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Studies of Arts, Creativity, and Learning
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It teaches us to be true to who we are. Art can teach us that nothing and everything is art. Art can teach us how to accept those who are different. Art teaches us a way to be exactly who we are in so many different ways. Art can teach us how to go into life with the ability to see the beauty of everything in the natural world. Art is self expression.

A visual storybook of our emotions and skill on different levels. Art is anything you want is to be it makes you.


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  • 2. Observation?

Art can teach us how to express yourselves. Art teaches you how to see the world in your own imagination. Art teaches use to express are emotions to others! In particular, the differential characteristics of activations seen in the dopaminergic mesencephalon, the dorsal striatum, and the orbitofrontal cortex provide distinct examples of the different ways in which reward-related information is processed. Moreover, the differences in activations seen in these three regions demonstrate the different roles they may play in goal-directed behavior Hollerman et al.

The dopaminergic systems appear to reflect a relatively pure signal of a reward prediction error. The representation of goal-directed behaviors may involve the basal ganglia of the putamen, globus pallidus, and striatum Acevedo et al. Moreover, unlike the dopamine system, much of the striatal system responds to predicted rewards Salimpoor et al.

These activations could serve as a component of the neural representation of the appropriate goal-directed behaviors in response to the environmental contingencies associated with desirable goals Engelmann et al. Finally, neuronal activations in the orbitofrontal cortex appear to encode the relative motivational significance of different rewards.

Further insights into this reward circuit may be obtained from psychopharmacological studies. In particular, cocaine is known not simply for inducing a sense of reward, but for producing an enhanced though illusory! These are the core experiences of inspiration, which can evidently be accessed by this biochemical substitute. Similarly, some of these areas are also implicated in the responses to a romantic image such subcortical structures as the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, lateral thalamus, subthalamic nuclei, and ventral tegmental area; Bartels and Zeki, ; Aron et al.

Conversely, acute cocaine infusion produced signal decreases in the temporal pole, medial frontal cortex, and amygdala Breiter et al. As indicated by these studies, activation of the frontal reward network should not be treated as a unitary mental function, since reward in human experience incorporates a diversity of aspects.

The first three aspects may be seen as corresponding to the Freudian mental subdivisions of id, ego, and superego functions — i. It is this expansive or pluripotent sense of the inspirational feeling that make it so significant as a motivational component of human endeavor. The need for inspiration is something that is well understood by the best teachers, who have the knack of conveying it to their students. However, there is continual pressure to cover specified ranges of exacting material, making it inappropriate for the learning environment to be nothing but entertainment.

Thus, the happy medium between sufficient inspiration and the requisite level of proficiency is difficult to achieve, and is made particularly difficult by the wide range of cognitive styles exhibited by the population of learners. There is a strong need to identify the effective motivational styles and the dimensionality of the domain of motivational inspiration, in order to expand the repertoire of strategies for learning enhancement.

Moreover, one such form of inspiration is the opportunity to go beyond the predigested material that is presented to develop original insights and contributions to the domain of interest. This form of creativity can be highly motivating to the learner, who feels part of the enterprise of accumulating the knowledge, rather than a passive recipient of the structured material.

Mexican art

A recent NSF report has assembled recommendations for research strategies for the enhancement of learning through art Tyler et al. Art is fundamentally a communicative medium : the processes of creation and appreciation of art constitutes a special kind of communication; thus future research needs to study both the creators of the art and the consumers enjoyers of the artistic products; a focus on one or the other alone would be incomplete.

Such a dual focus is fundamental to understanding and developing theories of how we learn to create and appreciate art. An adequate theory must account for both the holistic and componential factors that contribute to artistic activities. Both art learning and art production involve a complex interplay between multiple sensory—motor and higher cognitive mechanisms.

To achieve full understanding of the processes involved in any art, as well as the way they influence learning in other domains, the focus of future investigations should not be restricted within one level of the system, but include consideration of the whole complex of interactions between the levels of learning , art creating , and appreciation. How can the dimensionality of the domain be scientifically defined in each of the arts? It is imperative to develop standardized measures and vocabulary in the novel field proposed by the Workshop.

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What are the measurable cognitive and biological underpinnings of learning in specific art forms, such as visual arts, music, dance, theater? How can the relative importance of those learning components be quantified and understood in terms of the neurobiological mechanisms? What are the implicit benefits and cross-cognitive transfer effects of training and experience in the arts? How can the transformative process of the art experience be studied? What is plasticity of the component abilities across the lifespan?

What is it about art training that helps people become better artists?


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What is it that the learner is actually learning? What factors do musical, visual art, or dance training impart? What is the link between such training and outcomes in language, social, and cognitive functions? Inspiration is an aspect of mental experience that involves not just cortical circuitry but its integration with the limbic system and medial frontal structures that are understood to mediate the experience of emotions, motivational rewards, and the appreciation of the esthetic values of the impinging stimuli.

What is the mechanism underlying the role of inspiration in long-term learning? How is inspiration related to the mechanisms of attention and reward? Does the mirror neural system form the neural substrate of the embodied cognition experienced when viewing a work of art? Can the positive or negative valence of the art-induced form of empathy be harnessed to enhance learning in related fields of endeavor?

What factors support or invalidate the operation of such a transfer process? When the arts are integrated with other related disciplines in schools, is there evidence that learning in these other disciplines enhanced? Does the answer to this question depend upon the type of learner e. There is a need to evaluate the underlying processes to determine what specific mechanisms for such transfer of learning the brain has developed.

What are the main principles of learning transfer and how could they be implemented to effectively enhance educational strategies? To understand the cross-modal effects of art training, it is necessary to study the basic perceptual processing of the artistic objects that give rise to these experiences. The extent to which different key parameters play a role in the artistic experience should be investigated parametrically, and determine how these functions map onto the spectrum of artistic expertise. Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and transcranial magnetic stimulation to generate a reversible blockage of neural activation should be used to answer the questions of learning transfer, enhanced creativity, and enriched esthetic experience.

Causal network modeling of the information flow amongst cortical regions should be further employed and provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of brain plasticity, which are important for the development of cognitive training strategies. Integration of advanced methods must be employed to measure psychophysiological reactions to the artistic experience. New analytic techniques will be necessary for understanding the whole physiological reaction, and open the opportunity for a converging approaches.

An appropriate set of standardized measures and vocabulary for studying how non-professionals talk about and describe different aspect of the arts should be developed. Formalization of such categorization is fundamental to any meaningful integrative work.

Mexican art - Wikipedia

Future investigations should recognize that art is a dynamic cognitive process in which the definition of art is constantly changing in relation to its time. A more comprehensive approach should be used to explore the physiological characteristics and learning functions of this inherently chaotic modality. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Tyler and to L. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Hum Neurosci v. Front Hum Neurosci.

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Published online Feb 8. Prepublished online Oct Christopher W. Likova 1. Lora T. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Apr 11; Accepted Jan This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License , which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited.

Abstract With all the wealth of scientific activities, there remains a certain stigma associated with careers in science, as a result of the inevitable concentration on narrow specializations that are inaccessible to general understanding. Keywords: art, learning, neuroscience, limbic system, inspiration. Studies of Arts, Creativity, and Learning Despite the divergence between arts and sciences, a growing body of quantitative research suggests that the learning of science may be enhanced by relationships with the arts.

The Need for Learning Enhancement The enhancement of learning remains a challenge, particularly in the school setting. Studies of Intersensory Connections and the Arts Neuroimaging studies have revealed that visual arts as well as music engage many aspects of brain function, and involve nearly every neural subsystem identified so far Zeki, ; Solso, ; Brown et al.

Learning and Active Involvement in the Arts The current expansion of interest in the science of learning motivates exploration of the expanded possibilities of conceptual interrelationships offered by training in the arts. Another key aspect that the arts bring to the mix is the creativity involved in the generation of the art work, which was analyzed into its experiential components by Wallas , involving i preparation by focusing on the domain of problem and prior approaches to its solution, ii incubation by subconscious processes without explicit activity related to the problem, iii intimation that a solution is on its way, iv insight into a novel solution to the problem, v verification and elaboration of the details of the solution.

Arts, Learning, and Inspiration Another key aspect of learning that can be facilitated by the arts is the emotional inspiration to be involved in the learning process. Recommendations for Future Research for the Enhancement of Learning through Art A recent NSF report has assembled recommendations for research strategies for the enhancement of learning through art Tyler et al.

Strategic principles Art is fundamentally a communicative medium : the processes of creation and appreciation of art constitutes a special kind of communication; thus future research needs to study both the creators of the art and the consumers enjoyers of the artistic products; a focus on one or the other alone would be incomplete.

1. Creativity

Key research questions How can the dimensionality of the domain be scientifically defined in each of the arts? Methodological recommendations To understand the cross-modal effects of art training, it is necessary to study the basic perceptual processing of the artistic objects that give rise to these experiences. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References Acevedo B. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love.

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Face configuration processing in the human brain: the role of symmetry. Cortex 7 , — Building a motor simulation de novo: observation of dance by dancers. Neuroimage 31 , — Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention. The cognitive neuroscience of creativity.

Amusia is associated with deficits in spatial processing. Combined effects of attention and motivation on visual task performance: transient and sustained motivational effects. Drawing objects from memory in aphasia. Brain , — Handbook of Creativity. Adult age differences in the perception and learning of artistic style categories. Aging 2 , — Involvement of basal ganglia and orbitofrontal cortex in goal-directed behavior. Critique of Practical Reason , trans. Pluhar W. The fusiform face area: a module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. Neural correlates of beauty.

Hemispheric contributions to drawing. Neuropsychology 27 , — Brain Topogr. The Psychology of Perspective and Renaissance Art. Drawing enhances cross-modal memory plasticity in the human brain: a case study in a totally blind adult. Vision and Art: The Biology of Seeing. New York: Harry N. An Outline of Psychology. Eloquent Evidence: Arts at the Core of Learning.

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