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Happily, in those shocks which the quarrels of kings and great men gave to empires, the chains of nations have been relaxed more or less. Liberty in England has arisen from the quarrels of tyrants. This great charter, which is looked upon as the palladium and the consecrated fountain of the public liberty, is itself a proof how little that liberty was understood: the very title shows beyond all doubt that the king thought himself absolute, de jure; and that the barons, and even the clergy, forced him to relinquish this pretended right, only because they were stronger than he.
In the articles of this charter there is not one word said of the house of commons; a proof that no such house then existed; or, if it did, that its power was next to nothing. In this the free men of England are specified—a melancholy proof that there were then some who were not so. We see, by the thirty—second article, that those pretended free men owed their lords certain servitude. Such a liberty as this smelled very rank of slavery. By the twenty—first Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] article, the king ordains, that from henceforth officers shall be restrained from forcibly seizing the horses and carriages of free men, except on paying for the same.
This regulation was considered by the people as real liberty, because it destroyed a most intolerable kind of tyranny. Henry VII. By this means the villeins, who afterward acquired property by their industry, bought the castles of the great lords, who had ruined themselves by their extravagance; and by degrees nearly all the estates in the kingdom changed masters. The house of commons daily became more powerful; the families of the ancient peerage became extinct in time; and as, in the rigor of the law, there is no other nobility in England besides the peers, the whole order would have been annihilated had not the kings created new barons from time to time; and this expedient preserved the body of the peers they had formerly so much dreaded, in order to oppose the house of commons, now grown too powerful.
All the new peers, who form the upper house, receive nothing besides their titles from the crown; scarcely any of them possessing the lands from which those titles are derived. The duke of Dorset, for example, is one of them, though he possesses not a foot of land in Dorsetshire; another may be earl of a village, who hardly knows in what quarter of the island such a village lies.
They have only a certain power in parliament, and nowhere out Edition: current; Page: [ 15 ] of it, which, with some few privileges, is all they enjoy. Here is no such thing as the distinction of high, middle, and low justice in France; nor of the right of hunting on the lands of a citizen, who has not the liberty of firing a single shot of a musket on his own estate.
A peer or nobleman in this country pays his share of the taxes as others do, all of which are regulated by the house of commons; which house, if it is second only in rank, is first in point of credit. The lords and bishops, it is true, may reject any bill of the commons, when it regards the raising of money; but are not entitled to make the smallest amendment in it: they must either pass it or throw it out, without any restriction whatever.
When the bill is confirmed by the lords, and approved by the king, then every person is to pay his quota without distinction; and that not according to his rank or quality, which would be absurd, but in proportion to his revenue. Here is no taille, or arbitrary poll—tax, but a real tax on lands; all of which underwent an actual valuation under the famous William III. The taxes remain always the same, notwithstanding the fact that the value of lands has risen; so that no one is stripped to the bone, nor can there be any ground of complaint; the feet of the peasant are not tortured with wooden shoes; he eats the best wheaten bread, is well and warmly clothed, and is in no apprehension on account of the increase of his herds and flocks, or terrified into a thatched house, instead of a convenient slated roof, for fear of an augmentation Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] of the taille the year following.
There are even a number of peasants, or, if you will, farmers, who have from five to six hundred pounds sterling yearly income, and who are not above cultivating those fields which have enriched them, and where they enjoy the greatest of all human blessings, liberty. Never has any people, since the fall of Carthage, been at the same time powerful by sea and land, till Venice set the example. The Portuguese, from their good fortune in discovering the passage by way of the Cape of Good Hope, have been for some time great lords on the coasts of the East Indies, but have never been very respectable in Europe.
Even the United Provinces became warlike, contrary to their natural disposition, and in spite of themselves; and it can in no way be ascribed to their union among themselves, but to their being united with England, that they have contributed to hold the balance in Europe at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Carthage, Venice, and Amsterdam were undoubtedly powerful; but their conduct has been exactly like that of merchants grown rich by traffic, who afterward purchase lands with the dignity of lordship annexed to them.
Neither Carthage, Venice, nor Holland have, from a warlike and even conquering beginning, ended in a commercial nation. The English are the only people existing who have done this; they were a long time warriors before they learned to cast accounts. This science alone has rendered the nation at once populous, wealthy, and powerful. London was a poor countrytown when Edward III. The Scottish are born warriors, and, from the purity of their air, inherit good sense.
Whence comes it then that Scotland, under the name of a union, has become a province of England? It is because Scotland has scarcely any other commodity than coal, and that England has fine tin, excellent wool, and abounds in corn, manufactures, and trading companies. When Louis XIV. He was in want of money, without which cities can neither be taken nor defended. He had recourse to the English merchants.
Thus the younger son of a peer of the realm is not above traffic. Lord Townshend, secretary of state, has a brother who is satisfied with being a merchant in the city. At the time when Lord Oxford ruled all England, his younger brother was a factor at Aleppo, whence he could never be prevailed on to return, and where he died. This custom, which is now unhappily dying out, appears monstrous to a German, whose head is full of the coats of arms and pageants of his family.
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They can never conceive how it is possible that the son of an English peer should be no more than a rich and powerful citizen, while in Germany they are all princes. I have known more than thirty highnesses of the same name, whose whole fortunes and estate put together amounted to a few coats of arms, and the starving pride they inherited from their ancestors. The merchant again, by dint of hearing his profession despised on all occasions, at last is fool enough to blush at his condition.
I will Edition: current; Page: [ 19 ] not, however, take upon me to say which is the most useful to his country, and which of the two ought to have the preference; whether the powdered lord, who knows to a minute when the king rises or goes to bed, perhaps to stool, and who gives himself airs of importance in playing the part of a slave in the antechamber of some minister; or the merchant, who enriches his country, and from his countinghouse sends his orders into Surat or Cairo, thereby contributing to the happiness and convenience of human nature.
The rest of Europe, that is, the Christian part of it, very gravely assert that the English are fools and madmen; fools, in communicating the contagion of smallpox to their children, in order to hinder them from being subject to that dangerous and loathsome disorder; madmen, in wantonly exposing their children to this pestilence, with the design of preventing a contingent evil.
The English, on their side, call the rest of Europe unnatural and cowardly; unnatural, in leaving their children exposed to almost certain death by smallpox; and cowardly, in fearing to give their children a trifling matter of pain for a purpose so noble and so evidently useful. In order to determine which of the two is in the right, I shall now relate the history of this famous practice, which is in France the subject of so much dread. The women of Circassia have from time immemorial Edition: current; Page: [ 20 ] been accustomed to give their children smallpox, even as early as at six months of age, by making an incision in the arm, and afterward inserting in this incision a pustule carefully taken from the body of some other child.
This pustule so insinuated produces in the body of the patient the same effect that leaven does in a piece of dough; that is, it ferments in it, and communicates to the mass of blood the qualities with which it is impregnated. The pustules of the child infected in this manner serve to convey the same disease to others. This disorder, therefore, is perpetually circulating through the different parts of Circassia; and when, unluckily, there is no infection of smallpox in the country, it creates the same uneasiness as a dearth or an unhealthy season would have occasioned.
What has given rise to this custom in Circassia, and which is so extraordinary to other nations, is, however, a cause common to all the nations on the face of the earth; that is, the tenderness of mothers, and motives of interest. The Circassians are poor, but have handsome daughters; which, accordingly, are the principal article of their foreign commerce. It is they who furnish beauties for the seraglios of the grand seignior, the sufi of Persia, and others who are rich enough to purchase and to maintain these precious commodities.
These people bring up their children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord; that is, in virtuous and honorable principles, which contain the whole science of wheedling the male part of the creation; the art of dancing, with gestures expressive of uncommon effeminacy and lasciviousness; Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] and lastly, that of rekindling, by the most bewitching artifices, the exhausted appetites of those haughty lords to whom their fates have destined them. These poor creatures repeat their lesson every day with their mothers, in the same manner as our girls do their catechism; that is, without understanding a single syllable of what is taught them.
Now it often happened that a father and mother, after having taken an infinite deal of pains in giving their children a good education, suddenly see their hopes frustrated. Smallpox getting into the family, one daughter perhaps died; another lost an eye; a third recovered, but with a disfigured nose; so that here was an honest couple hopelessly ruined. Often, too, an entire stagnation of all kinds of commerce has ensued, and that for several years running, when the disorder happened to be epidemic, to the no small detriment of the seraglios of Turkey and Persia.
A commercial people are always exceedingly vigilant with regard to their interest, and never neglect those items of knowledge that may be of use in the carrying on of their traffic. They further remark, that when the disease is mild, and the Edition: current; Page: [ 22 ] eruption has only to pierce through a thin and delicate skin, it leaves no mark on the face. From these natural observations they concluded, that if a child of six months or a year old was to have a mild kind of smallpox, not only would the child certainly survive, but it would get better without bearing any marks of it, and would assuredly be immune during the remainder of its life.
The experiment could hardly fail. The Turks, a very sensible people, soon adopted this practice; and, at this day, there is scarcely a pasha in Constantinople who does not inoculate his children while they are at the breast. There are some who pretend that the Circassians formerly learned this custom from the Arabians. We will leave this point in history to be elucidated by some learned Benedictine, who will not fail to compose several volumes in folio upon the subject, together with the necessary vouchers.
All I have to say of the matter is that, in the beginning of the reign of George I. This lady, on her return to London, communicated the experiment she had made to the princess of Wales, 1 now queen of Great Britain. It must be acknowledged that, setting crowns and titles aside, this princess is certainly born for the encouragement of arts, and for the good of the human race, to whom she is a generous benefactor.
She is an amiable philosopher seated on a throne, who has improved every opportunity of instruction, and who has never let slip any occasion of showing her innate generosity. It is she who, on hearing that a daughter of Milton was still living, and in extreme misery, immediately sent her a valuable present; she it is who encourages the celebrated father Courayer; in a word, it is she who deigned to become the mediatrix between Dr.
Clarke and Mr. As soon as she heard of inoculation for smallpox, she caused it to be tried on four criminals under sentence of death, who were thus doubly indebted to her for their lives: for she not only rescued them from the gallows, but, by means of this artificial attack of smallpox, prevented them from having it in the natural way, which they, in all human probability, would have had, and of which they might have died at a more advanced age. The princess, thus assured of the utility of this proof, caused her own children to be inoculated.
All England, or rather Britain, followed her example; so Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] that from that time at least six thousand children stand indebted for their lives to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, as do all the fair of the island for preserving their beauty. In a hundred persons that come into the world, at least sixty are found to contract smallpox; of these sixty, twenty are known to die, in the most favorable times, and twenty more wear very disagreeable marks of this cruel disorder as long as they live.
Here is then a fifth part of the human species assuredly killed, or, at least, horribly disfigured. Among the vast numbers inoculated in Great Britain, or in Turkey, none are ever known to die, except such as were in a very ill state of health, or given over before. No one is marked with it; no one is ever infected a second time, supposing the inoculation to be perfect, that is, to have taken place as it ought.
It is, therefore, certain that, had some French lady imported this secret from Constantinople into Paris, she would have rendered an inestimable and everlasting piece of service to the nation. The twenty thousand persons who died at Paris in would have been now alive. What shall we say then? Is it that the French set a lower value upon life? It is true, and it must be acknowledged, that we are a very odd kind of people! It is possible, that in ten years we may think of adopting this British custom, provided the doctors and curates allow us this indulgence; or, perhaps, the French will inoculate their children, out of mere whim, should those islanders leave it off, from their natural inconstancy.
I learn that the Chinese have practised this custom for two hundred years; the example of a nation that has the first character in point of natural good sense, as well as of their excellent internal police, is a strong prejudice in its favor. It is true, the Chinese follow a method peculiar to themselves; they make no incision, but take smallpox up the nose in powder, just as we do a pinch of snuff: this method is more pleasant, but amounts to much the same thing, and serves equally to prove that had inoculation been practised in France, it must assuredly have saved the lives of thousands.
It is some years since a Jesuit missionary having read this chapter, and being in a province of America, where smallpox makes horrible ravages, bethought himself of causing all the Indian children he baptized to be inoculated, so that they are indebted to him not only for this present life, but also for life eternal at the same time; what inestimable gifts for savages! The bishop of Worcester has lately preached up the doctrine of inoculation at London; he has proved, like a good citizen and patriot, what a vast Edition: current; Page: [ 26 ] number of subjects this practice preserves to a nation; a doctrine which he has also enforced by such arguments as might be expected from a pastor and a Christian.
It will require some time before a true spirit of reason and a particular boldness of sentiment will be able to make their way over the Straits of Dover. It must not, however, be imagined that no persons are to be met with from the Orkneys to the South Foreland but philosophers; the other species will always form the greater number. Inoculation was at first opposed in London; and a great while before the bishop of Worcester preached this gospel from the pulpit, a certain curate had taken it into his head to declaim against this practice: he told his congregation that Job had certainly been inoculated by the devil.
This man spoiled a good Capuchin, for which nature seems to have intended him; he was certainly unworthy the honor of being born in this island. So we see prejudice, as usual, first got possession of the pulpit, and reason could not reach it till long after; this is no more than the common progress of the human mind. Somebody said that it must undoubtedly be Sir Isaac Newton. This man was certainly in the right; for if true greatness consists in having received from heaven the advantage of a superior genius, with the talent of applying it for the interest of the possessor and of mankind, a man like Newton—and such a one is hardly to be met with in ten centuries—is surely by much the greatest; and those statesmen and conquerors which no age has ever been without, are commonly but so many illustrious villains.
It is the man who sways our minds by the prevalence of reason and the native force of truth, not they who reduce mankind to a state of slavery by brutish force and downright violence; the man who by the vigor of his mind, is able to penetrate into the hidden secrets of nature, and whose capacious soul can contain the vast frame of the universe, not those who lay nature waste, and desolate the face of the earth, that claims our reverence and admiration. Therefore, as you are desirous to be informed of the great men that England has produced, I shall begin with the Bacons, the Lockes, and the Newtons.
The generals and ministers will come after them in their turn. I must begin with the celebrated baron Verulam, known to the rest of Europe by the name of Bacon, Edition: current; Page: [ 28 ] who was the son of a certain keeper of the seals, and was for a considerable time chancellor under James I. Notwithstanding the intrigues and bustle of a court, and the occupations incident to his office, which would have required his whole attention, he found means to become a great philosopher, a good historian, and an elegant writer; and what is yet more wonderful is that he lived in an age where the art of writing was totally unknown, and where sound philosophy was still less so.
This personage, as is the way among mankind, was more valued after his death than while he lived. His enemies were courtiers residing at London, while his admirers consisted wholly of foreigners. You have been told in what manner Bacon was accused of a crime which is very far from being the sin of a philosopher; 1 of being corrupted by pecuniary Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] gifts; and how he was sentenced by the house of peers to pay a fine of about four hundred thousand livres of our money, besides losing his office of chancellor, and being degraded from the rank and dignity of a peer.
At present the English revere his memory to such a degree that only with great difficulty can one imagine him to have been in the least guilty. They happened to be talking of the avarice with which the duke of Marlborough had been taxed, and quoted several instances of it, for the truth of which they appealed to Lord Bolingbroke, who, as being of a contrary party, might, perhaps, without any trespass against the laws of decorum, freely say what he thought.
Chancellor Bacon was still unacquainted with nature, but he perfectly knew, and pointed out extraordinarily well, all the paths which lead to her recesses. This great man is the father of experimental philosophy. They had gone in search of, discovered, and conquered a new world in another hemisphere. Who would not have thought that these sublime discoveries had been made by the greatest philosophers, and in times much more enlightened than ours? By no means; for all these astonishing revolutions happened in the ages of scholastic barbarity. Chance alone has brought forth almost all these inventions; it is even pretended that chance has had a great share in the discovery of America; at least, it has been believed that Christopher Columbus undertook this voyage on the faith of a captain of a ship who had been cast by a storm on one of the Caribbee islands.
Be this as it will, men had learned to penetrate to the utmost limits of the habitable Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] globe, and to destroy the most impregnable cities with an artificial thunder, much more terrible than the real; but they were still ignorant of the circulation of the blood, the weight and pressure of the air, the laws of motion, the doctrine of light and color, the number of the planets in our system, etc. The most wonderful and useful inventions are by no means those which do most honor to the human mind.
And it is to a certain mechanical instinct, which exists in almost every man, that we owe far the greater part of the arts, and in no manner whatever to philosophy. The discovery of fire, the arts of making bread, of melting and working metals, of building houses, the invention of the shuttle, are infinitely more useful than printing and the compass; notwithstanding, all these were invented by men who were still in a state of barbarity.
What astonishing things have the Greeks and Romans since done in mechanics? Yet men believed, in their time, that the heavens were of crystal, and the stars were so many small lamps, that sometimes fell into the sea; and one of their greatest philosophers, after many researches, had at length discovered that the stars were so many pebbles, that had flown off like sparks from the earth. In a word, there was not a man who had any idea of experimental philosophy before Chancellor Bacon; and of an infinity of experiments which have Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] been made since his time, there is hardly a single one which has not been pointed out in his book.
He had even made a good number of them himself. He constructed several pneumatic machines, by which he discovered the elasticity of the air; he had long brooded over the discovery of its weight, and was even at times very near to catching it, when it was laid hold of by Torricelli. A short time after, experimental physics began to be cultivated in almost all parts of Europe.
This was a hidden treasure, of which Bacon had some glimmerings, and which all the philosophers whom his promises had encouraged made their utmost efforts to lay open. We see in his book mention made in express terms of that new attraction of which Newton passes for the inventor. If the force of the weight diminishes on the mountain, and increases in the mine, it is probable the earth has a real attracting quality. This precursor in philosophy was also an elegant writer, a historian, and a wit. His moral essays are in high estimation, though they seem rather calculated Edition: current; Page: [ 33 ] to instruct than to please; and as they are neither a satire on human nature, like the maxims of Rochefoucauld, nor a school of skepticism, like Montaigne; they are not so much read as these two ingenious books.
His life of Henry VII. Speaking of that famous impostor Perkin, son of a Jew convert, who assumed so boldly the name of Richard IV. When the duchess of Burgundy had instructed Perkin, she began to consider with herself in what region of the heavens she should make this comet shine, and resolved immediately that it should make its appearance in the horizon of Ireland.
There surely never was a more solid and more methodical understanding, nor a more acute and accurate logician, than Locke, though he was far from Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] being an excellent mathematician. He never could bring himself to undergo the drudgery of calculation, nor the dryness of mathematical truths, which offer no sensible image to the understanding: and no one has more fully evinced than he has, that a man, without the smallest assistance from geometry, might still possess the most geometrical intellect possible.
The great philosophers before his time had made no difficulties in determining the essence or substance of the human soul; but as they were wholly ignorant of the matter, it was but reasonable they should all be of different opinions. In Greece, which was at one time the cradle of arts and of errors, where the greatness and folly of the human mind were pushed to so great a height, they reasoned on the soul exactly as we do.
The divine Anaxagoras, who had altars erected to him for teaching men that the sun was bigger than the Peloponnessus, that snow was black, that the sky was of stone, affirmed that the soul was an aerial spirit, though immortal. Diogenes, a different person from him, who became a cynic from a counterfeiter of money, asserted that the soul was a portion of the substance of God; a notion which had at least something striking. Epicurus maintains the soul is composed of parts, in the same manner as matter.
Aristotle, whose works have been interpreted a thousand different ways, because they were in fact absolutely unintelligible, was of opinion, if we may trust some of his disciples, that the understandings of all mankind were but one and the same substance. The divine Plato, master of the divine Aristotle, and the Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] divine Socrates, master of the divine Plato, said that the soul was at the same time corporeal and eternal. There are actually some who pretend that a fellow who boasted of having a familiar was most assuredly either knave or fool; possibly they who say so may be rather too squeamish.
As for our fathers of the Church, several of them, in the first ages were of opinion that the human soul, as well as the angels, and God himself, were all corporeal. The world is every day improving. Bernard, as Father Mabillon is forced to own, taught, with respect to the soul, that after death it did not behold God in heaven, but was obliged to rest satisfied with conversing with the humanity of Jesus Christ. Possibly they took it for once on his bare word; though the adventure of the crusade has somewhat lessened the credit of his oracles.
Our Descartes, born to discover the mistakes of antiquity, only that he might substitute his own in their place, and borne down by the stream of system, which hoodwinks the greatest men, imagined he had demonstrated Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] that the soul was the same thing with thought, in the same manner as matter is the same with extension.
Father Malebranche, of the oratory, in his sublime illusions, admits of no such thing as innate ideas, though he had no doubt of our seeing everything in God; and that God Himself, if it is lawful to speak in this manner, was the very essence of our soul. After so many speculative gentlemen had formed this romance of the soul, one truly wise man appeared, who has, in the most modest manner imaginable, given us its real history. Locke has laid open to man the anatomy of his own soul, just as some learned anatomist would have done that of the body.
He avails himself throughout of the help of metaphysical lights; and although he is sometimes bold enough to speak in a positive manner, he is on other occasions not afraid to discover doubts. Instead of determining at once what we were entirely ignorant about, he examines, step by step, the objects of human knowledge; he takes a child from the moment of its birth; he accompanies him through all the stages of the human understanding; he views what he possesses in common with the brutes, and in what he is superior to them.
Above all, he is solicitous to examine the internal evidence of consciousness. For my own part, I am proud of the honor of being every whit as stupid on this point as Mr. Locke, after demolishing the notion of innate ideas; after having renounced the vain opinion that the mind always thinks; having fully established this point, that the origin of all our ideas is from the senses; 1 having examined our simple and compound ideas; having accompanied the mind in all its operations; having shown the imperfection of all the languages spoken by men, and what a gross Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] abuse of terms we are every moment guilty of; Locke, I say, at length proceeds to consider the extent, or rather the nothingness, of human knowledge.
Some English devotees as usual gave the alarm. The superstitious are in society what poltroons are in an army; they infect the rest with their own panics. They cried out that Mr. Locke wanted to turn all religion topsy—turvy: there was, however, not the smallest relation to religion in the affair, the question was purely philosophical, and altogether independent of faith and revelation.
Doctor Stillingfleet has acquired the character of a moderate divine, only because he has refrained from abuse in his controversy with Mr. He ventured to enter the lists with him, but was vanquished, because Edition: current; Page: [ 39 ] he reasoned too much like a doctor; while Locke, like a true philosopher, fully acquainted with the strength and weakness of human understanding, fought with arms of whose temper he was perfectly well assured. Philip Mordaunt, cousin—german to the famous earl of Peterborough, who was so well known in all the courts of Europe, and who made his boast that he had seen more postilions, and more crowned heads, than any other man in the world; this Philip Mordaunt, I say, was a young man about twenty—seven, handsome, well made, rich, of an illustrious family, and one who might pretend to anything; and, what was more than all the rest, he was passionately beloved by his mistress.
One would imagine he chose to die because he was weary of being happy. One Richard Smith has lately exhibited a most Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] extraordinary instance of this nature to the world. This Smith was tired of being really unhappy; he had been rich, and was reduced to poverty; he had been healthy, and had become infirm; he had a wife, to whom he had nothing to give but a share in his misfortunes; and an infant in the cradle was the only thing he had left. I do not remember to have heard anywhere of such a scene of horrors committed in cold blood; but the letter which these unhappy wretches wrote to their cousin, Mr.
Brindley, before their death, is as remarkable as the manner of their death. We put an end to our lives because we were miserable, without any prospect of relief; and we have done our child that service to put it out of life, for fear it should have been as miserable as ourselves. It is to be observed that these people, after having murdered their child out of their paternal affection, wrote to a friend, recommending their dog and cat to his care. They thought, probably, that it was easier to make their dog and cat happy in this world than their child, and that keeping them would not be any great expense to their friend.
The earl of Scarborough has lately quitted life with the same indifference as he did his place of master of the horse. My lord Scarborough, therefore, killed himself to get rid of difficulty. The many tragical stories of this nature, with which the English newspapers abound, have made the greater part of Europe imagine that the English are fonder of killing themselves than any other people; and yet I question much whether there are not as many madmen at Paris as at London; and if our newspapers were to keep an exact register of those who have either had the folly, or unhappy resolution to destroy themselves, we might in this respect be found to vie with the English.
But our compilers of news are more prudent; the adventures of private persons are never set forth to public scandal in any of the papers licenced by the government; however, I believe I may venture to affirm that this rage of suicide will never become epidemic. Nature has sufficiently guarded against it, and hope and fear are the powerful curbs she makes use of to stop the hand of the wretch uplifted to be his own executioner.
I know it may be said, that there have been countries Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] where a council was established to give licence to the people to kill themselves, when they could give sufficient reasons for doing it. To this I answer, that either the fact is false, or that such council found very little employment. There is one thing indeed which may cause some surprise, and which I think deserves to be seriously discussed, which is, that almost all the great heroes among the Romans, during the civil wars, killed themselves when they lost a battle, and that we do not find an instance of a single leader, or great man, in the disputes of the League, the Fronde, or during the troubles of Italy and Germany, who put end to his life with his own hand.
It is true, that these latter were Christians, and that there is great difference between a Christian soldier and a Pagan; and yet, how comes it that those very men who were so easily withheld by Christianity, from putting an end to their own lives, should be restrained either by that or any other consideration, when they had a mind to poison, assassinate, or publicly execute a vanquished enemy? Does not the Christian religion forbid this manner of taking away the life of a fellow—creature, if possible more than our own?
The advocates for suicide tell us that it is very allowable to quit our house when we are weary of it. Agreed: but most men had rather lie in a bad house than sleep in the open fields. I one day received a circular letter from an Englishman, in which he proposes a premium to the person who should the most clearly demonstrate that it was allowable for a man to kill himself. I made him Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] no answer, for I had nothing to prove to him, and he had only to examine within himself if he preferred death to life.
But then let us ask why Cato, Brutus, Cassius, Antony, Otho, and so many others gave themselves death with so much resolution, and that our leaders of parties suffered themselves to be taken alive by their enemies, or waste the remains of a wretched old age in a dungeon? This may be very well in an ode, or as a figure in rhetoric; but it is very certain there must be some courage to resign a life coolly by the edge of a sword, some strength of mind thus to overcome the most powerful instinct of nature; in a word, that such an act shows a greater share of ferocity than weakness.
When a sick man is in a frenzy, we cannot say he has no strength, though we may say it is the strength of a madman. Self—murder was forbidden by the Pagan as well as by the Christian religion. There was even a place allotted in hell to those who put an end to their own lives. Witness these lines of the poet. This was the religion of the heathens; and notwithstanding the torments they were to endure in the other world, it was esteemed an honor to quit this by giving themselves death by their own hands: so contradictory are the manners of men!
Is not the custom of duelling still unhappily accounted honorable among us, though prohibited by reason, by religion, and by all laws, divine and human? If the duke of Montmorency, Marshal Marillac, de Thou, Cinq—Mars, and many others, rather chose to be dragged to execution like the vilest miscreants, than put an end to their own lives like Cato and Brutus, it was not that they had less courage than those Romans; the true reason is, that it was not then the fashion at Paris to kill oneself on such occasions; whereas it was an established custom with the Romans.
The women on the Malabar coast throw themselves alive into the flames, in which the bodies of their dead husbands are burning. Is it because they have more resolution than Cornelia? No; but the custom of the country is for wives to burn themselves. The English had a regular theatre, as well as the Spaniards, while the French had as yet but booths. Shakespeare, whom the English consider as Edition: current; Page: [ 45 ] another Sophocles, flourished about the time of Lope de Vega; he was properly the creator of their theatre.
His genius was at once strong and abundant, natural and sublime, but without the smallest spark of taste, and void of the remotest idea of the rules. I will venture to tell you a bold but yet undoubted truth; which is, that the merit of this author has been the ruin of the English stage: there are in him scenes so perfectly beautiful, and passages so very full of the great and terrible, spread up and down those monstrous farces of his which they have christened tragedies, that his pieces have always been played with prodigious success.
Time, which alone is capable of establishing the reputation of authors, serves at length to consecrate their very defects. The greater part of those extravagant passages, and of that bombast which abounds in his works, have, in the course of a hundred and fifty years, acquired a kind of title to pass for the true sublime. Their modern authors are, generally speaking, no more than copiers of him, though what succeeded in Shakespeare is hissed in them; and you know the veneration they entertain for this author increases in proportion to their contempt of the moderns.
They never once reflect that it is absurd to pretend to imitate him; and it is wholly owing to the ill success of those copiers, and not to their want of capacity, that he is thought inimitable. In the reign of Charles II. You will, no doubt, lament that those who have hitherto spoken to you of the English stage, and particularly of the celebrated Shakespeare, have pointed out only his errors, and that no one has translated those striking passages in this great man which atone for all his faults.
To this I shall answer that it is very easy to recount in prose the absurdities of a poet, but very difficult to translate his fine verses; those who set themselves up for critics of celebrated writers generally compile volumes; but I had rather read two pages which present only their beauties; for I shall always concur with all men of taste in this Edition: current; Page: [ 47 ] opinion, that there is more to be learned in a dozen verses of Homer or Virgil, than in all the criticisms on those great men.
Be indulgent to the copy, in honor to the original; and always remember, that when you see a translation, you perceive only a faint copy of a fine picture. Do not imagine that I have given you the English word for word—woe be to those literal translators, who, by rendering every single word, enervate the sense!
I shall now give you a passage from the famous Dryden, an English poet who flourished in the reign of Charles II. It is in these detached sentences that the English tragedies have hitherto excelled. Their pieces, almost always barbarous, void of decency, order, and probability, have yet, amidst this night of darkness, their splendid days of light: their style is too stiff, too unnatural, too much copied from the Hebrew writers, and too full of Asiatic bombast; but then the mind is transported to an amazing height, soaring on the pinions of the metaphorical style which adorns the English language.
It sometimes seems as if nature were not the same in England as elsewhere. This speech is in the English taste; and the whole piece is full of buffoonery. How shall we reconcile, say our critics, so much good sense with such absurdity, so much meanness with such sublimity of expression?
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Nothing so easy; let it be remembered that they were written by men. The Spanish stage has all the faults of the English, without its beauties; and, in reality, what were the Greek authors? It will require many ages to purify good taste. Virgil among the Romans, Racine among the French, were the first who always preserved a purity of taste in capital pieces. Addison was the first Englishman who wrote a Edition: current; Page: [ 50 ] rational tragedy; but I should pity him if he had only made it barely rational.
It appears to me that this piece is adapted to an audience somewhat philosophic, and very republican. It seems as if Addison, in this fine soliloquy, aimed at rivalling Shakespeare. I will translate the one as I did the other; I mean, with that freedom without which we are too apt to wander from the original, by endeavoring at too close an imitation. The groundwork is faithfully portrayed, I shall only add a few shades.
Not being able to equal him, I must attempt to improve upon him. In this tragedy of a patriot and philosopher, the character of Cato appears to me to be one of the most complete that ever appeared on any stage. The Cato of Addison is, in my opinion, greatly superior to the Cornelia of Pierre Corneille, for he is continually great without ostentation; and the part of Cornelia, besides being an unnecessary one, is in many places too declamatory; she would always be the heroine, and Cato never perceives that he is the hero. The custom of introducing love, right or wrong, into dramatic works, passed over from Paris to London about the year , with our ribbons and perukes.
The ladies, who there as well as here embellish the theatre, would no longer suffer any other but love scenes on the stage. The sage Addison had the effeminate complaisance to bend the severity of his character to the manners of his time, and spoiled a masterpiece to comply with the reigning mode. Since his time the pieces have become more regular, the people more difficult, and the authors more timid. I have seen very decent, but very flat, modern compositions: it seems as if the English poets had hitherto been born to produce only irregular beauties.
The poetic genius of the English resembles, at this day, a spreading tree planted by nature, shooting forth at random a thousand branches, and growing with unequal strength: it dies if you force its nature, or shape it into a regular tree, fit for the gardens of Marly. These are images that succeed with us only when properly veiled; but Horace, who seemed made for the stews as well as for the court, and who perfectly understood the customs of both, speaks as freely of the way of a man with a maid, as if he was describing a walk, or a collation.
It has been observed, that the Romans, in the days of Augustus, were as polite as the Parisians are at present; and that this very Horace, who praises the emperor Augustus for reforming the manners, complied, without scruple, with the customs of the times, which permitted the promiscuous use of girls and boys, and of the proper names of things.
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Strange it is—if anything can be said to be so—that Horace, while speaking the language of a debauchee, should be the favorite of a reformer; and that Ovid, for Edition: current; Page: [ 54 ] speaking only the language of gallantry, should be exiled by a debauchee, an impostor, an assassin, called Octavius, who acquired the empire by crimes which merited death. However this be, Bayle pretends that expressions are indifferent, in which he, the cynics, and the Stoics, deceive themselves; for everything has different names which represent it under different aspects, and afford different ideas of it.
The consummation of marriage, and everything that contributes to the completion of this great work, will be differently expressed by the parson, the husband, the physician, and the rake. The word the latter of these would make use of would awaken the idea of pleasure, the terms the physician would explain himself in would put you in mind of a dead body, the husband would make that understood with decency which the young libertine had described immodestly, and the parson would attempt to give you the idea of a sacrament.
Words then are not in themselves indifferent; for they are not synonymous. They attempted to make a Tartuffe. It was impossible that this subject should succeed at London, because the portrait of a stranger affords very little pleasure. One of the blessings of the English nation is, that she has no Tartuffes: to have hypocrites, it is necessary to have bigots; but the name of bigot is almost unknown there, while that of an honest man is common. He sees no dotards committing to others the care of their souls; no petty tyrants establishing a despotic empire, in some quarter of the city, over a set of superannuated females, who were once coquettes, and always weak; and over men still more weak and despicable.
Philosophy, liberty, and the climate, lead the way to misanthropy. London, which has no Tartuffes, abounds with Timons. This man, who passed his life in the gay world, as it is called, painted its follies and absurdities in the strongest colors. A captain of a ship, of distinguished courage and frankness, and a professed despiser of mankind, has a sincere and prudent friend whom he mistrusts, and a mistress, by whom he is tenderly beloved, whom he slights: whilst he places all his confidence in a false friend, the most unworthy of men; and gives his heart to a jilt, the most perfidious of her sex.
He believes, however, that this woman is a Penelope, and this false friend a Cato: he sets—out on an expedition against the Dutch, and leaves all his money, jewels, and other effects, in the hands of this woman to the care of this friend he so firmly relies on; while the true friend, whom he mistrusts, embarks with him, and the lady, to whom he has not deigned to pay the least regard, disguises herself in the habit of a page, and performs the voyage with him, without discovering her sex the whole time.
He goes immediately to that paragon of women from whom he expects to receive his strong box, and a fresh proof of her fidelity. He finds her married to the sharper he had confided in, and can get no account of the treasure he had committed to her charge. The good man will hardly believe that so virtuous a woman could be guilty of such baseness; when the better to convince him of it, this honest lady falls in love with the little page, and attempts to take him away by force: but as it is necessary, in a dramatic piece, that justice should take Edition: current; Page: [ 57 ] place, vice be punished, and virtue meet its reward, at the close of the catastrophe, the captain supplied the place of the page, goes to bed to his inconstant mistress, cuckolds his treacherous friend, runs him through the body, recovers the remains of his effects, and marries his page.
You will observe, that this piece is interlarded with an old litigious woman, related to the captain, who is one of the merriest creatures, and one of the best characters, on the stage. Having this curious character, the husbands grant him free access to their wives, and his only difficulty is where to fix his choice. However, at last, he gives the preference to a little country—woman, who has a great share of innocence, with a natural warmth of constitution, by which she makes her husband a cuckold with a good will and readiness that far exceeds the premeditated malice of experienced dames.
The comedies of Sir John Vanbrugh are more facetious, but less ingenious. The knight was a man of pleasure, and besides a poet and an architect. If the apartments were only as large as the walls are thick, this mansion would be convenient enough. This gentleman took a tour into France just before the curious war of , and was put into the Bastille, where he remained some time, without knowing what it was that had procured him this mark of distinction from our ministry.
He wrote a comedy in the Bastille, and, what is in my opinion very remarkable, there is not in all the piece the least stroke against the country where he suffered this violence. Of all the English writers, the late Mr. Congreve has carried the glory of the comic theatre to the highest pitch. He wrote but few pieces, but they are all excellent of their kind: the laws of the drama are strictly observed in them; they are full of characters elegantly varied; no mean pleasantry, not the least indecency, is introduced; you find in every part the language of politeness, even in describing the actions of knaves; which proves that he knew the world, and kept what is called good company.
In a word, do not expect from me any extracts from these English performances that I am so great an advocate of; nor that I should give you a single bon Edition: current; Page: [ 59 ] mot or jest from Congreve or Wycherly. One cannot laugh in a translation. If you would be acquainted with the English comedy, you must go to London: you must reside there three years; you must learn the language perfectly, and constantly frequent the theatre. The delicate turn of bon mots, the allusion, and the apropos, are all lost to a foreigner.
It is not the same in tragedy; that consists alone in the sublime passions, and heroic fooleries, consecrated by the stale error of fables and histories. It has been objected to the English, that their scene is bloody, and often covered with dead bodies; that their gladiators fight half naked before young girls, and often return from the combat with the loss of a nose or a cheek. In answer to this, they tell you that they imitate the Greeks in tragedy, and the Romans in the act of cutting off noses: but their theatre is widely different from that of Sophocles and Euripides; and, with respect to the Romans, it must be acknowledged that a nose or a cheek is a trifle in comparison with that multitude of victims that mutually butchered each other in the circus for the diversion of the Roman ladies.
The English have sometimes had dances in their comedies, which were allegorical, and of a very singular taste. Despotic power and a republican state were represented by a very gallant dance in A king appears in the dance, who, after a few capers, gives his prime minister a very severe kick on the. The republican government was represented by a round dance, where everyone equally received and returned the blow. This, however, is the country that has given birth to Addisons, Popes, Lockes, and Newtons. Hume, brother of M. David Hume, the celebrated philosopher.
Sir: —The little trifle which I have the honor to put under your protection, is nothing more than an excuse for talking to you with freedom. You have conferred an eternal obligation on the fine arts and true taste, by generously contributing everything in your power toward a theatre in Paris, more worthy Edition: current; Page: [ 61 ] of that illustrious city than any she has hitherto seen.
We have some good philosophers amongst us, but must fairly acknowledge that we are but the followers of Newton, Locke, and Galileo. If France can boast of some historians, yet the Spaniards, the Italians, nay and even the English, may in this respect dispute the preeminence with us. Massillon alone passes with our men of taste here for a tolerably good orator; but how far beneath Archbishop Tillotson is he in the eyes of all Europe beside!
If you descend from works of wit to those where the hand is principally concerned, what painter have we comparable to the great Italian masters? It is only indeed in the Sophoclean art that we are allowed by all the world to excel; and this, no doubt, Edition: current; Page: [ 62 ] is the reason why, in many parts of Italy, they often play our pieces, either in our language or their own, and that French theatres are found at St.
Petersburg and Vienna. All that could be found fault with on our stage was the want of action and scenery: our tragedies were often nothing but long conversations in five acts. Was it possible to do this in the midst of a crowd that hid from the view of the spectators, mother, son, tomb and all, and took away all the terror of the scene by a contrast truly ridiculous? From these glaring absurdities you, sir, have in a great measure set us free; and when any writers of genius shall rise up capable of uniting the pomp of scenery, and the lively representation of an action, at the same time both probable and affecting, to strong thoughts, and that fine and natural poetry which constitutes the true merit of the drama; to you, sir, whenever that shall happen, will be due the thanks of our posterity.
But we must not leave the care of this to posterity, but have the courage to tell our own age what useful and noble works our contemporaries are able to produce: the just praise of merit is a perfume reserved only to embalm the dead. Let a man do Edition: current; Page: [ 63 ] anything ever so well, while he lives, nobody makes mention of it; or if they do, his merit is always extenuated, or detracted from; and the moment he is dead, that merit is as much exaggerated, on purpose to lessen the reputation of those who are still living. I would at least have all who read this little work know that there is in Paris more than one worthy and unfortunate man whom you have relieved; and that while you spend your leisure hours in the laborious and painful revival of a useful art lost in Asia, where it was invented, you have revived also a secret yet more rare—that of assisting indigent virtue by concealed charity and beneficence.
I am not ignorant that there is in Paris, and in what is called the polite world, a set of men, who would ridicule those good actions which they are not capable of performing; and it is my knowledge of them, sir, which doubles my respect for you. Gentlemen: —I am obliged by the illustrious Mr. F— to expose myself to you face to face; I shall talk to you respectfully and sentimentally; my complaint shall be marked with decorum, and enlightened by the torch of truth. I hope Mr. The comedians, both French and Italian, would have represented it, and it might have been played perhaps five or six times, but Mr.
F— freely employs all his interest and authority to prevent my translation from appearing: he who, while he was a Jesuit, encouraged young men so much, is now their enemy: he has written a whole paper against me, and begins by maliciously stating that my translation comes from Geneva, on purpose to make me suspected for a heretic.
Moreover, he calls Mr. Hume, Mr. Home; and afterward says that Mr. Hume, the clergyman, author of this piece, is no relative of Mr. Irmscher and K. Aletta, A. Dorothy deF. Abrahamse, Berkeley: University of California Press, Alishan, G. Armenian ed.
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Sim and P. Esler ed. Glockman ed. Braga 9 Pamplona 6 Braga 16 Travaux offerts a dom Lambert Beauduin I, Chevetogne , Christou ed. Studies on St. Hidruma Paterikon Meleton, , Amata, B. Amato, E. Studi e ricerche intorno a s. John Chrysostom. DPhil dissertation, Oxford University, Allision Jr et al. Delft ; 2nd ed. Andrade, N. Swensson ed. Nagra Ekumeniska och Internationelle Perspektiv. Andres, P. Athenai 60 , Thessaloniki 7 PhD diss. Anonymous, Ioannou tou Chrysostomou ta peri tes anagnoseos ton grafon hapanta. En Melite, To Mega Axioma. Neoellenike apodosis ton dodeka Katecheseon tou hierou Chrysostomou, Athenai: Ekdosis ton ergasterion grafikon technon To Phos, Archangelsky, A.
Petersburg Alvarez Verddes y E. Aspesi, Cara J. Assemani, J. Assemani, S. Astruc, C. Komines and D. Dialete, Praktika. Triacca et A. Bury et B. Astruc-Morize, G. Athanasiadou, K. Athens 41 , Attwater, D. Saint Jean Chrysostome, trad. Miramont Coll. Selection Mame 30 , Tours: Mame, Codices Britanniae et Hiberniae Docum. Dublin, Trinity Coll. Miscellanea patristica, historica et liturgica E. Meleton 3 Patristique et hagiographie grecques. Petri, , Aubineau, M. Aucher, G. Aucher, Jean-Baptiste, Severiani sive Seberiani Gabalorum episcopi Emesensis homiliae nunc primum editae ex antiqua versione Armena in Latinum sermonem translatae, Venice, Aucoin, M.
Auerbach, E. Auetisean, J. Fellous, C. Heid, M. Jullien, and T. Degni, P. Eleuteri, and M. Augustin, P. Avila, C. Axina, V. Azar, Michael G. Hovhanessian ed. In occasione del XVI centenario della consacrazione episcopale di S. Agostino, Roma, maggio , vol. Bacha, C. Backus, I. Bast and A.
Essays presented to Heiko A. Oberman on his 70th birthday, Leiden: Brill, , Badea, Gh. Homilia I-a despre tradarea lui Iuda si despre Pasti, despre administrarea Sf. Bady, Guillaume see also Salamito, J. Gioanni et B. Bady, Paris: Cerf, Marculescu Badilita et L. Boussac, S. Denoix, T. Fournet et B. Bady, G. Bajau, C. Balacev, A. Balducci, C. Baldovin, J. Institutum Studiorum Orientalium, Bucuresti 20 Bara, Zoltan. Scorza see Scorza Barcellona, F. Bardenhewer, O. III, Freiburg: Herder, 2nd ed. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Bardolle, M. Bardy, G.
Fliche ed. Fliche and V. Martin edd. Travaux offerts a dom Lambert Beauduin, Chevetogne , I Bareille, J. Barkhuizen, J. Barnard, Jody A. Barnes, Timothy D. Chrysostome transmise par le Barberinianus gr. Loubet et D. Barone, Francesca P. Codices Ancyrae et Constantinopolis descr. Francesca P. Barone ; II. Voicu] [Baronius] Caesaris S. Baronii Od. Raynaldi et Jac. Laderchii Congregationis oratorii presbyterorum Annales Ecclesiastici denuo excusi et ad nostra usque tempora perducti ab Augustino Theiner, eiusdem Congreg. Barrosse, T. Barsottelli, L. Bartolozzi, A.
Batareikh, E. Sola fide? Klasse der kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien Battista, G. Baudoin, P. Bauer, F. Bauer, J. Bauer ed. CPG ] Baum, G. Cunitz and E. Reuss eds , Corpus reformatorum. Ioannis Calvini opera que supersunt omnia, 59 vols, Brunsvigae: Schwetschke, Kommentar zum Evangelium des hl. Newman Press, Johannes Chrysostomus verfasst? Saxer ed. Hamman, Roma ] Bebis, George S. Bejarano, B. Benestad, J. Benin, S. Benz, E. Bergh, R. Bernardi, J. Berry Wylie, A. See Wylie, A. Betz, Erin L. John Chrysostom, an important patristic writer, is acknowledged to have made significant contributions to the exegesis of this letter.
Chrysostom's thought became the norm for traditional thinking and interpretation of this letter in the Middle Ages. Martin Luther's reception of Chrysostom's Homilies on Hebrews presents a unique interpretation that some scholars may describe as the "Reformation Discovery" on Hebrews. In tracing Luther's reception and appropriation of Chrysostom's exegesis of the letter to the Hebrews, there is a noticeable and significant shift in Christological interpretation.
Whether or not these modifications were necessary is a matter of debate; however, they do reflect Luther's contextual and existential questions regarding faith, Christ and knowledge of God, which is evident in his Lectures on Hebrews. Bianchi, Luca ed. Kapitel der Aposelgeschichte. Bickersteth, E. Bidez, J. Biedermann, H. Billet Billiotou, B. Birdsall, J. Black ed. Blagova, E. Grillet Blankenship, J. Pereira ed. Bober, A. Kannengiesser ed. Boehmer-Romundt, H. Bogataj, J. Luter in J. Neunter Teil. Das vierter Jahrhundert, Stuttgart Bono, C.
Magnalid edd. Elia ed. Bonfiglio, E. Neocleous ed. Bonniere, F. Bonsdorff, M. Bopp, L. Borghese, B. Giovanni Crisostomo: Invito a penitenza, Ancona: Ed. Paoline, Giovanni Crisostomo. Invito a penitenza Patristica e del Pensiero , Alba: Ed. Bosio, G. Bottino, A. Bouchet, J. Bouet, F. Alexandre, F. Bouet, M. Cassin et al. Congourdeau; introd. Bouet, Paris: Pollen, Noret et al. Condamine ed. Boularand, E. Boulnois, M. Bousquet, J.
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Jean Chrysostome et S. Bouzy, G. Heimgartner; Wallraff, M. Januar in Bethel Oikonomia 9 , Erlangen: Theol. Fritz Buri zu Ehren, vol. Lauer u. H Ernst hrsg. Scholten hrsg. Chauvin, avec la collab. Bishop — Reformer — Martyr, translated by J. Cawte and S. Trzcionka with revised notes by W. Vescovo, riformatore, martire Cultura cristiana antica , Roma: Borla Edizioni, Heimgartner, T. Kuhn, u. Kohlhammer, Holman ed. Hellholm, T. Norderval, and C. Hellholm eds , Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism.
Waschungen, Initiatien und Taufe. Tuor und L. Kundert hrsg. Hellholm and D. Jegher-Bucher, Johannes Chrysostomus. Braniste, E. Bucuresti Bucuresti 9 Tamcke et al. Studien zur syrischen Kirchengeschichte: Festschrift Prof. Bria, V. Jean Chrysostome; in Romanian] Brigatti, C. Giovanni Crisostom.
Catechesi battesimali Patristica e del pensiero cristiano , Alba: Ed. Paris IV-Sorbonne, Jouanna et L. Villard avec D. Badilita and A. Cabouret, P. Gatier et C. Histoire, images et traces de la ville antique. Laurence et F. Delage ed. Bochet and M. Oudot and F. Urbaniana, Facultas Theologica, Roma Brooten, Bernadette J. Jean Mabillon et la tradition monastique, Paris , Brown, A. Brown, Peter, The Body and Society. Men, women, and sexual renunciation in early Christianity Lectures on the history of religions N. An Old Nubian version of Ps. Browning, R. Brox, N. Aalen: Scientia Verlag, Brummer, G.
Zur Deutung von Claudian c. Bruns, P. A short account of the life and work of John Chrysostom is given and followed by an analysis of four of his homilies of the Gospel of Matthew. These are compared with own exegetical points of view of the same texts. The focus is directed to some topics where the influence of worldview makes itself felt. In the last chapter some observations in connection with the influence of worldview on biblical interpretation ensue.
The thesis closes with a short discussion of some missiological and hermeneutical consequences. Franz eds , Wort des lebendigen Gottes — Liturgie and Bibel. Buchthal, H. Hainthaler, F. Mali, G. Emmenegger and M. Lenkaityte Ostermann hrsg. Soteriologie in Ost und West. Budge, E. Buhl, K. Bulhart, V. Bundy, David D. Index initiorum graecorum operum Chrysostomo adscriptorum Bibliotheca Chrysostomica. Bibliographia analytica corporis Chrysostomici , Portland: Bibliotheca Chrysostomica Only volume 1 has appeared.
The usefulness of this work lies in the alphabetical listing of all of the initia, with indexing to all of the important tools, enabling swift identification of a work or homily] Burnish, Raymond F. It considers the different approaches to catechesis and mystagogy of Cyril of Jerusalem, John Chrysostom of Antioch, and Theodore of Mopsuestia, and indicates the emphasis of Cyril on the necessity for the sincerity of the candidate, the pastoral concern and realism of John Chrysostom, and the emphasis on baptism as the symbol of the future which derives from Theodore.
It also notes the differences in the situations and audiences for the material considered which is: the Procatechesis, Catecheses, and Mystagogical Catecheses of Cyril, the Catechetical Instructions of John Chrysostom, and the two works on the Faith and the Sacraments of Theodore.
In the context of printed rather than oral instruction, a variety of modern works and liturgies are compared to give a composite view of each Church, although catechesis and mystagogy have tended to merge into one area of instruction. This modern material indicates a reversion to the earlier 'golden age of catechesis' of the fourth century, which in some situations is a conscious reversion, and in the others is an unconscious reversion to the fourth century due to the limited number of ways in which the baptismal rite can be explained.
The link between baptism and ecclesiology is illustrated, as is the renewed importance of the community of the faithful in the acceptance and nurture of the candidates, and the renewal of interest in the role of the sponsor as the link between the candidate and the community. Bush, R. Caillet, S. Destephen, B. Picard, , Busuioc, Gh. Butler, J. C Cagni, G. Sempliciano e a s. Caimi, J. Cain, A. The citation is attributed to Chrysostom, but is instead taken from Eusebius of Emesa.
Argued that Eusebius' own experience of bilingualism may have shaped his perception of Paul's difficulty, and his interpretation may have influenced Chrysostom's strictures on Paul's inability to write Greek clearly] Caldana, A. Breve studio storico-letterario, Vicenza Calhoun, R. Callahan, Alan D. Callegari, R. Lettere, Milano: Jaca Book, Baum, E. Cunitz, et al. McIndoe in Hartford Quarterly 5 Calvo, J. Long, with L. Campagnano, A. Orlandi, Quattro omelie copte. Vita di Giovanni Crisostomo. Encomi dei 23 vegliardi Ps.
Proclo e Anonimo. Cisalpino La Goliardica, Garrard, London: Black, , Canart, P. Cancik, H. Gladigow hrsg. PhD Diss. A comparison of the exegesis of three modern scholars with that of St. MA in Theol. Caplat, S. Capone, A. Its actuality; in Romanian] Cardman, F. MA diss. Carrillo de Albornoz, A. FAE, Carter, Robert E. Codices Germaniae Docum. Codices Americae et Europae occidentalis Docum. Codicum Italiae partem priorem Docum.
Carvalho, J. Cascioli, G. Castiglioni, L. Cataldi Palau, A. Marangio, A. Spedicati, e L. Sturlese a cura di , Filosofia e storiografia. Consoli a cura di , Sapientia et eloquentia. Omaggio ad Antonio Garzya. Cataudella, Q. Paoli oblatum, Genova: Ist. Cattaneo, E. Cavallera, F. Hieronymiana, 4 ser. Ceillier, D. On the one hand, it would seem that pagan writers, especially neoplatonic philosophers, have completely ignored his works because they denied them any philosophical significance.
On the other hand, Christian writers, obsessed by their polemic against paganism and the Apostate, would have paid little attention to his writings, using very few quotations and above all misquoting him. In fact, Christian writers like Gregory of Nazianzenus and John Chrysostom quote many words from Julian's philosophical and theological vocabulary and church historians like Socrates and Sozomen quote many large extracts of Julian, especially his letters.
Their attitude towards Julian is ambiguous: behind a general eulogy or a complete silence, we can see that several of them, like Libanius, Ammianus, Sallustius and Ammonius of Alexandria tried to continue his thought, especially his devotion to King Helios and his polemic against Christianity, using language with double meaning. Folia Historica 44 Folia Historica 48 Educazione dei figli. Matrimonio Coll. Felici ed. Curti e C. Cervini, M. Charvay, L. Chase, F.
Chatzoglou-Balta, E. Stamoule, Appendices I, pp. Chevallon and J. Childers, J. Taylor ed. Chiocchetta, P. Saggi di sintesi patristiche Profilie sintesi 3 , Roma: Studium, Chitulescu, P. Chrysostomica in J. Christofis, G. Christophis, G. Christou, P. Chrysanthou, Metr. Jerusalem 57 ; 58 Ciarlo, Domenico, Giovanni Crisostomo. Peters ed. Cindea, S. John Chrysostom as Pastoral carer] Ciobotea, D. Piazza ed. Teologi in dialogo, Cinisello Balsamo: Edizione S. Paolo, , Ciulei, M. Clark, Ascetic Piety and Women's Faith. Babcock ed. Ritter, pp.
Feichtinger, S. Lake, u. Seng hrsg. Clark, E. Burns and J. Winter, Cocchini, F. Bienert u. Jahrhunderts, Leuven: Leuven University Press, , Moreschini, A Stagirio tormentato da un demone Collana di testi patristici , Roma Thesim Facultati Litterarum Parisiensi proponebat, Paris Cohausz, O. John Chrysostom with special reference to his Epistles to Pope S. Collett, B. Cololo, A. Ioanna Zlatousta, Leningrad Gregorianae, Rome Colombo, S.
Bucuresti 17 Bucuresti 18 ?? Sfameni Gasparro ed. Compton, Michael B. Actorum in an appendix] Conevsky, I. John Chrysostom, Sofia Congourdeau, M. C] Constantelos, Demetrios J. Constantinou, E. John Chrysostom as an interpreter of the New Testament. MTh diss. Constanza, M. Chrysostomus, Haarlem Cook, James D. Cooper, Adam G. Cornitsescu, C. Hidruma Paterikon Meleton, Bucuresti 29 Johannes Chrysostomus] Correale, R. Corsato, C. Corvinus, A. Cosma, S. Costanza, M. Costanzo, E. Mimouni et B. Courcelle, P. Court, J. Court ed. Cox, James W. Cox, W. Recherches historico- philologiques, Tiflis: Institut des manuscrits Calderone, Messina , Cramer, D.
Cramer, J. Mit Abhandlungen und Anmerkungen begleitet. Zweyter Band.
In evangelia s. Lucae et s.
Joannis, Oxford Abbamonte, L. Miletti, and L. Cuomo, V. Curti, C. Letteratura greca, Palermo: Fac. Wysocki ed. Falque Editeur, Dagron, G. Dal Covolo, E. Daloz, L. Dal Santo, A. John Chrysostom, ed. Damgaard, F. Papers of the Sophia Institute Academic Conference. New York. Danassis, A. Didaktorike diatribe. En Barne typogr. Arnold u. Fischer hrsg. Datema, C.
Asher Rare Books
An unedited homily of Ps. Chrysostom, In psalmum 92 CPG ? Bastiaensen, A. Hilhorst and C. Datt, C. Silbermann, Dattrino, L. Davis, Basil S. This investigation excluded the possibility of the death of St. Also excluded was the Abkhazian Comana. The latest version appeared in , and it was associated with the name of a Greek archeologist Konstantine Vrissis. The second parts of the dissertation is dedicated to establishing the identity of St.
Basiliscus and we came to the following conclusion: the Saint who appeared to Chrysostom in Comana, was most probably the St. Martyr Basiliscus, a companion of the Saintly Eutropius and Cleonicus. His martyrdom was in the Pontic Comana. The third parts of this dissertation is dedicated to the story of the transfer of the relics of Chrysostom. The majority of the narrative sources of the discovery of the relics of St. Other accounts of their removal from the Armenian Comana or Pityus, were excluded.
Tolmie ed. Degen, P. Beitrag zur Geschichte von Metaphor, Allegorie und Gleichnis in der griechischen Proseliteratur, diss. Schweiz: Olten Walter, Dehandschutter, B. Mayer, P. Allen and B. Dehandschutter Dehandschutter, B. Delage, P. Delegiannopoulou, Chr. Delgado Jara, I. Chausson et E. Delmaire, J. Desmulliez, and P. Demetrakopoulou, S. Athenai Ekdosis b. VII , Roma: Assoc. Depuydt, Leo et al.