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  2. Pietro Verri - Wikipedia
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The role of ideas is central to this picture: a class of individuals understands the existence of [[national demand]] for certain goods and produces it at better conditions than foreign competitors. In the second case, consumption is smaller than production, and the balance of commerce is favorable. As a matter of fact, Verri engages himself in demonstrating that a favorable balance of commerce is possible at certain conditions, that inflation is not a necessary outcome of it, and finally that a growth of the real side of the economy is consistent with it.

Inflation takes place only if the extra monetary demand clashes with rigidities on the supply side in this case, money "stops" in the hands of an unmodified number of sellers. However, this case is not very likely in a "polite" nation. Verri describes here a sort of Hume - Cantillon transmission mechanism without inflation. Additional money, passing from hand to hand, incites industry and puts unemployed factors at work.

The Verrian self-sustained mechanism of growth based on increasing income, new needs, and new productions, is the result of this first impulse. Here too, the entrepreneurial spirit plays an essential part. Like the other parts of his economic contribution, Verri's theory of distribution also springs from the theory of needs and desires. As many of the economists of his time, Verri has a preference for a society in which the weight of the middle class is large. The members of this class, urged by their needs, are stimulated to work hard in order to better their condition.

Inequality of fortunes, as far as it is moderate and gradual, is an additional stimulus, giving to everyone a hope to ascend in the social scale. On the contrary, when inequality is too high, society is condemned to poverty and to a stationary state. Rich landlords take no care of their goods, having no anxiety for future welfare.

Moreover, the poor are too poor to be influenced by superior need and to hope to better their condition. As in the savage state, the poor have primary needs, but imagination and desire play no role in their life. Absolute equality of properties is not a better solution. The only effect of the Roman agrarian laws and of similar institutions are that of destroying desire and hindering development.

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As early as , Verri's early study Meditiazioni sulla felicita—usually classified as a philosophical pamphlet—is written. Verri spells out the foundational pieces of his approach to civil life. Afterward, as resistance against his reforming work in administration stiffened, Verri devoted himself increasingly to philosophy. In he wrote Dell'indole del piacere e del dolore "Discourse on Pleasure and Pain" , [16] [17] followed in by Osservazioni sulla tortura "Observations on Torture" , in which he stressed the uselessness and cruelty of torture.

He argues that the excess of desires over and above possibilities or "power" is a measure of unhappiness. He appears from the start as one of the leading representatives eighteenth-century eudomistic views. Happiness, Verri argues, can be pursued in two ways.

Pietro Verri - Wikipedia

Happiness, in fact, consists in the reduction of the difference between the two elements of desires and power: that reduction can be achieved by acting upon either one or the other of the two elements. It can be said therefore that the object of happiness being reduced to a difference, it can be conquered either by "addition" of power or by "subtraction" of desires.

Verri declares addition to be superior. An addition in the form of the enlargement of power provides the main route to happiness as compared with a check on desires. Verri, however, lays a special emphasis upon creativity rather than mere enjoyment of what is already in our possession as a condition for happiness.

A comprehensive reading of Verri's economic and philosophical writings suggests a new perspective in the analysis of the interplay between moral sense theory , legislation and the competitive framework of a market economy which is not irrelevant to the understanding of the same relationship in other eighteenth-century writers, including Adam Smith. For Verri's Meditazioni are explicitly rooted in a 'historical' investigation of moral sentiments, and of the way in which these may influence the pursuit of private or public interest , and the characteristics of legislation.

Beccaria had been largely inspired by Verri himself and defended by him. It is proposed in the present paper to revisit some of the basic tenets of Pietro Verri's political economy, with more in view than dwell on specific intuitions and theorems: namely, relate those to Verri's own—quite original—conception of the economy. In the nineteenth century, Jean-Baptiste Say showed a favorable attitude towards Verri's treatment of productive and unproductive labor.

However, Caspari mentions Voltaire's thanks to Verri for sending him a copy of the Meditazioni, dating it precisely at 19 March on the authority of Mauri. Adam Smith personal library included two copies and of Verri's Political economy. Adam Smith 's reading Italian ability is well documented. The themes of a probable influence of Verri on Smith the analysis is based on a comparison of Verri's Economia Politica with Smith's Wealth of Nations can be summarized as follows:.

In spite of favorable references to Verri by such authorities as McCulloch and Ingram, Verri's fortune as an economist was inferior to his merits. In he began the Storia di Milano "History of Milan", two volumes, and , a notable example of Enlightenment historiography.

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Joseph II's increasing despotism led Verri to abandon any position in the Austrian administration of Lombardy in ; ten years later, after the French invasion , he returned as a member of the Milanese municipality and was one of the founders of the Cisalpine Republic. Though disapproving the Jacobin excesses, Verri, however, welcomed the possibility of moral and economic improvement in the aftermath of the French Revolution , which he considered influenced in turn by the Enlightenment movement.

In , he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. On the night of 28 June , during a meeting in the hall of the Municipality, he died of a sudden apoplectic attack, at sixty-eight. He is buried in the chapel of the Sanctuary of the Blessed Virgin of Lazzaretto di Ornago, next to his first wife.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Pietro Verri. European Journal of the History of Economic Thought. Reflections on Political Economy. Fairfield N.

  • Die Personenkonstellation in der Antigone von Sophokles, Anouilh und Brecht (German Edition).
  • Pelos Teus Lindos Olhos (Portuguese Edition).
  • Introduction!
  • La felicità domestica.
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History of Economic Analysis. London: Routledge, De Felice ed. A process of translation of the original scale was performed in different stages in order to obtain a fully comprehensible and accurate Italian translation. Later, the scale was administered to a convenience sample of patients who had experienced a condition of coma and were, at the time of assessment, fully conscious and able to provide information as requested by the scale.

Inter-rater [ K w 0. Main features of the NDEs include out-of-body experiences, peaceful feelings, and transcendental or mystical experiences. Specifically, out-of-body experiences are characterized by a sensation of self-visualization from a position of height while transcendental or mystical experiences imply an apparent passage of the consciousness into a foreign dimension. The phenomenology of NDEs has been reported with sufficient consistency to consider them not as a cultural phenomenon but as a phenomenon with specific scientific features and underlying neural mechanisms.

In fact, although no specific features have been universally described by all NDE experiencers, there are numerous cases of apparent correlations between specific NDEs features and circumstances in which the NDEs occur Lake, All these observations prompted the diffusion of several studies investigating the frequency and relevance of NDEs, the causes for NDEs heterogeneity across different life-threatening conditions, and the possible neural mechanisms underlying NDEs phenomenology Charland-Verville et al.

Biological, psychological, and transpersonal models have been proposed to explain NDEs contents but there is still no consensus on a single unifying model Lake, However, it is available in the original English version only, which cannot be used in Italian patients because of intercultural differences and possible misunderstandings.

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The NDE Scale has been derived by a previous questionnaire including 80 manifestations commonly described in the phenomenological literature of NDEs. Among these 80 manifestations, the 40 items most commonly reported were selected. A later analysis lead to the exclusion of further seven items because of their redundancy or ambiguity, with the remaining 33 items being reworded into questions with 3-point-scaled answers, to allow the scoring of each item as definitely present, questionable or atypical, and definitively absent Greyson, This preliminary item questionnaire was administered to 67 subjects in two times in order to assess internal consistency and test—retest reliability.

The final NDE Scale resulting from this process included 16 questions grouped into four psychologically meaningful clusters: the cognitive cluster, the affective cluster, the paranormal cluster, and the transcendental cluster. For each item, the scores are arranged on an ordinal scale ranging from 0 to 2 i. This scale has been used in several studies investigating the prevalence of NDE in different populations. No studies have been carried out in the Italian population probably due to the lack of an Italian version of the scale. Three authors belonging to the research group completed three separate translations of the scale.

A back translation of a selected version was made to check for any errors occurred during the original translation. The most accurate Italian translation was selected within a consensus meeting, with special attention being paid to the consistency of the new scale to the original one.

A convenience sample of 20 patients was included in this study. Diagnostic reliability across raters inter-rater reliability and ratings intra-rater reliability was investigated as follows: the Italian Version was administered to all the included patients by two health care professionals in the same day. The two raters independently assessed each patient and recorded both total scores and single-item subscores. Each rater was blinded with respect to the information collected by the other rater.

After 2 weeks, a second evaluation by the first rater was made in order to estimate test—retest reliability. In the case of patients with locked-in syndrome LIS , in whom the only movements preserved are blinking and vertical eye movements, the clinical interview was made by means of an eye-coded channel as usually it occurs in these patients. Main anagraphical and clinical data of all the patients were also collected.

At the time of the interview all the included patients were fully conscious and cognitively preserved as established by the inclusion criteria. Only three patients reported a minimum score of 7 or higher, which is the cut-off of the original NDE Scale to establish the presence of a NDE as a unitary phenomenon Greyson, Our findings provide support for the use of the Italian version of the NDE Scale in clinical research. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the prevalence of NDEs in the Italian population.

This is probably due to the lack of an Italian version of the scale, which is traditionally used to assess NDEs. In this study we provided a reliable Italian Version of the NDE scale showing an excellent inter-rater and intra-rater agreement. This tool may be used to investigate NDEs in subjects who experienced a condition close to death real NDE or non-life-threatening events without any brain damage NDE-like experiences Charland-Verville et al.

Patients with a past history of coma are the ideal candidates to investigate real NDE, when residual cognitive dysfunctions do not interfere with the clinical interview Teasdale and Jennett, ; Plum and Posner, They include patients who directly recovered consciousness after a transitory phase of coma or patients who entered intermediates states, such as VS or MCS, before recovering consciousness Giacino et al. Patients with LIS, showing a condition of coma in the acute stage of their disease, are also frequently asked to report about NDE Charland-Verville et al.

Patients with LIS, although being traditionally described as cognitively intact, often show a series of non-motor symptoms that can be interpreted in the framework of an embodiment disorder Sacco et al. Intriguingly, some of these symptoms seem to share common features and similar underlying neurophysiological mechanisms with some NDEs phenomena, especially those involving out-of-body perceptions and emotional engagement.

Previous research on NDEs is extremely heterogeneous, depending on the clinical characteristics of the targeted research population. NDEs mainly include pleasant feelings such as peacefulness, painlessness, and joy. Less pleasant feelings have been reported in a minority of near-death experiencers, including patients with LIS Charland-Verville et al. Brain injury-related mechanisms, which can influence the development of NDEs in coma survivors, include anoxic brain damage, hypoxia, hypercapnia, abnormal temporal lobe dysfunctions, and administration of sedatives Charland-Verville et al.

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An interesting study recently investigated differences in NDEs characteristics depending on the brain injury etiology but it failed to detect any differences in intensity or contents across different brain diseases Charland-Verville et al. However, it should be stressed that NDEs have been described non only in life-threatening events directly involving the brain but also in multiple other conditions including cardiac arrest, traumatic circumstances, and conditions of altered mental status under the influence of potentially psychoactive medications Curran, ; Parnia et al. Moreover, a wide spectrum of NDE-like experiences after non-life-threatening events, not associated with real closeness to death or coma, has been described Charland-Verville et al.

This suggests that other mechanisms may be engaged in the development of NDE phenomenology Facco and Agrillo, The strengths of our study included the use of a standardized protocol in the process of translation and in the assessment of inter-rater and test—retest reliability, and the selection of a target population who experienced real life-threatening conditions as a result of a wide spectrum of brain injuries.

Moreover, we included patients in whom consciousness recovery occurred in different times and modalities: some patients directly moved from coma to a condition of full consciousness while others experienced intermediate states such as VS and MCS. A limitation of our study lies with the inclusion of a small sample, which avoided us to perform subgroup analyses in order to investigate NDEs consistency or heterogeneity across coma of different aetiologies and duration.

However, this was beyond the aim of this study, which was mainly intended to provide a screening instrument to identify NDEs among unselected patients and to expand the research in this field. The frequency of NDEs phenomena in our sample was low, with only three patients having shown a minimum score of 7 or higher, which is the cut-off of the original NDE Scale to establish the presence of a NDE as a unitary phenomenon.

This finding is in line with previous incidence reports in post head injury patients Hou et al. Further studies are necessary in order to better assess the frequency, intensity, and heterogeneity of NDEs across different diseases and conditions as well as their impact on belief systems and emotions of patients experiencing them.

Finally, studies based on larger samples of patients coming from different countries will also allow to identify any additional set of phenomena, not being clearly detected by the present tool, and to further expand the field of research across different cultural settings. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The authors wish to acknowledge Dr.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Hum Neurosci v. Front Hum Neurosci. Published online Feb 9. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Reviewed by: Andrew A. Received Nov 29; Accepted Jan The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Near-death experiences NDEs have been defined as any conscious perceptual experience occurring in individuals pronounced clinically dead or who came very close to physical death. Keywords: near-death experiences, coma, vegetative state, minimally conscious state, locked-in syndrome. Table 1 Original version of the NDE scale. Did time seem to speed up?