details and vital arrangements for a easy and stress-free move. My brother recommended I might like this website. This post truly made my day. You can not imagine just how much time I had spent for this info! A comparability from your interaction with realtors gives you readability on which movers fit the bill.

Every individual will want to invest in experienced contractors. However how do you establish their stage of expertise? Writer: ricardo lumbardo Packing your family objects the mistaken means can transform very costly as you could end up breaking a lot of gadgets. Read on to understand how professional moving companies can reduce the risk by efficiently packing every item. Writer: Jamel Sparks Interstate movers are folks relocating establishments which provide their suppliers for interstate relocating, shifting and relocating.

The general public is catching on and realizing that acquiring commercial movers is nicely worth the value. We solely provide lengthy distance transportation. We offer the truck, gas, driver, and door to door service.. We will transfer your car and furniture on the identical moving van, but that does require rental of the entire moving truck.

Depending on the size of the furniture and the quantity of containers how much house you need on the truck for your household will decide whether or not this is one of the best option for that. Books left on bookshelves gather dust and old mud could be cleaned off before you get to your new place. No transfer can be complete with out a labeling system. Pre-Transfer Services.

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On the other hand, Mattison noted that the specimens most attractive to pet-keepers, those suffused entirely with brick-red or carmine, appear to originate from Sumatra. The red form is apparently absent from Kalimantan, where the colour is described by traders as brown or yellowish. Further investigation into the systematics of P. Python molurus Linnaeus, Populations of P. Some authorities working around the turn of the century treated each of these two populations as distinct species. The population on Sri Lanka has on occasion been regarded as sufficiently distinct to warrant subspecific status, as P.

This is not the consensus view, and the population is generally assigned to P. Constable regarded the observed differences as within the expected bounds of individual variation, not indicative of inter-population differentiation. Several characters supposedly distinguish Python molurus molurus and P. The former lacks subocular scales thus the labial scales border the orbit , the lance-shaped mark on the dorsal surface of the head is distinct only posteriorly, and the ventral scale count ranges from to ; the latter possesses labial scales, has the head markings distinct throughout, and a slightly wider ventral scale range Smith, Individuals from the Indian subcontinent P.

Smith stated that P. Smith included Nepal and north-east India in his 'Indo-Chinese subregion', but it is not clear if he intended explicitly to include these areas within the range of P. However, de Rooij had earlier examined numerous living and preserved specimens of P. For example, one specimen from Assam north- east India , although light coloured as in P. Although many authorities support the use of trinomials, very few specimens from the supposed contact area of molurus and bivittatus, in north-eastern parts of the Indian subcontinent, have been examined, and the boundary between the two forms cannot at present be precisely delineated.

The south-west Bangladesh population has been referred to P. Python reticulatus Schneider, No subspecific taxa are currently recognised. Such published information as is available is frequently old and generally anecdotal in nature, although not without value. The general lack of published data of this kind is not surprising. Typically, it is difficult or impossible routinely to observe significant numbers of individuals of a given snake species, and more so to capture them for measurement, or assessment of reproductive condition, for example. Most snakes are both secretive and elusive; their appearance is often highly seasonal and often highly correlated with particular weather conditions.

With few exceptions, it is thus very difficult to assess the status of snake populations, and exceedingly so to monitor changes in status over time. In the case of snake species that are regularly utilised by man, it is probably reasonable to place some credence in the opinions of those whose way of life brings them into close contact with snakes; the tribal who eats python meat on occasion and lives permanently in python habitat, or the reptile collector whose livelihood depends on finding reptiles, might be expected to have an insight into the long-term local status of his prey species that cannot be attained directly by the short term academic researcher.

Such insights generally remain unrecorded. The opinions given below, on python abundance and alleged population trends, are at best based on observations which, whilst sometimes casual or accidental, were at least accumulated over long periods spent in appropriate habitats. Some statements clearly rely heavily on reports received from others rather than on the personal experience of the writer cited. Informal terms used to describe relative abundance, such as "common" or "rare", may be used in different senses by different people.

The fact that more specimens of one species than of another were received at a given research institute means simply that the former species is more frequently encountered by people, presumably because of differences in habitat type or activity patterns. These data limitations combine to ensure that it is as yet impossible to propose detailed management strategies for particular python species.

We recommend that longer term projects be undertaken, with emphasis on developing appropriate quantitative field survey techniques, and on intensive gathering of local knowledge from reptile collectors and traders. By far the majority of Asian python skins in trade originate from Indonesia, where python species constitute a natural resource of marked economic significance, and priority should thus be given to further work in that country. Population trends : a summary Table 4 , which attempts to summarise information presented in the country accounts, highlights the virtual absence of detailed and reliable population data.

Whilst detailed information on population trends is typically unavailable, probable changes in distribution area, which in turn implies loss and fragmentation of local populations, can sometimes be estimated. In some countries, India for example, wild habitats have been very substantially modified over centuries of human occupation, and the overall area used by pythons will presumably have been contracting during this period. In other cases, Bangladesh for example, evergreen hill rain forest appears to have remained largely unmodified until the present century, and contraction in the range of Python reticulatus , which inhabits this forest type, will have been correspondingly recent.

Although python populations in several countries appear to have suffered some degree of decline in recent decades, it is rarely clear to what extent this can be attributed mainly to habitat changes, on one hand, or to direct exploitation of pythons, on the other. Even in countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia, where pythons have been exploited for the skin trade since the s, or utilised for food or medicinal purposes for centuries, it appears that pythons can flourish locally although seemingly depleted elsewhere.

It can reasonably be inferred that collecting for the skin trade has adversely affected the status of python populations in parts of Indonesia. On the other hand, it seems that pythons remain reasonably abundant in more remote areas not subject to intense collection pressure. An additional factor, the importance of which cannot yet be evaluated, is that skins entering international trade routes sometimes originate in countries adjacent to the declared country of origin; for example, a significant proportion of skins exported from Thailand is said to enter undeclared from neighbouring Cambodia and Laos.

The implication of this is that python populations in all accessible parts of South-east Asia are likely to be affected by the skin trade to some extent. The number of skins in international trade in recent years does give cause for serious concern, even though the long-term impact on python populations cannot be quantified.

Although it is most unlikely that python populations in the region could be extirpated so long as extensive tracts of suitable habitat persist, it remains entirely possible that populations could decline to the point where they no longer constitute a resource of any significance.

For this reason, and in the more general interest of maintaining regional biodiversity, it is considered necessary to undertake more intensive local investigations into the status of python populations in countries supplying skins to the international trade. Table 4. Estimated recent population trends in three Asian species of python: Python curtus , P. China -? Hong Kong -? Mattison stressed that this species requires high humidity and high temperature in order to thrive in captivity, which is consistent with reported wild habitats.

In West Malaysia P. On tne other hand, traders in Sumatra assert that at least one colour variant of the species occurs mainly in rocky hills giving it the local name of "Rock Python" Luxmoore, pers. The species is also associated with palm plantations in Sumatra. Python molurus May be found in a variety of habitats, but appears to prefer wooded areas, ranging from evergreen forest to more open deciduous woodland; occurs "in the interior of the densest forest tracts, or in sparser forest growth such as that which clothes the rocky slopes of many low hills" Wall, Known localities often include rock outcrops or hollow trees used for shelter and nesting, and typically will include still or flowing permanent water.

The species may also be found in the vicinity of rivers, lakes or marshy areas, most especially where woodland is absent Wall, , and in reed beds and mangrove stands. Dhungel reported the species to be common in the subtropical tall grasslands of Chitwan National Park Nepal , where individuals often occupy holes excavated by Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus in search of food. In Thailand, the species occurs mainly in the relatively drier hill country Jarujin, pers. An able swimmer, capable of remaining submerged for many minutes, and an able climber, often ascending trees to seek prey or to ambush prey while concealed among branches.

Wall noted the frequency with which specimens may be found partially or wholly submerged near the bank of a river or pool, and regarded the species as virtually semi-aquatic. There tends to be a phase of hibernation where a distinct cold weather period exists. Python reticulatus The species is said to favour dense forest Lim, or 'jungle growth' Soderberg, , it also occurs in plantations or secondary growth B. Kiew in litt. Three of seven specimens brought to the Institute for Medical Research in Kuala Lumpur were found in forest habitats; four were found in habitat classed by Lim as 'scrub' this included gardens, plantations, and non-forest vegetation generally.

Wall a contrasted the situation in Burma, where P. Flower stressed that it was once common in Bangkok city and appeared to prefer the busiest parts of the riverside. It is still found in the city, often in association with warehouses, where it is presumed to be feeding on rats Wirot, pers. Said to be fond of water, and rarely to be found far from it Smith, ; Tweedie, One medium-sized specimen was captured at sea about three miles from shore off Singapore Cantor, , and this species was one of the earlier animal colonists of the newly-formed island of Krakatau, presumably after having made a sea crossing from adjacent Sumatra or Java.

The species often occurs in the vicinity of forest rivers and streams, but may also be found around rice fields, and sometimes in water-less rocky hills Bourret, Bourret recorded that in ' Indo China' the species is especially associated with marshy areas. In southern Viet Nam the species is reportedly "always" found near water, and around Bien Hoa, for example, often found under bridges over rapidly flowing streams Campden Main, The large Brunei specimen reported by Ussher was found on a grassy ledge alongside a small shallow steep-banked river in the forest.

Similarly, in Thailand the species occurs mainly in the vicinity of water in low-lying parts of the country Jarujin, pers. This preference seems confirmed by the fact that 10 out of 11 specimens collected near Kuala Lumpur between and were found in rat traps at an experimental trapping area at Sungei Buloh Lim, Python molurus Prey includes a wide variety of mammals, birds and reptiles. Although mammals as large as deer, gazelle and leopard have been taken, small mammals, rats in particular, appear to comprise the bulk of the diet there is growing awareness of the importance of P.

Singh asserts that pythons around Sarapduli, in Corbett National Park India were responsible for removing two of three local family groups of Jackal Canis aureus. The species is a very able climber, and Wall noted that individuals appear to ascend fruiting trees, such as Banyan, in order to ambush animals, such as deer, attracted to fallen fruit. The same authority noted reports that pythons sometimes frequent hollow trees in which egrets and herons roost, and ascend at night to take birds from the branches.

Domestic livestock, especially chickens, are also taken; for this reason pythons are often found close to human habitation and persecuted as a result. Kopstein reported that in the Maluku group, P. Snakes as rodent control agents Cantor reported that Reticulated Pythons in Malaysia tended frequently to occupy outhouses in human settlements, where they were "useful in destroying vermin, although plunder is occasionally committed in poultry yards".

He recorded a colleague's observation in George Town Penang of a young Reticulated Python "which the inhabitants suffered to retain unmolested possession of the rice stores in order to secure them against the ravages of rats". Such observations as these appear to validate the more recent reawakening of interest in snakes, including pythons, as effective agents of rodent control Whitaker and Dattatri, , although any control exerted may be achieved through deterrence - perhaps restricting the location of rodent activity and reducing the availability of burrows - rather than by direct predation pressure.

Legislation was introduced in Thailand in to prohibit the export of pythons and other selected snake species as they were considered to be important predators of rodents. Python molurus A large and lethargic, heavy-bodied snake; specimens of 3 m 10 ft length "are not very uncommon", and there is little doubt that it can exceed 6 m 20 ft Wall, Smith suggested an average length of around 3. The most heavily-built of the Asian python species, P. A more typical length would be perhaps m, although Smith suggested an average adult length of 5. The average length of snakes whose skins are traded can be calculated to be around 2.

A recent report Anon. This species is relatively more slender than P. Growth rates Among reptiles generally, growth is most rapid during the embryonic phase, intermediate after birth or hatching, and continues at a slow and decreasing rate after maturity is attained Bellairs, Among larger reptile species, growth potentially may continue long after the age of maturity; this contrasts with the typical situation in mammals, where growth stops relatively soon thereafter.

In mammals, skeletal growth occurs mainly by means of the ossification of cartilage cells in growth zones and it comes to an end when all cartilage growth zones themselves become fully ossified, making further bony growth impossible; in many reptiles, including varanid lizards and snakes generally, areas of growth cartilage, and thus the capacity for skeletal growth, persist throughout life Bellairs, The lack of a determinate growth pattern in reptiles that attain a large body size means that it impossible to define with complete accuracy both the mean and maximum size for any given species.

The exceptionally large pythons sometimes recorded appear to be those that have escaped the everyday hazards of existence for an exceptionally long period Bellairs, ; with the increased spread of human settlements in the tropics, such individuals will be increasingly rare, and none may now be expected to be able to attain the sizes that were possible a century ago.

Limitations of available growth data The data available on size and growth rates are mainly of two kinds: single measurements of wild-caught snakes, and measurements, single or series, of captive specimens. The former typically concern killed large-sized individuals. In both cases, sample sizes range from small to very small, and do not provide a firm basis for statistical investigations. The issue is further complicated by the observation that individuals from a single clutch or litter can vary significantly in size, and after a year of growth there will be further differences according to the prey that has been consumed, and other environmental conditions.

Ambient temperature, food intake and parasite load all affect growth rate in captivity and, although rigorous quantitative observations are lacking, experience suggests that individuals of similar age can show very different rates of growth under different maintenance regimes see, for example, Hingley, Given optimum conditions, including ready prey availability and minimal stress, growth seems likely to be potentially more rapid in captivity than in the wild, and maturity might thus be attained at younger ages in captivity.

This does not appear to have been demonstrated experimentally. Growth rates: some examples Probably the most extensive published data set concerns 'Sylvia', a pet Indian Python Python molurus bivitattus Pope, This snake was captured in north-east Burma in October , when of a size suggesting it was only a few weeks old. It was transported to USA and measured at fairly regular intervals between February and January ; this animal was extremely docile and allowed itself to be straightened out for relatively accurate measurement.

Data presented by Pope are graphed in Figure 1. Lederer provided less complete data on the growth in captivity of three Python reticulatus; see Figure 2. There are several more recent but less comprehensive figures in minor journals concerned with reptile keeping as a hobby. The long-term data sets published by Pope and by Lederer demonstrate that rapid growth occurred during the first three P. The transition between rapid and slow growth phases appears to take place during early maturity.

As in the case of size and growth rates, it is generally feasible to record the onset of maturity only in captive individuals, and extrapolation to wild conditions is likely to be misleading to an unknown extent see Limitations of available data in Growth section above.

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Python curtus Little information is available; the breeding female reported by Noble was 1. Python molurus Pope summarised a good deal of published information. The smallest male then recorded to have bred successfully at Nagpur Zoo, India was 1. Male maturity at this relatively small size appears to be exceptional, and has not been recorded since; the next smallest male was 2. Female maturity at around 2.

A pair recorded by de Clercq comprised a male 2. A female P. Leigh, cited by Pope stated that a female in captivity laid fertile eggs when one month short of three years in age, and the male of this pair was less than two years old. Smith recorded that sexual maturity is reached in Python molurus and P. According to Mattison females in captivity typically mature at around 4 m length, males at around 3 m, and these sizes can be attained in captivity in under three years.

According to Hingley an 'average' large python P. Python reticulatus Maturity in captivity tends to be attained at a length of around 3. Pope cited examples of a female sexually active at around 9' ' 3m in length and probably five or six years of age, and further females apparently mature at minimum sizes of Breeding Virtually all pythons, including P.

Python curtus Clutch size is relatively small, and ranges from 10 to 16 eggs Stafford, ; Mattison, , although rarely above 12 Mehrtens, Eggs average around 6 x 4 cm Noble, The eggs are brooded by the mother for two and a half to three months, hatchlings average around Mattison stated that hatchling length is in the range cm. Captive specimens have lived for at least 22 years. Python molurus In India, mating occurs during December-February the colder season ; the clutch of eggs, about 6 x 12 cm in size, is laid three to four months later, in the hot weather months of March-June Wall, In captivity, clutch size has ranged from 18 to 55, with According to Mattison, clutch sizes in the Burmese subspecies tend to be smaller than in the nominate form.

The female may deposit her eggs in a tree hole, under fallen branches, in a termite nest, or in a cavity in rocky ground, and typically incubates the eggs, which hatch around two months later. Hatchlings vary in size, according to Mattison typical length is around 55 cm. Captive specimens have lived for at least 22 years Shaw, Python reticulatus In captive animals, mating occurs around the turn of the year, with egg laying usually between April and October Wall, a , about two months after the last mating.

Clutch size tends to be greater with increasing size and age of the female; extremes of 8 and have been recorded Lim, ; Reitinger, Females 4 m in length typically lay eggs, about 6 x 12 cm in size. Pope presented a table showing a positive correlation between female size and clutch size; the mean of ten clutches was Clutch sizes recorded in captivity are most often in the range Mattison, Pope cited a report of two nests in Sumatra, one in a hollow log, the other in a hole under bamboo roots.

The female coils around the eggs and broods them for the entire incubation period of 2. Hatchlings are typically between cm Mattison, Captive specimens have a maximum recorded age of 21 years. Summary of selected reproduction data for three Asian python species.


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Note: all entries are approximate representative values only and refer almost exclusively to captive animals; see text for sources and further details. Column 1: age at maturity refers to captive snakes and shows marked individual variation. Column 3: the first figure is an approximate mean, published ranges appear in parentheses. Column 5: a representative figure for the upper size range, not maximum recorded or suggested values. Python molurus bivittatus Reported from the Chittagong region Kock and Schroder, Python reticulatus Restricted to the Chittagong and Sylhet areaj Khan, Widely distributed and present in all 21 districts about three decades ago, but due to habitat changes there have been only two records of sightings outside government controlled forests in the past decade Khan, Small populations survive in evergreen forest in the east N.

According to Sarker and Sarker , and Sarker , P. Python reticulatus While always confined to rain forests in the east and south-east, habitat destruction has reduced and fragmented the range and only two small populations remain, in Sylhet and Chittagong Khan, The species was apparently always restricted to semi-evergreen and evergreen forests and was nowhere common Khan, Khan considers the species to be rare, in part because of persecution for skins and food; another authority considers it common within its restricted range Bangladesh CITES MA, Japanese Customs statistics Table 27 record a small quantity of snake skins but there is no indication of what species was involved.

Python molurus bivittatus No records are available; possibly absent from the island of Borneo see under Indonesia. Python reticulatus A very large specimen, a little over 6. Python reticulatus No information. Python reticulatus According to Bourret , the species occurred throughout the former ' Indochine Francaise' which included present Cambodia , particularly in marshy areas. There appear to be no recent records Saint Girons, However traders in Thailand report that substantial quantities of skins are obtained from Cambodia and exported from Thailand see p.

Schmidt cited a report by Swinhoe dating from the latter part of the nineteenth century, to the effect that people on Hainan often brought pythons into the market for the sake of their heart and liver used, dried and ground, as a stimulant , and the skin used chiefly in musical instruments. Pope, also cited in Schmidt , collected reptiles in the vicinity of Nodoa in and reported that pythons appeared "fairly common Wall noted that python meat was regarded as a great delicacy in southern China. There was also a report of P. Traders in Singapore report that P.

According to Karsen et al. Karsen et al. There is one large company, Steven Law, Kaiser Tannery, to whom traders in Thailand report having exported substantial quantities of skin. With reference to subspecific assignment of P. Other sources Daniel, ; Tikader, state that the species also occurs in mainland India, in the extreme north-east, but these reports seem to be unconfirmed. Also said to be in severe decline, extremely rare outside protected areas, and considered a threatened species Tikader, Wall thought the species far commoner in the plains than the hills.

Python reticulatus Restricted distribution, numbers unknown Whitaker and Whitaker, ; officially considered threatened Tikader, However, exports have been prohibited since , and recent statistics show evidence of much lower levels of trade. The nominate subspecies of P. Numerous tribes in the plains and hills use the snake and its eggs for food; the fat is applied externally to alleviate bruising, sprains, fractures and rheumatics, and taken internally for leprosy Wall, The species is still hunted to some extent; e.

It is most unlikely that the skins were truly P.

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Although reported from Borneo de Haas, , the species ' occurrence is doubted by at least one authority R. Inger in litt. On the other hand, Gusti et al. De Rooij cited a questionable record from Sumatra. Python reticulatus Widespread, extending in the west to Sumatra and adjacent islands including the Mentawai group, and in the east to Halmahera, Seram and Tanimbar but not to Irian Jaya de Rooij, ; de Haas, Probably present on numerous smaller islands. In Central Kalimantan most skins originate from swamp forests and forests in the upper reaches of the Barito, Kahayan and Kapuas Rivers Gusti et al.

Python molurus bivittatus Little information is available. A skin dealer in Jakarta reported that P. Python reticulatus One early twentieth century source cites this species as very common de Rooij, More recently, McNeely in litt. Honegger, 15 January considered the species uncommon throughout its range, and becoming depleted in Indonesia because of hunting for skin and meat. It was considered rare in West Java by de Haas Over a period of a few years, he paid many hundreds of workers on two tea estates to collect snakes; both estates were several hundred hectares in extent and included primary forest, secondary forest INDONESIA 37 and tea plantation.

On one estate, only one P. According to Anon. Individuals are killed whenever encountered and "specimens exceeding 4 m in length are quite commonly killed"; on Siberut, python meat is eaten only in the Simatulu region Anon. Silvius et al. Whitten et al.

MacKinnon noted that the species remains common in most forests in northern Sulawesi, despite being killed for meat or skin whenever encountered he attributed its persistence to the unusual abundance of rats in the region. Informants cited by Gusti et al. Traders who visit villages to buy skins reported that between 10 and 50 useable skins might be obtained from a given locality each month; Gusti et al.

An average catch for a four- or five- man collecting expedition lasting seven to 20 days would comprise between two and eight snakes in the 3- to 6-m size range; this is equivalent to between four and 12 man-days per snake. The following five paragraphs summarise the views of skin dealers interviewed in Indonesia by Luxmoore. In so far as dealers might have their own business reasons for giving incomplete or misleading information, although we have no evidence that this is the case, some caution is advised in interpreting their comments.

The consensus was that pythons in general remain readily available to the skin trade, although decline is apparent in some areas e. Sumatra and some difficulty in obtaining skins can in part be attributed to increased competition in the trade. The term 'python' here will usually refer to P. Most dealers confirmed that whilst skin supplies had in general remained level, many more people were involved at all levels of the trade, including collectors, middlemen and main dealers, and vast new areas of land e.

These observations can most readily be interpreted to indicate a significant decline in the occurrence and density of python populations in some regions. However, a fourth trader reported some decline in turnover, which he attributed to much increased competition. South Sumatra Palembang An exporter reported no difference in the supply of skins during the 20 years he had been in business.

Two buyers agreed that it was easy to obtain skins 10 or 20 years ago when few trappers were active and the market was more restricted; most snake skins now come from transmigration areas, where many of the immigrants collect snakes for part of their income, and where snake populations would be expected to have a relatively high density initially. Reportedly, a group of five or six men could catch 30 pythons during a two-week expedition. Kalimantan One buyer in West Kalimantan reported that more skins are available now compared with a decade ago because there are now more collectors; another in East Kalimantan asserted that there are still plenty of pythons in the forest and collectors do not have to travel far from the rivers in order to catch them.

It is probable that skins are exported amongst shipments of P. A number of other large boids occur in Irian Jaya and the Moluccas see Table 3 , but their skins are considered to be of low value and are apparently not traded. They also trade in the rarer boids, especially Morelia albert isii , M. Snake meat is not widely consumed in Indonesia as most of the people are Muslims, but some ethnic groups, notably in North Sumatra and Kalimantan, may occasionally eat the meat. Gall bladders are in great demand for Chinese medicine, and when snakes are killed for their skins the gall bladder is usually extracted and dried.

Hunting methods Pythons are usually caught in nets set in rivers or streams at right angles to the bank. Occasionally, baited hooks are used, and snakes are also caught on an opportunistic basis by agricultural workers. The skins of such animals are often damaged by knives or other implements. Larger snakes may be skinned in the field, but the smaller animals are often brought into the towns to be skinned by the dealers, who are generally more skilled.

The skins are nailed out on boards and air-dried. The majority of pythons are caught in the wet season; dealers in Palembang and Medan reporting that up to twice as many may be caught a month as in the dry season. Legislation The legal system by which capture and trade in wildlife is controlled in Indonesia was described in detail in Luxmoore and Groombridge in press , a shortened summary will therefore be given here.

Capture permits are issued to allow the capture of all wildlife. The quotas, which are reviewed annually, are shown in Tables 6 and 7. Permits are usually issued to the main traders rather than to the local trappers. In some provinces, responsibility for issuing permits has been delegated to the local PHPA office. Domestic transport permits are required to transport wildlife products within Indonesia. These permits are also issued by the Kantor Wilayah and should not exceed the total quantity of specimens for which capture permits have been issued.

Domestic transport permits are not widely used, and checks are seldom, if ever, made. Capture quotas for Python reticulatus allocated to the different provinces in Indonesia. Revised quotas b were allocated by the new Director General, Sutisna, by a Decree dated 2 May In practice, such checks appear not to be made, and the number of specimens permitted to be exported routinely exceeds the total capture quota for the whole country by a large margin. Export permits for P. A further decree, issued by the Ministry of Trade, to prohibit the export of raw skins in an attempt to bolster the tanning industry was extended to apply to the export of reptile skins in At that time, few tanners had the expertise to process reptile skins to an internationally acceptable standard, and none had modern technology.

Capture quotas for Python curtus allocated to the different provinces in Indonesia. No quotas were allocated for this species from Several other companies relied on local back-yard tanning facilities, but it was clearly not possible to process all of the reptile skins. Consequently, special permits were issued by the Department of Trade to allow the export of raw skins. This was viewed as an interim measure, and it was intended that the proportion of skins exported raw would decline Luxmoore and Groombridge, in press. The relative numbers of permits issued for raw and tanned python skins in and are shown in Tables 10 and Although progress has undoubtedly been made towards establishing a reptile skin tanning industry, difficulties have been experienced, and the proportion of raw skins rose in Python molurus was listed as protected in by Ministry of Agriculture Decree No.

Woreiia viridis and Python timoriensis were protected by Decree No. Table They buy skins from all around the country and export them from Jakarta airport. The principal exception is Makmur Abadi Permai, which has a tannery in East Kalimantan see below and exports tanned skins from Samarinda. It also exports raw skins from Jakarta.

The director of this company has close family links with Sumber Karya and Sumber Murni, the latter based in Ujung Pandang. Skins from both these companies are processed in the tannery in Surabaya and exported from Jakarta. The capture quota for the whole of Java for P. None of these offices had any records to indicate that capture or domestic transport permits had been issued in their provinces, and most of the activity seems to relate to the control of exports.

The premises of the exporters are inspected up to twice a year and the skins are inventoried. An inventory in December revealed total stocks of P. When consignments are ready for export, the staff of the Sub-Balai in Jakarta inspect the goods in the company of inspectors from Sucofindo a subsidiary of Societe Generale de Surveillance , who are responsible for implementing Customs controls. They check that the goods comply with the description in the export permit, after which the cases are sealed and taken to the airport in bond.

Controls on the capture and trade of pythons in Java are very poor. In spite of the fact that the quota in was 16 , and that no capture permits were issued, the traders indicate that they may obtain as many as 90 skins a year on the island see below. Controls on domestic transport are generally not enforced. Many thousands of skins each year pass between Jakarta and the tannery in Surabaya but this movement is not controlled by transport permits.

More importantly, the bulk of the skins exported from Jakarta are brought from Sumatra and Kalimantan without transport permits. In verifying the stocks permitted to be exported, the Sub-Balai apparently makes no attempt to determine whether they were legally obtained. A large tannery was built in the city in The company receives python skins from dealers all over southern Sumatra and exports them directly from Palembang.

There are also three other skin dealers in Palembang, P. Budiman, Andy Lesmana and Husin Wijaya, which do not have permits to export skins but sell their goods to Stock Borsuma and other exporters in Jakarta. It can be seen that the quota was exceeded in , but adhered to strictly in subsequent years. When new quotas were allocated in May see Table 6 , no attempt was made to issue more capture permits to fill the increased quota of 30 Capture permits for P. Budiman Husin Wijaya Total S Sumatra quota Domestic transport permits were issued to each of the three smaller traders in and to allow them to send their quotas of skins in and in to Jakarta.

The Kantor Wilayah also keeps records of the number of reptile skins exported from South Sumatra, and publishes these in its annual reports. Data from are given in Table Although the accounting years are slightly different, it is apparent that the quantities in Table 13 are substantially lower than quantities specified in the export permits issued for Stock Borsuma Table 8. It should also be noted that, until , both sets of figures are higher than the capture quotas for South Sumatra. Export of P. The fiscal year runs from April-March.

These are characterised by extensive deforestation, and the snakes displaced by these activities are easy prey for the hunters. The approximate proportions of python skins purchased from the different provinces by three dealers in Palembang are given in Table Very few P. Approximate percentage of P. None had a tannery in , but all had plans to develop tanning facilities in order to comply with the Department of Trade regulations. Most of the skins collected are exported directly from Medan, although some are sold to other exporters in Jakarta.

The capture permits issued from to are shown in Table From onwards, the permits for both species were the same as the quotas, except that, as in South Sumatra, no account seems to have been taken of the revised quotas issued in May see Tables 6 and 7. In and , capture permits were issued to named agents of the three exporters, scattered around North Sumatra. Each exporter had between 18 and 39 agents Luxmoore and Groombridge, in press.

This system was changed in , when each of the three exporters was simply issued with a single capture permit, with a list of his agents appended to it. Domestic transport permits are occasionally issued when one of the dealers requests to send skins to Jakarta. The Kantor Wilayah had no records of any transport permits having been issued in or but in a permit for P. The PHPA Balai in Medan keeps records of the number of skins that have been exported from Medan, and notes these in its annual reports. Data from onwards are given in Table It can be seen that the number of skins exported shown in Table 16 greatly exceeds the number specified on the capture permits Table 15 , but is usually far lower than the quantities of skins specified on the export permits issued to these three companies by PHPA Directorate General in Bogor Tables 8 and 9.

Number of python skins specified on capture permits issued to three companies in Medan. The majority come from North Sumatra and Aceh. Within Indonesia, Medan is the centre of trade in skins of P. Two colour varieties are found, a reddish variety and a brown one. An experienced dealer, who had been in the business for 25 years, reported that the red type came principally from Tapanuli, Tanah Karo, Simalungun, Labuhan Batu, Aceh, Pakanbaru, Padang, Jambi and a few from Lampung.

It is particularly associated with the palm plantations, where it is said to eat rats. The brown type was said to come mainly from Tapanuli, Asahan and Lampung, where it favours rockier habitats, although it can be found in the same areas as the red variety. West Kalimantan There are no dealers who are permitted to export python skins from Pontianak, but there are several who collect skins and sell them to exporters in Jakarta.

The main dealer, Budiyono Widjaya, claims to sell about 40 python skins a year. Most are P. He has been 48 INDONESIA trading skins for more than ten years, and used to export them directly to Singapore before the stricter export regulations were implemented in Two other dealers have permits to capture V. Realisation of export of python skins by three companies in Medan.

Years run from Apr-Mar. It is the Sub-Balai, not the Kantor Wilayah, which issues capture and domestic transport permits. Capture permits are valid for six months, and domestic transport permits, which are issued to send skins to Jakarta, for only two days. The capture quota for West Kalimantan in was originally only , but this was subsequently increased to 15 For some obscure reason, no quotas were granted for the years and , but it seems most unlikely that this had any inhibitory effect on the capture of pythons in the province.

Most of the pythons are said to come from Manpawa, Sambas, Sinkawang, Sintang, Ketapang, and around Pontianak, mainly in the forests and swamps, although the snakes are said to move into the rice fields in the wet season. Both species of python are said to be found in similar areas. Makmur Abadi Permai. It was built in and started operation in By , it was working at full capacity, around python skins and 50 Varanus skins a month, and a new tannery was under construction which was intended to double the capacity. Before , the company had an agent in Samarinda who sent skins for export to Jakarta, but tanned skins are now exported directly from Balikpapan to Singapore.

The number of skins recommended by PHPA and those specified in the permits issued for are shown in Table There was considerable confusion over the capture quotas for , because the Sub-Balai did not have details at the beginning of the year. Towards the end of August, they managed to obtain a copy of the original quotas i.

They were unaware that the quota had subsequently been increased to 90 The number of skins specified in domestic transport permits issued is also shown in Table Few were issued, as most of the skins covered by the capture permits were tanned and exported by Makmur Abadi Permai. It is almost certain that any skins purchased by Kaltim Indah Raya will have been sent to Jakarta for export, but no transport permits were issued. There are also a few P. The company has about regular suppliers, who bring skins to sell in Samarinda.

In the dry season, they may come by road, but for the rest of the year they come by boat. Ika Guna, but two others, C. Suastika Jaya, and C. Kaltim Indah Raya, sell skins to exporters in Java. All three are based in Banjarmasin. There are no facilities for tanning reptile skins for export in South Kalimantan, and all are therefore exported in a raw state.

The capture quota for P. There is no capture quota for P. Also shown are the number of skins of P. It can be seen that these bear little resemblance to the numbers of snakes captured as recorded by the local PHPA office. Capture quotas for P. Export permits refer to the numbers issued to C. It is notable that there is close agreement between the monetary values of the export statistics collected by the two departments, but the volumes recorded differ by an order of magnitude Table Assuming that the mean length of skins was 3.

There are at least two companies in Banjarmasin and one in Barabai which manufacture products from python skins. Some of the products are sold locally c. One of the firms, which has 30 employees, claims to buy 20 python skins a month, most of which are used to produce belts and watchstraps. Representative prices are shown in Table 20 Gusti et al.

Volume and value of reptile skin exports from South Kalimantan compiled by the Department of Industry columns and Department of Industry columns Gusti et al. Dept of Industry Dept of Industry P. Prices Rp of products manufactured from python skin in Banjarmasin Gusti et al. Price to craftsman Belt 10 cm Belt cm Belt 2 cm Handbag Ladies' shoes Purse Wallet Watchstrap Price in shop In South Kalimantan, most of the snakes are caught in the swamps around Cindai Alus, the Martapura area and the Sungai Negara wetlands.

In Central Kalimantan, the swamp forests of the upper reaches of the Barito, Kahayan and Kapuas rivers are the main sources. Some trapping is carried out by specialist trappers, in which case a group of men will make expeditions of days into the forest, during which time they would expect to catch pythons. Other pythons are caught incidentally by villagers and farmers.

Skins are sold to local traders and visiting middlemen, who wait until they have accumulated skins before taking them to sell in Banjarmasin Gusti et al. Formerly the company used to export from Ujung Pandang but recently they have exported through Kaltim Indah Raya in Jakarta. Owing to time constraints, it was not possible to visit Sulawesi and so details of the operation of the permitting system are not known. Skins of both P. One dealer in Jakarta claimed that the skins of P. From until , only 67 skins of P.

Declared exports of P. Reported exports of P. The corresponding imports were much lower, owing principally to the fact that no imports have been reported by Singapore, one of the main destinations cf snake skins. Exports of python skins recorded in Indonesia's CITES annual reports compared with imports reported by the importing countries. No trade recorded. Comparison of the quantities and destinations of python skins recorded in Indonesia's CITES Annual Report for with those specified in the permits issued. Ann Rep Permits P. In and , the annual reports submitted by Indonesia recorded more skins of P.

In , permits were issued for P. It is difficult to explain this discrepancy except in terms of a serious omission from the annual report. The annual report is based on permits issued, there being no mechanism for incorporating information from permits returned by Customs, but it is possible that if some permits were not used, they may have been returned by the traders and subsequently excluded from the annual report. Whatever the reason, it appears that the export of P. Exports of P. It is probable that P. This corresponds closely with the data in Table 8.

Further data on snake skin exports are contained in the Indonesian Customs statistics Table 25 , which do not differentiate species of snakes, but merely "Snakes hide and skin" category Exports have varied from 21 tonnes x. Exports appeared to fall sharply from to , but then rose again in Figure 3. The average weight of the skins exported has varied from 41 to g, and this may give an indication of the species of snake traded; air-dried P.

Dealers in Singapore reported that trade before was almost exclusively in python skins, but that the smaller species have only become fashionable since that date. This agrees fairly closely with the data in Table 25, which show that the average weight fell from g in to 51 g in The sudden rise in average weight in is puzzling, but it was accompanied by a ten-fold drop in the number of skins reported. It is possible that this indicates a relative increase in the number of python skins traded at the expense of the smaller species.

This confirms that the overall number of snake skins did halve in , but that the number of python skins continued to increase. Indonesian Customs statistics also specify the ports from which the snake skins have been exported Table These confirm that snake skins come mainly from Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan, with very few from Sulawesi or the eastern provinces. This is not a reflection of the source of the skins, but of changing trade patterns. Formerly the Singaporean importers dealt directly with the small traders and middlemen in the provinces but, now, most of the skins pass through the hands of large Indonesian exporters based in Jakarta.

Part of this change may be attributable to the increasing importance of air transport and ease of movement around the Indonesian archipelago, part to the growing economic independence of Indonesian businessmen, and part to the centralisation of permitting facilities in Bogor. However, as the main shift to exporting through Java took place in and , before Indonesia joined CITES, the centralisation of permitting was probably of lesser importance in this transition. It is tempting to suggest that this decline might be due to a decreasing supply of snakes, but evidence from the traders in Indonesia and Singapore suggests that a decreasing demand was responsible: the price had risen too high in , causing the consumers to stop buying python skins.

Dealers in Singapore reported that they had still been buying skins, albeit at lower prices, from the Indonesian traders, but had been stockpiling them anticipating being able to re-export them at a later date. Similarly, some of the Indonesian exporters said that they had continued to buy skins from their suppliers and were stockpiling them, waiting for the price to rise. One exporter in Medan claimed to have a stock of python skins obtained in this way. Other traders in Indonesia reported that their purchase of python skins had declined more substantially.

In the short term, it would appear that this was not the case, but if the slump in demand continues for a few more years, it is possible that the full effect of the drop in price of skins may work its way back to the snake hunters. Domestic trade The usual trade route for python skins is to pass from the hunters in the villages, through the hands of one or more middlemen, to the main exporters. It is difficult to ascertain the true price of skins, partially because the traders involved had a variety of reasons for distorting the price when questioned, and partially because there had been very sharp fluctuations over the past year.

Prices for standard-sized P. Undersized P. Prices per metre for P. The value was said to range from Rp to a kg. As dealers estimate that there are bladders to a kg, the gall bladder can add Rp to the value of each snake. There is a small trade in live pythons from dealers, most of whom are based in Jakarta. The export price for P. The export of wildlife products from Indonesia is controlled by a complex permitting procedure involving the setting of capture quotas for each province, and the issuance of separate capture, domestic transport and export permits.

Capture permits are issued in the provinces and do not usually exceed the quotas, but they have little effect in limiting the skin harvest.