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Contents of Chapter 3
  1. World War I Posters (SC23360) - France
  2. Content Metrics
  3. ‘A Strange Mixture of Guevara and Togliatti’ in: Historical Materialism Volume 22 Issue ()
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In view of this evolution of joint stock enterprise in France and Belgium we conclude that it was likely that the expression l'esprit d'association came to be used more specifically for corporations only from about the middle of the 's.

World War I Posters (SC23360) - France

In Belgium, so Chlepner tells us, it began to be used in the press in the late 's but came into vogue only after This reference confirms, in our opinion, that the original literature must have talked about wider applications of the principle of association to more general domains of society as well as the economic.

Who was the creator of the literature and what was its general content? Did it originate with Saint-Simon or the Saint-Simonians who were the most popular representative of the "industrialist" tendency or was it some other author who coined the term? Henri de Saint-Simon uses the association concept but in a different context. In this system, association was to play a role.

Note that Saint- Simon did not limit the term industriel to manufacturing. It means all types of productive activities: agricultural work, crafts, commercial work and services like banking. An industriel was any person engaged in the production of some good.

He envisions association to be the type of social organization to tie together the different types of producers who are to run the industrial state. Associative relationships were to replace hierarchical relationships and the autocratic methods of the traditional political regimes. In a later phase his thinking became more socialist and moralistic and the concept of association was talked about in even more abstract terms On the other hand, he was very impressed with the role bankers played in the capitalist system as financial intermediaries and he saw a potential role for them as leaders of the new industrial state.

They were naturally placed to forge the associations of actual producers and those who provided the means of production However, he never used the term l'esprit d'association to describe his concept of association and business corporations did not play any part in connection with it. The objective of the company was "to contribute and participate in the success of all enterprise, of all inventions and all improvements relating to agriculture, industry and commerce". According to its criteria, the main targets for investment would be the metallurgical sector, railroads and agricultural land development.

Laffitte's project got full support from prominent members of the Parisian banks, com-. Even some important political leaders subscribed shares. As to the press, the Annales des Finances exclaimed:. The idea was also enthusiastically endorsed by the disciples of Saint- Simon Note that this was in late when Saint-Simon had died but his disciples Enfantin and Bazard had not yet formulated the doctrines that would be known as Saint-Simonianism. We obviously had to search for a source other than Saint-Simon or the Saint-Simonian writers for coining the term. Our research lead us to the work of an early Restoration civil servant and deputy, writer and philanthropist Count Alexandre de Laborde A second revised and enlarged edition appeared in and, significantly, a third in In Chapter 24, he discusses the use of companies for the execution of great public works.

He introduces this topic by mentioning that a Mr de Laborde wrote an interesting work on l'esprit d'association. The author, he writes, shows that great advantages could result for a nation to draw on the union of the interests and the means of a great number of citizens for the purpose of executing works of public utility.

About the usefulness of the principle in other areas of the economy he has doubts The economist Adolphe Blanqui who prepared a reasoned bibliography for the seventh edition of Say's Cours in commented in reference to the book:. Delaborde n'en proposait que des bienfaits" Who was Alexandre de Laborde? He was executed by guillotine in After that, the young Alexandre was sent abroad.

He travelled extensively in Holland, Italy, Spain and England during which he compiled the archeological and historical material that later formed the base for a monumental four volume travel-arts book called Voyage pittoresque et historique en Espagne. His career was interrupted in It was only in that he took up public service again at the Council.

He rallied enthusiastically to the July Revolution in and actively helped to establish Louis Philippe, who rewarded him with several honours. He was elected deputy to the Chambers in and from then served in the national legislature till his death in The period from when his public career was suspended is particularly of interest to us.

He then visited England several times to study parliamentary institutions. He learned also about the new methods to teach the poor developed by Lancaster and Bell and later became a promoter in France. It is clear that he drew on his observations of English developments combined with his experience as a civil servant during the first Empire to write De I 'esprit d 'association He published a third book in 1 8 1 9 on the Lancaster education method.

For the rest of his career, he limited his writing to contributions to journals. As the subtitle of the book suggests, what l'esprit d'association represents for de Laborde is the formation of institutions by free association of citizens to solve most of society's productive and organizational problems.

Content Metrics

His book contains four major parts, which he called books, subdivided into chapters. The first volume consist of books one to three and the first chapter of book four. The rest of book four fills the entire second volume. Books one to three elaborate on the benefits of associations for public administration.

Representative government was the only form of government that could produce an increase in public welfare and prosperity but the centralization of administration makes it inefficient. He proposes a system of decentralized government where the different service sectors would be organized in associations of citizens. One would have municipal associations for actual government, industrial associations for the production of goods, military associations for defence etc Book four contains nine chapters. It deals with the effects of the principle of association on the private interests of the community.

The first four chapters are the most important. They deal respectively with associations in agriculture, in manufactures, in commerce and in public utilities to service the big cities. The section on manufacturing is mostly a description of the realizations of the Industrial Revolution in England and measures the distance France has to go in this respect. He concludes without further elaboration, that the French industry needs a prop in the form of commercial companies for assistance with capital, as well as of non-commercial societies such as academies of science and crafts for the encouragement of innovations.

In the chapter on commerce, he praises the trading company which confirms his disagreement with Adam Smith and followers on this point:. The main message of De l'esprit d'association Canals produce the greatest boost to productivity growth of industry and associations are necessary to construct them. Des canaux! Et avec eux l'exploitation, l'emploi du charbon. Concerning the economic foundation of his book, the comment in Palgrave "that de Laborde must have heard Adam Smith and J.

Say spoken off but that this is about all he appears to have known of them", seems to cover it. His political economy recommendations aim at pratical solutions rather than at theoretical analysis. His ideological inclinations are more clearly defined. He is proposing new institutions he thinks better adapted to the requirements of the new liberal industrial society than the old autocratic bureaucratic systems.

Liberalism, political and economic, is embedded in his thinking. He is critical of imperial governance of the economy and the cumbersome workings of a central bureaucracy. He underlines the importance of labour while advocating the value of freedom in economic matters. He summed his position up as follows: de Laborde wanted the industrial nation to be moderately governed, and without adopting the absolute doctrine of laissez faire and laissez passer he believed that it would be profitable to count on the individual intelligence and the competition of interests His work bears, all in all, the hallmark of the "unaffected, honest and unprejudiced mind"31 of a progressive gentleman - civil servant and wealthy philanthropist.

The general idea of free association of individuals enjoyed strong currency in this revolutionary period in French history before state protectionism became the norm and before, on the other hand, communism and socialism were articulated. Indeed, association in some form or other was an important ele-. De Laborde's and Saint-Simon's versions appeared first in the early Restoration period both in 1 8 1 8.

The absorption of de Laborde's terminology by Saint-Simonians took place in the latter half of the 's. Some of its financial backers were prominent members of the Parisian banking establishment, Jacques Laffitte in the first place It was originally going to be ajournai about industry and science. Cerclet, who was the editor in chief before Enfantin took over, announced that the prupose of the journal was going to be the propagation of a new philosophy, based on a new concept of human nature.

This concept was basically that man's destiny on earth was to exploit and change the material world to his greatest advantage. He named association as one of its most powerful means to accomplish this After a few months, Le Producteur changed to a monthly with Enfantin as the principal writer. From then on, the whole publication was dedicated to a detailed and more methodical commentary of important points of Saint-Simon's philosophy. Liberal financial backers such as Laffitte and supporters such as Auguste Comte and Adolphe Blanqui, who were part of the original editorial staff, withdrew at this point.

In his introduction to the first issue the principle of association is mentioned in a "socialist" context that is peculiar to Saint-Simonianism :. It is the latter type of. After a few months, Le Producteur disappeared. The Saint- Simonian philosophy was further developed in their famous lectures and publications in It is then that Saint-Simonianism as a social philosophy reached its full flowering, its influence spread and finally became one of the factors in France's intellectual evolution.

The role of banks, credit and associations is further developed by Bazard who devised a scenario where a central bank would collect and then direct all financial means to the different producers in the economy via specialized subordinate banks. The producers he talks about, however, are the typical artisans and small workshops, never the new entrepreneurs and industrialists of the new age. An awareness of the requirements of large scale industry and the role of finance as seemed to be displayed in is never evident in these later writings From the 's on, the spiritual aspects of the doctrine are emphasized and Enfantin virtually turns the movement into a sect.

Laborde's more political ideas for associative institutions for government we find referred to in the work of a conservative writer in the s and keen observer of American institutions, Alexis de Tocqueville. In his famous book, Democracy in America, he speaks of the system of free associations of citizens, that makes political democracy work in the US Finally, the association idea is also at the base of early socialist thought of the 's and 40's, in particular Owen and Fourier, whom Schumpeter, after Gide and Rist I presume, calls "associationists". The organisations they proposed are, of course, "socialist" collectives and cooperatives for production and consumption rather than capitalist business corporations The fact that he uses the ideas in a wording similar to de Laborde's in verbal explanations of his policy is one indication, the nature of his actions is another.

Note that a second edition of Laborde's book had appeared in The promotion oil' esprit d'association did start in the Dutch period. It is well-known that the Dutch King William I, who was the founder and private owner of more than three quarters of the bank's shares, was in favour of steering the bank towards industrial lending and promotion. In , a group of executives closely connected to King William conceived a project of a company to promote the economic development of the Grand- Duchy of Luxembourg, which was joined to the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in By royal decree of October , it was authorized to execute extensive exploration works for mineral resources and mine development in the Grand Duchy and in the province of Namur The company consequently bought the concession rights and plans for a canal linking the Meuse with the Moselle.

A certain amount of shares was reserved to be given in homage to scientists, writers and national or foreign engineers, who,. The Dutch board of Directors also was willing to extend extensive credit to mines and metallurgical firms in the Borinage who were modernizing the iron and coal industry. The canal that would join the river Sambre to the Oise, was his own conception, according to Thonissen A company was set up for the canalization of the French part of the Sambre, etc This preoccupation with canal building was, of course, also present in the Saint-Simonian thinking.

We know of the involvement of Enfantin and Ferdinand de Lesseps in the Suez canal project. But de Laborde drew specific attention to the needs of the improvements of the coal transport system in Northern France and, as we have seen, sketched out a particular role for credit institutions and associations to realize plans for development. In conclusion, the promotion of l'esprit d'association, in particular of the use of free associations of citizens to run the nation's business, appeared in France during the early Restoration period as an aspect of the intellectual movement that is loosely described by the term "industrialism".

Young French intellectuals, faced with France's economic backwardness and political defeat, were trying to come to terms with the new industrial society foreshadowed by the example of Britain. Count Alexandre de Laborde was one of those. Like the early Saint-Simon but unlike full blown Saint-Simonianism42, De l'esprit d'association did not contain anything that was incompatible with the progressive ideology nor the material interests of the liberal bourgeoisie. He wrote some remarkable articles in which he defended two great causes: pacifism, in the form of non intervention in foreign affairs, and free exchange.

Toward the end of the s, he was asked by the government to negotiate a freedom of exchange treaty with France. The treaty was signed by Cobden and Chevalier in Cobden and the League OC , vol. Bastiat was so impressed with the organization and tactics of the Anti-Corn-Law League in Britain that he wished to emulate it in France. He was ultimately largely unsuccessful.

Comte, Charles Lawyer, liberal critic of Napoleon and then the restored monarchy, and son-in-law of Jean-Baptiste Say. After having spent some time in prison he escaped to Switzerland, where he was offered the Chair of Natural Law at the University of Lausanne before he was obliged to move to England. Constant, Benjamin Novelist, politician, and political theorist. He was a supporter of the Directory and a member of the Tribunat but came to oppose the loss of political liberty under Napoleon. Constant became a deputy in and continued to defend constitutional freedoms until his death.

Corn Laws. The laws were revised in following the collapse of wheat prices at the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

Communist Insurgent: Blanqui's Politics of Revolution

The artificially high prices which resulted led to rioting in London and Manchester. The laws were again amended in and to introduce a more flexible sliding scale of duties which would be imposed when the domestic price of wheat fell below a set amount. The high price caused by protection led to the formation of opposition groups, such as the Anti-Corn Law League in , and to the founding of the magazine The Economist in Pressure for repeal came from within Parliament by members of Parliament, such as Richard Cobden elected , and from without by a number of factors: the well-organized public campaigning by the Anti-Corn-Law League; the writings of classical economists who were nearly universally in favor of free trade; the writings of popular authors such as Harriet Martineau, Jane Marcet, and Thomas Hodgskin; and the pressure of crop failures in Ireland in The Conservative prime minister Sir Robert Peel announced the repeal of the corn laws on 27 January , to take effect on 1 February after a period of gradual reduction in the level of the duty.

The Act was passed by the House of Commons on 15 May and approved by The House of Lords on 25 June, thus bringing to an end centuries of agricultural protection in England. Daire, Eugene Daire was of all things a tax collector who revived interest in the heritage of eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century free-market economics. He came to Paris in , met Guillaumin, discovered the works of Jean-Baptiste Say, and began editing the fifteen-volume work, Collection des principaux economists Destutt de Tracy, Antoine Tracy was one of the leading intellectuals of the s and early s and a member of the ideologues a philosophical movement not unlike the objectivists, who professed that the origin of ideas was material—not spiritual.

‘A Strange Mixture of Guevara and Togliatti’ in: Historical Materialism Volume 22 Issue ()

In his writings on Montesquieu, Tracy defended the institutions of the American Republic, and in his writings on political economy he defended laissez-faire. During the French Revolution he joined the third estate and renounced his aristocratic title. During the Terror he was arrested and nearly executed. The Doctrinaires were the group of liberal constitutional monarchists who emerged during the restoration of the French monarchy, between and The aim of the Doctrinaires was to steer a middle course between an outright return to the pre status quo supported by the Legitimists and a republic based on full adult suffrage supported by the socialists and the radical liberals.

The Doctrinaires supported King Louis XVIII, the constitution of , and a severely restricted electorate of wealthy property owners and tax payers who numbered barely , people. Droz, Joseph Moral philosopher, economist, literary critic, and father-in-law of Michel Chevalier. He died while writing a critique of the authoritarian Second Empire, which was completed and published by his son Anatole in Dupin, Charles He is one of the founders of mathematical economics and the statistical office Bureau de France. Dussard, Hyppolite The liberal, free-trade political economists referred to themselves, perhaps somewhat arrogantly, as "the" economists.

Bastiat and his colleagues believed that, because their doctrine was founded on natural law and a scientific study of the way markets and economies worked in reality, there could be only one school of economics just as there could be only one school of mechanics or optics. Elliot, Ebenezer The following comes from "The Ranter" In haste she turns, and climbs the narrow stair, To wake her eldest born, but, pausing, stands Bent o'er his bed; for on his forehead bare, Like jewels ring'd on sleeping beauty's hands, Tired labour's gems are set in beaded bands; And none, none, none, like bread-tax'd labour know'th How more than grateful are his slumbers brief.

Thou dost not know, thou pamper'd son of sloth! Thou canst not tell, thou bread-tax-eating thief! How sweet is rest to bread-tax'd toil and grief! Evans, William [dates unknown]. Faucher was a journalist, writer, and deputy for the Marne who was twice appointed minister of the interior. He wrote on prison reform, gold and silver currency, socialism, and taxation. Fix, Theodore Fix was born in Switzerland and came to France to work as a land surveyor. He soon moved to Paris to work as a translator of German texts. Fontenay, Roger-Anne-Paul-Gabriel de Little is known about Fontenay's early life.

The sticking point was the issue of rent from land, with Bastiat and Fontenay denying that there was any special "gift of nature" which made up the rents from land, instead arguing that all returns on investments whether capital, intererst, or rent were the result of services provided by producers to consumers. Fontenay worked with Prosper Paillottet in editing the works of Bastiat which appeared in in 6 volumes. Marpon et E. Flammarion, Fonteyraud, Henri Alcide Because of his knowledge of English he went to England in to study at first hand the progress of the Anti-Corn-Law League.

Sadly, he died very young during the cholera epidemic of Garnier Fould, Achille Fould was an important part of the imperial household, serving as an adviser to the emperor, especially on economic matters. He was as ardent free trader but was close to the Saint-Simonians on matters of banking. Founded in February in Bordeaux. Garnier, Joseph Garnier was a professor, journalist, politician, and activist for free trade and peace.

He came to Paris in and came under the influence of Adolphe Blanqui, who introduced him to economics and eventually became his father-in-law. Garnier played a central role in the burgeoning free-market school of thought in the s in Paris.

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General Council on Agriculture, Industry, and Trade. Created by a decree of 1 February , the Council resulted from the merger of three councils respectively agriculture, industry, and commerce that were separate up to then. It had members, 96 for agriculture, 59 for industry, 73 for commerce, and 8 for Algeria and the colonies. Its role was to enlighten the government on economic matters. The first session took place from 7 April to 11 May in the Luxembourg Palace and was opened by the president of the Republic.

Genovesi, Antonio Italian priest, philosopher, and economist liberal. The Girondins were a group of liberal-minded and moderate republican deputies and their supporters within the Legislative Assembly and National Convention , in the early phase of the French Revolution. They got their name from the fact that many of the deputies came from the Gironde region in southwest France, near the major port city of Bordeaux. An important meeting place for the Girondins, where they discussed their ideas and strategies, was the salon of Madam Roland In their bitter rivalry with other groups within the Jacobin group in particular Robespierre and the Mountain faction , they disputed the proper treatment and punishment of the deposed king, the war against Austria, and the other monarchical powers that threatened France with invasion, and how far the radical policies of the revolution needed to be pushed.

Eventually they lost out to the radical Jacobins around Robespierre and many of them were imprisoned and executed during the Terror. Guillaumin, Gilbert-Urbain Guillaumin was orphaned at the age of five and was brought up by his uncle. He came to Paris in and worked in a bookstore before eventually founding his own publishing firm in He became active in liberal politics during the revolution and made contact with the economists Adlophe Blanqui and Joseph Garnier.

He became a publisher in in order to popularize and promote classical liberal economic ideas, and the firm of Guillaumin eventually became the major publishing house for liberal ideas in the mid nineteenth century. Joseph Hume Member of Parliament elected in Leader of the liberal reformists, he played a major role in the repeal of laws forbidding machinery export and emigration and in the emancipation of Catholics. Huskisson, William Huskisson was a British Member of Parliament who served from to He rose to the post of secretary to the treasury and later president of the Board of Trade Huskisson introduced a number of liberal reforms, including the reformation of the Navigation Act, a reduction in duties on manufactured goods, and the repeal some quarantineduties.

As president of the Board of Trade he played an important role in persuading British merchants to support a policy of free trade. See also the entries in for J. Say, Comte, and Dunoyer in the glossary of names. A parallel group of thinkers who shared many of these views developed around Henri Saint-Simon, who advocated rule by a technocratic elite rather than the operations of the free market as did Say, Comte, Dunoyer, and Bastiat. Jacques Bonhomme. A short-lived biweekly paper that seems to have lasted for only four issues June—July Its purpose was to counter socialist ideas during the revolution, and it was handed out in the streets of Paris.

Bastiat was then forty-seven and Molinari twenty-nine. Molinari asked Bastiat if would join him as coeditor; Bastiat agreed to do so with the understanding that they abide by the censorship laws, which at the time called for approval by the government before publication took place. Molinari wryly noted that Bastiat told them that "we may be making a revolution but revolutions do not violate the laws!

As Molinari notes, their journal "was decidely not at the peak of the events" which were swirling about them and it soon folded. Undaunted, Molinari and Bastiat decided to launch another journal, this time directed squarely at working people, to be called Jacques Bonhomme , which comes from the nickname given to the average working Frenchman. On June 21 the government decided to close the so-called National Workshops, which were a government program to provide state subsidised employment to unemployed workers, because of out of control expences.

This was promptly followed by a mass uprising in Paris to protest the decision and troops were called in to suppress the protesters causing considerable loss of life. While this was happening Bastiat sent Molinari and the editorial committee an article he had writen entitled "Dissolve the Natonal Workshops!

The journal likewise underwent several changes of political positions: it was against Napoleon during the First Empire; under the second restoration it became conservative rather than reactionary; and under Charles X it was in support of the liberal stance espoused by the doctrinaires.

It ceased publication in It was published by the firm of Guillaumin, which also published the writings of most of the liberals of the period. Bastiat published many articles in the journal, many of which were later published as pamphlets and books, and his works were all reviewed there.

Lawyer and economist. Laffite, Jacques Banker and entrepreneur, born in Bayonne. He was elected deputy in and was prime minister from until March Friend of the Bastiat family. Do not govern us too much to make the same point. It closed in as a result of the revolution. The first sixty-four issues were published by Bastiat, the editor in chief, and Joseph Garnier; the last eight issues were published by Charles Coquelin. McCulloch, John Ramsay McCulloch was the leader of the Ricardian school following the death of Ricardo.

He was a pioneer in the collection of economic statistics and was the first professor of political economy at the University of London in Tait, Malthus, Thomas Robert Malthus is best known for his writings on population, in which he asserted that population growth increasing at a geometric rate would outstrip the growth in food production growing at a slower arithmetic rate. His ideas were very influential among nineteenth-century political economists. His principal works were An Essay on the Principle of Population 1st ed.

Melun, Armand, vicomte de Melun was a politician, philanthropist, and Catholic social reformer. Although he was instrumental in establishing private charities to achieve this end, he also was an active proponent of state intervention, because only the state, in his view, "was in a position to reach all miseries.

In he joined other journalists in protesting the restrictive press laws. He secured a job as the director of the Archives of the Foreign Ministry, from which post he was able to publish many historical works. He lost his job as a result of the revolution and took early retirement to continue writing works of history. Mill, John Stuart Mill was an English philosopher, political theorist, and economist who became of the most influential thinkers of the nineteenth century. Mill went to France in and met many of the leading liberal figures of the day, such as Jean-Baptiste Say.

He had a great interest in French politics and history and wrote many essays and reviews on these topics. He was a soldier as well as a diplomat, journalist, and author who spent time in prison or in exile. During the French Revolution he became a noted orator and was elected to the estates-general in representing Aix and Marseilles. In his political views he was an advocate of constitutional monarchy along the lines of Great Britain.

He is noted for his Essai sur le despotisme and several works on banking and foreign exchange. Mimerel de Roubaix, Pierre Mimerel was a textile manufacturer and politician who was a vigorous advocate of protectionism. It was the Mimerel Committee that called for the firing of free-market professors of political economy and for their chairs to be abolished. The committee later moderated its demands and called for the equal teaching of protectionist and free-trade views. Molinari, Gustave de Molinari was born in Belgium but spent most of his working life in Paris, becoming the leading representative of the laissez-faire school of classical liberalism in France in the second half of the nineteenth century.

His liberalism was based upon the theory of natural rights especially the right to property and individual liberty , and he advocated complete laissez-faire in economic policy and the ultraminimal state in politics. During the revolution he vigorously opposed the rise of socialism and published shortly thereafter two rigorous defenses of individual liberty in which he pushed to its ultimate limits his opposition to all state intervention in the economy, including the state's monopoly of security.

In the s Molinari returned to Paris to work on the Journal des debats , becoming editor from to Monjean, Maurice ? Montalembert, Charles Forbes, comte de Montalembert was born and educated in England before moving to France. He supported a free, Catholic alternative to the state monopoly of eduction and was arrested and fined for his activities. During the revolution he was elected to the Constituent Assembly as a moderate republican.

Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu was one of the most influential legal theorists and political philosophers of the eighteenth century. He trained as a lawyer and practiced in Bordeaux before going to Paris, where he attended an important enlightened salon.

His ideas about the separation of powers and checks on the power of the executive had a profound impact on the architects of the American constitution. He published many works on jurisprudence and political economy, being best known for his Essai sur l'organisation du travail et l'avenir des classes laborieuses Morin was a staunch defender of freedom of association for both manufacturers as well as for the workers in order to promote their interests, provided that no one used any coercion or violence.

Navigation Act. The act prevented merchandise from being imported into Britain if it was not transported by British ships or ships from the producer countries. The first act, adopted in , applied to commerce within Europe and generated a war with Holland Extended to colonies in and , it generated a second war with Holland It was repealed in Necker, Jacques Necker was a Swiss-born banker and politician who served as the minister of finiance under Louis XVI just before the French Revolution broke out.

His private financial activities were intertwined with the French state when he served as a director of the monopolistic French East India Company and made loans to the French state. In he was appointed director general of French finances unitl his dismissal in He served again in this position from to As minister of finance he tried to reform the French taxation system by broadening its base and removing some of its worst inequalities.

Needless to say, in this he largley failed. Odier, Antoine Odier was Swiss by birth but came to Paris to play a part in the French Revolution, siding with the liberal Girondin group. He was a banker and textile manufacturer, president of the Chamber of Commerce of Paris, a deputy , and eventually a peer of France Bastiat crossed swords with him because of his membership in the protectionist Association for the Defense of National Work, also known as the Assocaition for the Defense of Domestic Industry.

Paillottet, Prosper Paillotet is best known for his friendship with Bastiat, joining Bastait's Free Trade Association in its earliest days and then caring for Bastiat when he was very ill in Italy, being with him during his last few days. Paillottet was a successful businessman, making his money in the jewellry business and then devoting most of his energies to philanthropic causes. As Bastiat's health worsened Paillottet became his virtual secretary, editor, and research assistant.

See the biblography for a listing of works by Paillottet. Prosper Paillottet. Nephew of Hippolyte Passy. He was a supporter of free trade and the ideas of Richard Cobden and Bastiat. Passy was a cabinet minister and then professor of political economy at Montpellier. He wrote an introduction to one of the Guillaumin editions of the works of Bastiat.

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He was active in the French peace movement and helped found the Ligue internationale et permanente de la paix. Passy, Hippolyte Passy was elected as a deputy from , serving as minister of finance in , , and He criticized the colonization of Algeria and was an advocate of free trade. Peel, Sir Robert