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Inscribed presentation copy from Ball. Wheat Gold Rush 9: "Reminiscences of a pioneer who had previously edited an account of the excursion to California of the California Pioneers of New England. Kurutz Brown, John Henry. San F. Original gold stamped red cloth with private embossed library stamp on title page, in a cloth box, very nice copy. Howes B [b]. Cowan Graff " Rocq Wheat, Gold Rush Zamorano "John Henry Brown as a fur trader, bartender, citizen-soldier, hotel builder, capitalist, man of affairs, and author.

A prominent figure in San Francisco in the early days, , Brown observed and was told of many happenings there. He met many men, both the great and the near great. His reminiscences fill in many of the gaps in the early history of San Francisco. Streeter Sale Kurutz 88A: " Despite the flaws, his text gives wonderful detail on people and events Original printed wrappers, edge wear.

Streeter copy with his bookplate on inside front cover. Streeter "This severely criticizes the policy of J. The pamphlet, which is signed and dated at the end, An early Californian, New York, August 10th, " makes out a strong case. Not in Howes or Graff. Field, Stephen. Original cloth. Not published. Field, Stephen J. San Francisco, not published, printed for a few friends, [].

Modern half morocco. Howes F Eberstadt Wheat Gold Rush He left January 12, , for Sacramento and points beyond arriving at Nye's ranch, where he bought 65 lots in a new town called Yubaville Marysville. Two weeks later, Field was sworn in as the first Alcade of the booming town. Included in his recollections is an interesting description of Sutter.

From them on, his legal career blossomed, resulting in his appointment to the U. Supreme Court in Johnson, Theodore T. One of the earliest published accounts of the gold fields, reprinted numerous times in subsequent years. The month on April was spent in a trip to Sacramento and the mining camps. Howes J Mintz Wagner-Camp-Becker g2. Kurutz A One of the earliest published accounts of the gold fields. Letts, John M. The Deering copy with his leather bookplate on inside front cover. Howes L another edition. Graff only cites an edition. Eberstadt Cat Kurutz C: ",,, drawing on his personal experience, Letts produced one of the best accounts of gambling, violence, and life in the mines In his notes to the readers he wrote: "'A season's residence in the mineral regions enabled me to obtain a correct insider view of live in California.

George V. Cooper ,,, drew the illustrations than embellish this work. The contents of the second edition are identical Robinson, Fayette. Full gold tooled leather, raised bands with gold stamped leather labels on spine. The Deering copy with his leather bookplate on inside of front cover.

Howes R Wheat One of the best of the earliest books on California printed for sale to intending gold seekers. Contains a map of the United States and California, showing the routes of the U. Stanly, Edward. AND T. JOHN S. Gold stamped calf spine over modern boards. Greenwood Tyson, Philip T. Baltimore, Original cloth The second and best edition, following the governemnt document edition of the previous year. An important discussion of the geology of gold in California, based on a four-months stay, including a fine map of the Sacramento Valley, a smaller one of the author's travel routes, and one of his path through the Sierra Nevada.

Howes T Wheat, Gold Regions Wheat Goldl Rush Sabin Kurutz a. Not in Graff. Venegas, Miquel. London, Rivington and Fletcher, Full contemporary calf with volume number on spine and gold borders on covers, small hole in front endpaper of volume 1. Bookplate of Thomas Weld. In half morocco slipcase. First English edition. Howes V "First attempt at a history of California, based, by the anonymous editor, Father Andres Marcos Burriel on Venegas's manuscript, but incorporating information from other sources Field " Wagner Spanish Southwest A.

Zamorano 80 78 note. Streeter Sale " Wagner says 'Contains more on lower California than almost any other book that had been published in one and fifty years'. Whitney, J. Cambridge, Ma, Riverside, Original 4to gold stamped full leather, privately printed in a small edition. Whitney extols the virtues of California's agricultural and land utilization future, mostly in San Francisco, Sacramento, Roberts Island, and the Bay area.

London, Jan.

Louis Calaferte

Full quarto leather , joints expertly mended. Clark, William Captain. CLARK, New Haven and London, Yale, Contains the Dubois Journal, Dec. The field notes are reproduced in both facsimile and transcript, with maps and other illustrations. Clarke, Asa Bement. Original printed wrappers, half inch separation at top and lower front joint; in a half morocco slipcase. Deering copy with his leather bookplate. Howes C Clarke was the secretary of this company which for the most part came from around Springfield, Ma. The route he travelled had not been previously described.

The party reached Los Angeles July 9, Clarke spent the winter of at Sacramento and Marysville and along the Yuba River. Coke, Henry J. London, Bentley, Frontispiece portrait. Original decorated cloth, slight wear at lower spine and rear joint. The author crossed by the Platte route in , making much of the journey in the winter under harrowing circumstances.

MINTZ COWAN, p. GRAFF Flake Collins, John S. Omaha, N. Original pictorial gold stamped small 8vo cloth. Howes C"For ten years Collins was post trader at Ft. He incorporates much unwritten history of the early trans-Missouri region. Jocknick, Sidney. Denver, Carson-Harper, Original gold stamped cloth, front joint and lower spine show some wear; hinges beginning to crack. Adams Guns Wilcox p. Eberstadt Cat "Territorial days; treaties and troubles with the Ute, the Meeker Massacre, cattle thieves, highwaymen, and other criminals such as the infamous Alfred Packer who murdered his four companions in the mountains and then subsisted on their corpses Marsh, Barton W.

Montrose, Co, Original pictorial cloth. Chicago, Chapman, Full quarto gold stamped leather. A mine of important information on Colorado luminaries. Not in Wynar, Graff, Eberstadt, Decker, etc. Lancaster, Pa, Modern quartered calf over marbled boards. Account of the regions and what railroad development can do for this section of the country.

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Whitney, Joel P. Former owner's embossed stamp on title page. First edition, another issue. Howes W The appendix contains copies of the mining laws of a few of the principal mining districts. Written "for the primary purpose of attracting the attention of capitalists to the inviting silver fields of the Cordillera Ranges Larpenteur, Charles. Original cloth, gold stamped on spine.

Smith Limited to sets. Coxe, William. London, Cadell and Davies, Modern marbled boards with calf spine, and gold stamped red label, three library rubber stamps on title page and a library stamp on page Fourth edition, considerably enlarged. Howes C " Hill p. Wickersham Lada-Mocarski Forbes Hawaii " It is an important and early commentary on Northern Pacifc exploration. Coyner, David H.

Cincinnati, James, Original cloth rebacked with gold stamping on spine. Field "The lost trappers were a portion of Lewis and Clark's party. Street er Sale Wagner-Camp-Becker "The hero of this sometime fictitious account of the beginnings of American fur trade is Ezekiel Williams, whose 'old, musty, mutilated journal, forms the basis for Coynor's story of exploration and adventure in the Rockies, , and an overland journey to California in by two of Williams's companions: James Workman and Samuel Spencer Cincinnati, Truman, Original cloth, wear to front joint and edges, lightly chipped at top and bottom of spine, gold stamped on spine.

Holt, O. Original printed wrappers in cloth box. Streeter Sale "This is a good account of the territory and its counties and towns, with many specific articles. The map shows the differed land districts with boxes above and below giving statements by the registers of the various districts regarding settlements in their districts Except for the local mining railroad at Deadwood, the Northern Pacific is still the only railroad west of the Missouri Decker Cat 35 McClure, R.

Sioux Falls, Da. Original printed wrappers, front wrapper chipped, rear wrapper chipped and crudely mended. Dakota Imprints Parker p. Manufacturing, commercial, minerals, geography, topography, products, progress, etc. Rosen, Peter. Louis, Nixon-Jones, Original pictorial cloth, chipped at top of spine, spine faded. Streeter Sale "One of the best pioneer histories of the Black Hills. Jennewein Eberstadt "The author The results is a work of lasting importance Edwards, Col.

Philip L. Sacramento, Johnston, Original printed wrappers. Howes E Six Score The narrative of the fist recorded cattle drive in California. Edward's diary was originally published serially in Themis Magazine in the 's. Aside from its cattle interest, which recounts bringing some head of cattle from California to Oregon, the book is also a California and fur item. Wagner-Camp-Becker 48, notes. Emory, William H. Full 4to leather with gold stamping on sine and gold stamped on each front cover.

LACKS part 4. Many of the leaves and plates show old staining at lower inside margin area. Wagner-Cam-Becker Original cloth, front joint worn, printed paper label on spine has a few small pieces missing, some old staining to the top of some plates and pages. Rittenhouse Wheat, Transmississippi West 3: map As an explorer, observer, and reporter of virtually unknown, newly-won territory of the southwest, he performed an outstanding service for his country.

His report was a major contribution to the geographical knowledge of North America. His map was the first accurate depiction of the vast area known as the American southwest, and is still regarded as a landmark of American cartography. Fitch, Michael H. Pueblo, Original gold stamped cloth, some light wear to front joint, paper label removed from spine and bookplate removed.

One of copies printed. A very scarce and sought after early history of ranching in southern Colorado, where the author moved in Inscribed presentation copy "Florence Robertson with the love of her father M. Fremont, Jesse Benton. Los Angeles, March 25, In our research, this selection was difficult due to the fact that the publishers are linked by a whole network of complex relations: financial through more or less important capital shares , commercial through distribution , and family.

Another difficulty is the extreme closure of this professional environment, which is highly concerned with protecting itself from intrusion and interrogation. French publishers are little inclined to provide strategic information, especially sales figures or the social profiles of the directors. The population we have studied comprises 61 publishers of French or translated literature who published between July and July Of these, 56 were active elements and 5 were supplementary elements in our analysis of the multiple correspondences.

We did not seek to undertake an exhaustive census of French publishers, or even of the publishers of literature, nor an analysis of a representative sample of this population. Our aim was to extract the structure of the literary publishing field. We thus excluded publishers of social sciences, although we are well aware that the majority of the publishers of literature carry works of social science in their catalogues.

We also excluded publishers specializing in paperbacks re-editions , art books, practical books, dictionaries or encyclopedias and schoolbooks, as well as the book clubs France-Loisirs, Le Grand Livre du mois. Similarly excluded were the publishers too small to affirm their existence in this field by exerting real effects and for which it is extremely difficult to collect the data necessary for statistical analysis. The degree to which publishers can make their own decisions is difficult to measure, particularly when the publisher is a subsidiary of a group.

The degree of independence can also vary in the course of time. This is why each subsidiary company was examined in detail in order to identify those that have real editorial independence. The difficulty is increased by the fact that, the bigger and more compartmentalized a publisher is, the more its institutional decision-making tends to gain in extension and apparent complexity.

A big publisher may thus function like a subfield for clashes between agents of different weight financial, commercial, literary , each of which depends on the position of the decision-making apparatus within the overall publishing field and which can vary in the course of time according to changes in this position and the type of work under discussion. The selected publishing units are most often in independent companies or subsidiary companies with their own capital.

The Fixot label, which publishes only essays, was kept as an additional element. Similarly, Rivages-Payot, resulting from the purchase of Rivages by Payot-France, was treated as a group, the two companies being closely linked at the level of the distribution of publishing assignments, capital and turnover. The brand Rivages was treated as an active element and Payot was an additional element.

The construction of the relevant characteristics Sixteen variables, divided into five groups, were used to portray the space occupied by the publishers. The size of the company is an index combining capital stock, turnover and to a lesser extent the number of directors. The index could not be compiled for 4 companies because of a lack of information. Added to these two variables is the number of salaried staff 5 categories : from 1 to 3 salaried staff 15 ; from 4 to 9 14 ; from 10 to 40 11 ; from 40 to 6 ; from to 5.

These data could not be obtained for 5 companies. Financial or commercial dependence with other publishers The dependence variable concerns the acquisitions of other publishers in the capital of the publisher. It has two values: there is a publisher among the shareholders 20 ; there is no publisher among the shareholders Market share We were unable to measure commercial success from the average print-runs, since those figures were not made available to us. We noted the rank occupied by the publisher in each list published during the reference year. The publisher in first place receives 15 points, in second place, 14 points, and so on.

To build the index, the average of the two lists was taken. Five values were thus distinguished: 0 mentions 28 ; 1 to 11 8 ; 14 to 8 ; to 6 ; more than 6. There were two values: yes 13 and no The ability to obtain government assistance can also help reinforce the commercial strength of a publisher. The two lists gave the numbers of subsidized titles. The accumulated symbolic capital can be measured from an index based on the list of contemporary French authors provided by Jurt, in which the authors are classified according to the number of times where they are quoted in a corpus of 28 textbooks of literary history, dictionaries or literary panoramas published after the Second World War.

As a first step, we collected the first 80 authors those quoted the most often then assigned a point to each publisher by text published. The information could not be obtained for two publishers. The dominant language translated reveals the position of the publisher in the sector. We built a variable comprising the different languages in the sample of publishers. There are ten language groups G 1 to G 10 from the 50 publishers providing the information.

Figure 1 shows the various publishers distributed, on the horizontal axis, from largest and oldest to smallest and most recent. The largest are able to accumulate financial and symbolic capital and can thus dominate the market, as demonstrated by their position on the best-seller lists. They do this in various ways, including the influence they exert on the national literary awards and the press. They practically never reach the best- seller lists. Intermediate positions are occupied by publishers with access to dominant positions like prize juries or national awards. There is then a group mainly comprising small private limited liability companies, created after , with reduced salaried staff less than 10 , with little symbolic capital and limited commercial success.

These are private limited liability companies located in the French provinces or abroad. They are not on the best-seller list. This group of very small publishers are complemented by a class mostly made up of Parisian publishers [in gray, blue and green] founded after , with a salaried staff of more than 10, of average importance, half private limited liability companies, and almost all of them publishing translations from English.

These small innovative publishers play a very limited role in the overall publishing game. They thus become one of its principles of transformation. Poor and powerless, the smaller publishers are somehow condemned to respect the official standards professed and proclaimed by all. We are virtuous by obligation. I do not publish work from journalists who are going to write articles afterwards. Bear in mind that such mechanisms are also places for accumulating social capital, sets of useful connections for promoting authors and books.

The small publishers are thus absent or excluded from all the games of the leading publishing business. Those games include the race for literary prizes, the use of publicity, the art of cultivating social contacts and journalist accomplices the small publishers usually do not have press agents , and competition for the big international best-sellers.

They publish fewer English-language authors than the others, even though their catalogues often include a particularly large percentage more than a quarter of translations. The small bookstores defend the small publishers and avant-garde authors with a devotion close to priesthood. Their network of representatives provides a very commercially effective counterweight to the commercial power and the advertising assets of the large publishing houses.

An analysis of the publishing field should ideally take into account all the agents who, although they do not have any official status, play roles as taste makers. These agents intervene in the field through their power to consecrate and influence the circulation of books. They include taste-makers empowered by appearances on television, as is the case of Guillaume Durand or Bernard Pivot. In short, there is a confrontation between the small and the large publishers.

This is most clearly seen in total volumes of capital. The large older companies, whose paradigm is Gallimard, accumulate capital of all kinds economic, commercial and symbolic. This incipient symbolic capital is almost impossible to identify through the available sociological indicators.


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As such, the process requires considerable time. The second axis Figures 1 and 2 positions the publishing houses according to the structure of their capital, i. On this second axis, the publishers are distributed according to the degree and the form of their dependence on other publishers, with respect to both share holdings and book distribution. We find that the old mid-sized publishing houses, generally dependent, have economic capital that far exceeds their current symbolic capital even if they have vestiges of a great past.

Resolutely oriented toward more or less exclusively commercial ends, they contrast on the one hand with the large publishers consecrated in all respects, and on the other with the small powerless publishers. These publishers are mostly subsidiary companies of large groups they often have a publisher among their shareholders. They are still well positioned from the economic capital point of view.

However, the weakness of their symbolic capital means that their capital structure is asymmetrical as opposed to the companies located at the two ends of the first axis, which are homogeneous from the point of view of the two types of capital. These are essentially subsidiary companies with the status of public limited liability companies founded before , with 10 to salaried staff, of average size and with considerable success with best-sellers. This class corresponds closely enough to the group of companies located at the bottom of the diagram. Yet these publishers produce either literature without originality or commercial literature that only allodoxia could see as innovative.

On the third axis, at one end we find mainly the publishers who publish no or very few translations mostly from small rare languages and at the other are those that, more subject to the constraints of the market, translate a great deal especially from English , producing commercial literature with more or less guaranteed success Figures 3 and 4.

One might suspect that the publishing strategies the taking of positions result from the positions actually occupied in the field. Publishing houses that occupy positions close to each other do indeed have rather similar policies with regard to translations for example. They may even tend toward genuine solidarity, at least at the dominated end of the field. Nonetheless, these constraints are mediated by the dispositions of the various agents. We would have liked to include the distinctive properties of the human publishers themselves among the system of explanatory factors.

This is all information that, as many observers realize, is protected by a barrier of particularly formidable secrecy. Documentary analysis and ethnographic investigation nevertheless show a rough correspondence between the characteristics of the publishers as people and the features of their publishing houses. The logic behind this correspondence is simple. The small houses are more likely to be run by publishers who are younger and female, of relatively high social origin, endowed with good knowledge of literature, and highly dedicated to their work, both intellectually and emotionally.

The large publishing houses are more likely to be in the hands of heirs or technicians, either trained on the job or legitimated by the occasional academic degree. The new publishing houses are more likely to have been established by those currently running them, thus occupying positions created in their own image. In the case of the established publishers, on the other hand, the position will most often produce its occupant, either by way of inheritance there are many heirs in the profession—sons, daughters, nephews or nieces or by inviting in carefully selected outsiders.

Either way, the publishing house tends to have a director in its image. A further principle of differentiation is the specific competence that is the condition for success or failure in the profession. A book is an object with both economic and symbolic sides; it is at the same time product and signification.

Publishers are thus double characters who should know how to reconcile art and money, the love of literature and the quest for profit. Their strategies must be located somewhere between realistic or cynical submittal to commercial considerations, and heroic or foolish indifference to financial needs. The competence of the publisher—and of all those who are involved with books, in any role—is made up of two antagonistic parts plus the ability to harmonious those parts. The ideal publisher would be both an inspired speculator, placing bets at the highest risk, and a stringent accountant, parsimoniously counting the results.

In reality, publishers lean toward one pole or another, in accordance with their position in the structure of the field and the trajectory that has led them there. They are a little like art dealers, working in the anti-commercial commerce of pure art. They attempt a successful combination of feelings as sociologically incompatible as water and fire: the pure love of art and the mercenary love of money. All the forms of double conscience and double personality are put into action, by one side or the other, or by one and the same side but at different times. In one sense, it is at the outset, in the necessarily heroic beginnings, that the choice is easiest, because there are not many choices to make.

This is clearly seen in translations of foreign works. According to a literary agent, The books that are cheap for the general public to buy are very expensive for publishers to buy [when it comes to the translation rights] because the whole world reads them, because they are world successes. On the other hand, there are good novels or very good authors who, potentially, do not have high projected sales but are high quality. Therefore, often, they fall back on quality books. As the publisher says, even if they wanted to, they could not.

In any event, they do not want to, because they would not be in the position that they occupy, and where they have been put, if they did not have the resources necessary to occupy it, the virtues necessary to accept the needs of the position. He is not at all ashamed of his trade as a publisher, as he puts it using the English term , and he needs no words to declare the economic truth of his occupation. His origins lie miles away from culture and literature. He reached the top of a group of companies by rising up through all the levels in the more commercial side he was a storekeeper at Gallimard, salesman at Hachette, sales representative at Garnier, sales manager at Gallimard, before founding his own company.

He is poorly integrated into the publishing world he left the 6th arrondissement for the right bank of the Seine, a business area , and other publishers look down on him or treat him like a reject. He is inclined to a kind of literary populism, crossbred with anti-intellectualism. He seeks to address with a certain sincerity the largest public possible; his management techniques are those he would employ in any business whatsoever, using all available means to obtain maximum benefits marketing, publicity, low price, etc.

He is nevertheless obliged to make some concessions to the values of the publishing world. He takes part in the race for the big international best-sellers. He has every right to see himself as a professional. Yet he cannot help but appear cut off from the important literary dimension of this particular kind of publishing.

There is a group of publishers, owners of companies, that I would say, without being too malicious, are almost illiterate. They are publishers who cannot read, which is our basic stock in trade, it seems to me. On the other hand, they can count [ I struggle to see publishing passing to the hands of people who [ In fact, although the risks are infinitely less for a large publisher than for a small one, the commercial decisions are now imposed by financial technicians, marketing specialists and accountants.

This happens even within the old publishing houses like Gallimard, which are obliged to enter the race for money. They were the first, the largest, the most internationally known for a very long time. Thus, Gallimard has a declining noble behavior pattern that nevertheless seeks to maintain its position by making the adaptations and adjustments necessary in order to compete in the race for international best-sellers. It uses clever strategies involving a moderate modernization that enables it, like many dominant players, to reap the benefits of one choice and of its opposite at the same time.

This is associated with boldness and occasional alibis in the form of discoveries drawn from small language fields, along with fashionable management of the existing catalogue. The double game runs through all the paperback collections, for adults or young people, as well as the new editions, accompanied by periodical rejuvenation generally limited to a new front cover.

The best index of the correspondence between the structure of the positions and the structure of the strategies position-takings is undoubtedly the fact that an increase in the literary capital of a publishing house almost inevitably goes hand-in-hand with greater priority being accorded to commercial aims and criteria. The people in charge can do little more than delay destiny by slowing down the movement toward the commercial pole. The strategies of a publisher like Minuit, avant-garde but in the process of consecration, stand out clearly when one places them within the context of the entire publishing field.

A form of resistance based on ascetic aristocratism has allowed Minuit to pull through, in the absence of initial success and despite later success. That resistance allows it to be seen as free of the compromises of the publishing economy. It stands out against the strategies of the small avant-garde publishing houses that have recently entered the field, but also against the strategies of well established large publishers. For example, it has little to do with Gallimard, the large old publishing house that, long canonized, now canonizes academic authors perpetuating the most traditional literary forms, or young authors spontaneously conforming to old models or so uninformed of literary changes that they attach an idea of avant-gardism to the old publishing house.

The same consecration is given to several of the early discoveries notably Samuel Beckett and Claude Simon in the case of Gallimard and to the group of authors constituting the nouveau roman. This is done as much through the use of the same front cover as through the symbolic promotion led by Alain Robbe-Grillet,which can only reinforce the symbolic capital of the publisher itself. Consecration also attracts potential new authors, who can thus continue the pattern and, thanks to the dispositions of this particular public, obtain relative success. Once full collective recognition is obtained, some of the new authors can benefit from the indulgence of the publishing house, which paradoxically falls victim to its desire to escape from social aging.

One wonders whether this once small publishing house, now at the peak of consecration, will be able to persevere with its combination of extreme audacity and extreme reserve. This combination has so far enabled it to remain in the class of small companies as far as the economic indicators are concerned a very limited number of salaried staff, an ostentatious exclusion of marketing and publicity, a relatively low number of titles published, a refusal of translations and of the race for foreign best- sellers , at the same time as it belongs to the category of the largest publishers according to all the other indicators, and even, little by little, in the successful sales figures that consecration ensures for even its riskiest bets.

The dynamic of the field and new production trends The dynamic of this field cannot be understood in terms of the separate parallel evolutions of individual publishing houses, which all run in the convenient form of the biological metaphor: birth, youth, maturity and death. It finds its principle in the structure of the field.

The new start-ups create the movement. Thanks to their very existence and the competition that ensues from their self-sacrifice or self-exploitation , the small publishers shake the literary order out of its immobility. The new publishers return to the sources of literary faith, using ascetic denial symbolized, for example, in plain covers, without illustrations of the entire commercial dimension of literary production, which is a matter of publicity or marketing. These new players push the old avant-garde publishers toward the past. Now consecrated or in the process of consecration, the older players are identified as outdated, of lower status, temporarily or definitively excluded from the game, or as traditional and thus outside the game, no more than relics.

This is why, in the space-time of this field, the various synchronic positions correspond to different moments in diachronic trajectories which the spatial representation artificially synchronizes. New entrants are still relatively unformed.


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It is not easy to tell, on the basis of the objective evidence available, if they are doomed to disappear quickly or if they will survive and be directed toward commercial success or literary consecration. Literary consecration may be associated with commercial success or not. On the other hand, the future is likely to be difficult, at least temporarily, for discoverers like Ibolya Virag. As numerous disappearances attest each year, survival is promised only to those that, according to the fundamental law of the field, can combine literary competence with economic realism.

Some very small publishers, apparently extremely specialized, subtly diversify strategies that allow them control of a niche where competition is weak as is the case of all the language areas more or less neglected by the large publishers , thus escaping the limitations related to extreme specialization.

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The future of small start-up companies and the present orientations of their choices often leave observers and critics completely perplexed. Also at risk are critics, often victims of hysteresis, and the publishers themselves, who think they recognize the signs of a great avant-garde work that is no more than an imitation. This illusion is all the more probable today now that the players in the literary game, notably the authors and publishers, are informed of the adventures of the avant- gardes.

The most cunning writers may give the illusion of challenging censures by miming the transgressions of great heresiarchs of the past, presenting small erotic sacrilege without consequence. Similarly, certain publishers know the field well enough to play the double game, for themselves as much as for others, producing simulations or images of avant-gardism. Certain new publishers may thus try to reconcile strategies that would be irreconcilable in more autonomous state of the literary field,.

These strategies can include investment, necessarily long-term, in authors of long duration, alongside the search for commercial success in very short-term literary productions. The strategies are based on modernized marketing techniques, predicated on methodical exploitation of allodoxia. The promoters of this decisive philoneism syncretically associate the youth of the authors with the youth of the public and even with the youth or rejuvenation of the publishing personnel.

This literature is more accessible than the experimental writing of the s.

And it is decisively more in tune with the inseparably literary and commercial interests of the junior literary managers, whose libertarian tones attempt to impose a new deal on the publishing market. About half its French authors are journalists; some are very influential in newspapers or weekly magazines and prize juries.