Manual Naples: 1940s to 1970s (Images of America)

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The Spectrum of Sacrifice
Contents:


  1. Hazardous Conditions Beyond the Front Lines
  2. The Historical Truth Behind Elena Ferrante's Neapolitan Novels
  3. American Pie | AMERICAN HERITAGE
  4. The Spectrum of Sacrifice

Santos was one of those volunteers.

She was fluent in Italian, musically inclined and helping with a talent show at the center on the night of April Naples, shown here before the terrorist attack, was one of more than 55 worldwide ports where the USO provided support to sailors in the s. Photo credit USO. Garzelli was born in New York City to Italian immigrants. A dual citizen, he returned to Italy with his family when he was He was a student at the University of Salerno in when he took a part-time position at USO Naples to earn extra cash. Until the terrorist attacks in Germany and Italy, Garzelli said most people working near the Naples port felt relaxed and safe.

In fact, Santos told her mother that her port position felt safer than sea duty. After deadly bombings in Germany killed U. There were two U. Navy ships in port on that spring night and the center was filled with American sailors. Garzelli and Santos, there helping with talent show, could not have known the Ford Fiesta rental car parked outside concealed a bomb. The talent show ran late, and participants and spectators were just beginning to leave when the bomb exploded.

Garzelli said he saw fire and smoke, and heard people screaming and began searching for survivors. She was the first female sailor to be killed in a terrorist attack. Santos, 21, was helping with a USO talent show when the blast occurred.

Hazardous Conditions Beyond the Front Lines

Service members politely accept the sentiment from civilians, sometimes with mixed feelings. Similarly, USO employees demur when they are thanked for their work. Even staffers in war zones immediately reject any expression that likens their labor to those who serve in the armed forces. Sarah Kemp was 25 when she accepted the duty manager position at a USO center in Kandahar, Afghanistan, which was considered a hazardous location.

For reasons she finds difficult to articulate, she completed her one-year contract and extended her post for another nine months. When she returned to the states in , she found herself running races in honor of service members killed in Iraq and Afghanistan. At one of those races, she saw a tribute table with rows of names of those who were recently killed in action and realized she recognized some of the names. She had attended their ramp ceremonies.


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  • Doing It Free (New Adult Erotic Romance) Book 3.
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Friends and family asked why she chose to continue such difficult and emotional work in a dangerous war zone. USO staff, volunteers and entertainers continue their efforts in war zones because they believe in the mission and service members still need their support. The front lines are arguably where the USO is needed the most. And the closer they are to the front lines, the more emphatically USO employees stress that service members and their families are making the ultimate sacrifices and therefore should be the only ones receiving gratitude for their service.

The USO assisted crew members and their families with travel arrangements, currency exchanges, translation and emergency communications.

The Historical Truth Behind Elena Ferrante's Neapolitan Novels

USO Naples served military members stationed in the area and the sailors who arrived at port for brief stopovers. Much like USO centers past and present, USO Naples had only a handful of paid staff and relied on the volunteer support from locals, active-duty service members and their families. Santos was one of those volunteers. She was fluent in Italian, musically inclined and helping with a talent show at the center on the night of April Naples, shown here before the terrorist attack, was one of more than 55 worldwide ports where the USO provided support to sailors in the s.

Photo credit USO. Garzelli was born in New York City to Italian immigrants. A dual citizen, he returned to Italy with his family when he was He was a student at the University of Salerno in when he took a part-time position at USO Naples to earn extra cash. Until the terrorist attacks in Germany and Italy, Garzelli said most people working near the Naples port felt relaxed and safe. In fact, Santos told her mother that her port position felt safer than sea duty. After deadly bombings in Germany killed U. There were two U.

Navy ships in port on that spring night and the center was filled with American sailors. Garzelli and Santos, there helping with talent show, could not have known the Ford Fiesta rental car parked outside concealed a bomb. The talent show ran late, and participants and spectators were just beginning to leave when the bomb exploded. Garzelli said he saw fire and smoke, and heard people screaming and began searching for survivors. She was the first female sailor to be killed in a terrorist attack. Santos, 21, was helping with a USO talent show when the blast occurred. Service members politely accept the sentiment from civilians, sometimes with mixed feelings.

Similarly, USO employees demur when they are thanked for their work. Even staffers in war zones immediately reject any expression that likens their labor to those who serve in the armed forces. Sarah Kemp was 25 when she accepted the duty manager position at a USO center in Kandahar, Afghanistan, which was considered a hazardous location. For reasons she finds difficult to articulate, she completed her one-year contract and extended her post for another nine months.

When she returned to the states in , she found herself running races in honor of service members killed in Iraq and Afghanistan. At one of those races, she saw a tribute table with rows of names of those who were recently killed in action and realized she recognized some of the names. She had attended their ramp ceremonies. Friends and family asked why she chose to continue such difficult and emotional work in a dangerous war zone.

Any person harmed by DDT would be an accepted casualty of combat.

American Pie | AMERICAN HERITAGE

Health and medicine would be vastly improved, too, thanks to sterilizing lamps, penicillin, and, of course, DDT. In wartime DDT had saved lives, and it had done so by inflicting easily accepted collateral damage. National Geographic merely alluded to this; others were more direct. What kind of harm? The problem was that no one really knew. Calvery, was that the amount of DDT it took to produce symptoms of toxicity had no clear correlation across species; in some species it took very little, while in others it took a lot.

The problem was complicated even further by the fact that when small animals ate small amounts of DDT over time, they developed poisoning symptoms normally associated with a single, large dose. A War Department bulletin released the same month warned against spraying DDT on cattle, fowl, and fish and on waters that might be used for human consumption.

The warnings and cautions attached to army memos about DDT did yield some measures of self-protection: soldiers charged with DDT detail were given the protective gear Materi later saw on the team that entered her home.

About American Heritage

If DDT was harmful to humans, the methods by which it worked its harm were no clearer in peace than in combat. By the fall of millions of people had come in direct contact with DDT—in Naples, North Africa, the Pacific, even throughout the southeastern United States where the chemical was sprayed in homes in an attempt to rout the last vestiges of malaria. No one displayed ill effects.

The few human DDT poisonings seemed to be isolated cases associated with massive ingestion, like that among a group of starving Formosan prisoners of war who mistook DDT for flour and used it to bake bread. Not one died, though those who ate the most bread suffered lasting neurological damage. But such cases caused little alarm. Insecticides introduced in the latter half of the 19th century for commercial agriculture often contained copper, lead, and arsenic, and by the first half of the 20th century it was well known that insecticide residues on fruits and vegetables could sicken and even kill hapless consumers.

This reputation was regularly reinforced by publicized cases of poisoning: Illinois women sickened by sprayed asparagus; the Montana girl poisoned by sprayed fruit; poisonings in Los Angeles traced back to excessive residues of arsenic on cabbage, pears, spinach, broccoli, and celery. There were also the tragic accidents associated with the increased presence of pest poisons in everyday life, such as the death of 47 patients at an Oregon hospital where roach powder was confused for powdered milk.

Instead of distancing themselves from poison sprays, however, by World War II more and more American consumers were bringing them home from the corner store. As Americans planted victory gardens to grow their own food, they amassed household-sized collections of agricultural poisons, including lead arsenate, calcium arsenate, nicotine sulfate, bichloride of mercury, and Bordeaux powder, a mixture of copper sulfate and lime.

20 COOL PHOTOGRAPHS OF CELEBRITIES' LIFE IN THE 1970S AND EARLY '80S

Insecticides, by definition, were poisons, and consumers were used to thinking of them as such despite their growing ubiquity. DDT thus posed an unparalleled paradox.

The Spectrum of Sacrifice

But for every feature that set it apart from the earlier insecticides, it was still a substance meant to kill. When the pesticide was first released for sale, state officials in Missouri issued a formal warning against it, citing unknown hazards to plants, animals, and humans. Minnesota banned its sale, New Jersey restricted it, and California and New York issued decrees requiring that DDT-containing products bear the skull and crossbones indicating a dangerous poison.

If people learned through experience that DDT could be handled with less caution than such bona-fide poisons as strychnine and bichloride of mercury—which it certainly could—they would lose their respect for the skull and crossbones as a signifier of danger. As states struggled to regulate DDT, journalists struggled to reconcile warnings and promises. In the years just after the war Colson launched a dogged investigation into DDT, writing to state agencies, manufacturers, and organizations far and wide.

The literature she amassed on the pesticide indicated that it might be harmful to humans but offered no conclusive proof that it was. And the more experts she questioned, the more she was told that DDT had above all saved countless lives around the globe, all while never harming a person.