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The research presented in this chapter deals with collectivities in which both media and strong social relationships play a crucial role for their members. Therefore we put a special focus on the actor constellations that emerge from media-related communication on the one hand and friendship on the other. To be able to identify several actor constellations and how they are interrelated with media use as well as with each other, we apply a social network approach. The loosest link hereby is the possibility to perceive others and their actions.

More obvious links would be any form of direct interaction, such as conversations. The relevance of these direct links can be explained by the criteria Baym lists for online communities and networked collectivism. In addition to the shared practice by means of using a specific medium, this includes social norms Baym , since social norms require at least a minimal level of perception of others. Hence, direct links become a necessary prerequisite for what we call collectivities. In a broad understanding, any audience could be seen as a media - based collectivity since it has an orientation towards the respective media content in common Grunig and Stamm : However, to emphasize the aspect of direct orientation to each other and respective actions, we subsequently use the term of networked media collectivities.

Thus, these are defined as networked sets of actors with shared communicative practices e. Examples are a group of people who discuss TV series, football fans who gather to watch a match or avid users of a micro-blogging service commenting on an ongoing political discussion.

In all three instances, media play a constitutive role for the communicative construction of a collectivity, either as conversation topics, as means of communication or both. Networked media collectivities can be densely knit or even be congruent to families, groups of friends, groups of work colleagues or other kinds of collectivities. However, they can also transcend these or may even construct detached collectivities and thereby lead to blurring of traditional social borders. In cases of frequent and direct interaction, members of networked media collectivities may develop a strong identification with group membership.

The networks formed by those collectivities rapidly exceed the point where any actor can have a complete overview over their structure or identify their boundaries. Several studies argue that there still is a strong relationship between face-to-face and online communication. Caughlin and Sharabi show that there is a positive correlation between the frequency of online and face-to-face communication.

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That is to say that online communication is most frequent with those persons we communicate with in person as well. The strong overlap of computer-mediated and face-to-face communication networks can at least partially be explained by the fact that new communication technologies are diffusing within the pre-existing social structures that are represented by face-to-face communication Baym et al.

Offline relationships may not only be relevant for the adoption of new communication technologies. Latent tie theory assumes that offline relationships are also crucial for the maintenance of online communication Haythornthwaite , Digital communication technologies make it very low cost to socialize van Zalk et al. But normally they remain weak ties Granovetter ; Baym and Ledbetter that dissolve when the communication technologies lapse Haythornthwaite The relevance of media content as an object for everyday interpersonal communication is documented in various empirical studies.

In fact, a substantial proportion of everyday conversations is related to mass media content Friemel ; Keppler ; Weber Since then, it has been pointed out that conversation topics have become more heterogeneous differentiated and media themselves have become more important as a conversation topic Gehrau and Goertz Moreover, conversations about media content are able to fulfil important social functions Friemel Media provide a constant source of conversation topics.

Mass media content especially has the potential to serve as a ground of common knowledge from which conversations can arise DiMaggio ; Friemel This can be a means to define inner structures and boundaries of collectivities. To display a shared preference for specific media content, to give an example, is one of several possibilities to express a sense of belonging and distinction from others Hepp It has been shown that conversations surrounding mass media content can be an instrument to constitute hierarchy in relationships Lull On a more general level, media content can also provide a starting point for the negotiation of norms and values in groups Hurrelmann and in this way serve as one foundation for the construction of collectivities Hepp et al.

Conversations surrounding media content can thus be seen both as a means to facilitate the construction of media-based collectivities as well as a factor that mediatizes collectivities. Collectivities are important for their members as they provide access to various forms of resources and support. This is generally referred to as the concept of social capital , which is closely related to social network theory Bourdieu ; Coleman Social capital can be defined as the resources that an actor is able to access or profit from because of his or her embeddedness in a social network Lin ; Esser Well-known studies have shown the importance of social relationships for access to information when looking for a new job Granovetter ; Marsden and Gorman However, the concept of social capital is not limited to the perspective of single actors.

A whole collectivity can be researched as a social network to assess the resources brought to bear by its members as internal social capital Lin : 62f. They are not directly accessed by actors through specific relationships, but can be seen as a feature of a specific collectivity itself. Examples range from the development of a climate of trust, to the adherence to and reinforcement of social norms, and the emergence of morality among a defined set of actors Coleman ; Esser In analogy to the general notion of mediatization and the idea of mediatized collectivities, we can assume that networked media collectivities are likely to become more prevalent in various types of social settings.

In a nutshell, communication technologies make new means available to interconnect, and diversified media contents provide more topics for communication the assumed consequences of optionality, social contingency and new chances for participation. Both play a crucial role in the establishment and maintenance of collectivities. The trends of a changing media environment mentioned in the introduction are assumed to affect the development and maintenance of various forms of collectivities and their social capital.

At a first glance, the trend of differentiation of media as contents and technologies might lead to an erosion of traditional social structures. It has been argued that both weaken boundaries of families, groups or even whole societies. In a widely discussed work, Robert Putnam argued that the increase in consumption of mass media—particularly watching TV—led to a dramatic decline in various forms of civic engagement in US society Putnam His empirical data show strong negative correlations between screen hours and attending public meetings, writing letters to Congress and being member or officer in a local organization.

Similar effects are found for the relevance of TV for entertainment. Dependent on the relevance of TV as the primary form of entertainment, he found lower values for volunteering, writing letters to friends and relatives, attending club meetings, going to church and working on community projects. Putnam admits that the correlations reported cannot answer the question regarding the causal direction between TV use and the various forms of civic engagement. Nevertheless, based on other research such as the natural experiment on television reception in three Canadian communities in the s MacBeth , he argues that the causal direction is likely to be directed from TV use towards civic and social life.

Hence, according to Putnam, an increase of media use e. TV , and especially the use of entertaining content versus news and information has a negative effect on various forms of collectivities. McPherson and colleagues found that the core networks of US citizens decreased by about a third between and , while the number of social isolates rose substantially McPherson et al. This publication had a strong impact and is widely discussed in academia owing to its strong empirical foundation, since it is based on GSS data.

However, subsequent methodological tests have revealed that the decrease is likely to be an effect of questionnaire design that made people name fewer persons Marsden and an interviewer effect Paik and Sanchagrin Furthermore, the finding of a decline is corroborated by almost no other evidence. Hence, no general decline in socializing since the s can be found, apart from the downward trend in socializing with neighbours Fischer ; Marsden and Srivastava With a reference to technologies for interpersonal communication, Manuel Castells predicted fundamental changes for the organization of groups, social structures and societies as a whole Castells Moreover, other authors assume that traditional groups and their structures are changing through the influence of the Internet.

Boyd argues that on social networking sites every person is embedded in their very own egocentric network and the context of every person is different and only partially publicly visible. Wellman et al. It is described as a change from densely knit groups to sparsely knit networks Summarizing the previous paragraphs, we are facing theoretical and empirical arguments which suggest either a decay, a transformation or a renaissance of social patterns and collectivism in a networked society Castells , ; van Dijk The divergent interpretations can partly be explained by the different foci of the respective studies.

While some offline activities seem to vanish, focusing on these leads to pessimistic conclusions. On the other hand, the Internet makes new forms of social support and civic engagement possible that draw a more positive picture of the societal changes related to the changing media environment. Therefore, the only valid approach to studying collectivities in a changing media environment is to study multiple relations simultaneously.

Methodologically speaking, we have to collect multiplex network data Wasserman and Faust in which multiple relations are taken into account and can be analyzed in relation to each other. In our case, these multiple relations can be various types of media technologies and different media content that people interact with through these different media technologies. However, pushed to its extreme, this would result in a research design with an immense number of dimensions number of media content x number of communication technologies x number of communication partners x types of social support.

We therefore decided to focus on the question of how communication about different media content is linked with friendship ties. Hence, differences in communication technologies are not considered and friendship is used as a proxy for social capital. For the empirical analysis of these hard-to-grasp collectivities, we investigate networked media collectivities among adolescents for two reasons: First, adolescents are known to have a more focused social network among their peers than is the case for other cohorts.

For younger children, their parents are still a much more important point of reference. Adults are often simultaneously embedded in different social settings such as family, friends and workplace. Second, adolescents are usually among the early adopters when it comes to new communication technologies and services. To investigate the figurations of networked media collectivities empirically, we have to address the communicative practices, the frames of relevance and the constellation of actors Hepp and Hasebrink Hereby, the communicative practices are operationalized as the frequency of use and the frequency of interpersonal communication about different mass media contents which are important to adolescents.

This includes the question whether there is still enough shared interest in specific content even though media content has diversified. Based on the results of these two kinds of communicative practices, we proceed to analyze the relationship between the two. With a reference to the concept of figuration, the second research question gives an insight into the frames of relevance.

It is about the importance of different media content, to be able to communicate about them and thereby construct a networked media collectivity. RQ2: Are frequencies of mass media use and interpersonal communication about these contents correlated with each other? The remaining constitutive feature of a communicative figuration is its actor constellation. This includes both the actors as well as the ties between them. In contrast to most of the previous research, we are not only interested to find out the type of persons the adolescents talk to e. Since we focus on the figurations among adolescents we are able to zoom into the actor constellation and reveal the actual network structure among all persons participating in our study.

From the literature review in Sect. With our multiplex approach, we are able to disentangle the structural patterns of several overlapping collectivities before we assess their individual relevance for friendship in a later step. Our third research question therefore is RQ3: How frequently and within what actor constellation do people communicate about different media? In addition to the individual analysis of communication about different media, we are interested in the relationship between these different networks of media use and media-related communication.

How similar are the patterns of different actor constellations? Phrased in methodological terms, RQ4: What is the structural correlation of different communication networks? Finally, we turn to the link between media use and social capital. To carve out the relationship between media use, media-related communication and friendship ties we include the friendship network in the same analysis as above.

Again in methodological terms, RQ5: What is the structural correlation between communication networks and friendship networks? Answering these five research questions allows us to empirically describe networked media collectivities with respect to different features that are constitutive for communicative figurations. Furthermore, we are able to answer the question concerning the relationship between networked media collectivities and access to social capital. Finally, this provides a good starting point to reflect on the potential consequences of deep mediatization for collectivities and our society.

The first aim of the present study is to describe the social domain of networked media collectivities as communicative figurations. Hence, it is necessary to extend the scope beyond that of individual attributes and take the actor constellations, communicative practices and frames of relevance into account that constitute these figurations. In order to do so, we apply a social network approach. Social network analysis is especially suitable to detect actor constellations and allows us to quantify how media collectivities coexist and interfere with each other.

The data were collected in three middle schools in a major German city Bremen. As social network structures are of particular interest here, we sampled four grades in which all students were invited to participate in our survey. This includes two 10th grades as well as one 11th and one 12th grade, respectively. The students and their parents were informed about the study in advance by letter and asked for written consent to participate.

Data collection took place during class hours in the computer labs of the respective schools on a class-by-class basis. The students answered an online questionnaire CASI while a member of the project team was present. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding ownership and use of several technological media devices, use of specific media content such as TV programmes, YouTube channels and video games, and how often students engage in interpersonal communication about these contents.

To measure social network structures several sociometric questions, so-called name generator questions, were asked. Name generator questions ask for other persons with whom a respondent is in a certain type of relationship. In this study, we gathered data on friendship ties and on interpersonal communication about TV programmes, YouTube channels and video games. These media were selected because they are among the most important for this age group with respect to usage and interpersonal communication. To get a comprehensive overview of the pattern of networked media collectivities, we allowed for cross-class nominations.

Thus, for the social network analyses we have four different structures at hand for each school grade, that is to say the friendship network and three communication networks, one for each type of media content. To answer research question RQ1, we applied frequency analyzes for six media types which are of special relevance for adolescents and the communication about these media. For RQ2, bivariate correlations between frequency of media use and conversation on the level of the students were calculated.

Sociograms as a specific kind of visualization of social networks were used to answer RQ3 regarding actor constellations. Finally, to answer RQ4 and RQ5 regarding the structural correlation of communication networks and the friendship network, we performed Quadratic Assignment Procedure QAP , which provides correlation statistics for social networks Krackhardt The QAP can be used as a stochastical method to test whether two networks are significantly correlated, that is to say, for example, whether two students who talk about what they have seen on YouTube also tend to be friends or whether two students who talk about TV programmes also talk about video games, and so on.

The media included were the most used screen-based media at the time of our survey. The set consists of one instant messenger service, several social media platforms and video sharing platforms as well as linear TV and video games. Results show that the instant messenger service Whatsapp was used most frequently of all media technologies.

When the survey was conducted, the installation of this application was not yet supported on desktop PCs, so a smartphone was necessary to use the service: Only two respondents out of four school grades reported that they did not own any kind of mobile phone. However, one of them explained in an open-ended question that his smartphone had been stolen only recently before the survey. These numbers are almost exactly in line with other representative studies in Germany Feierabend et al. Our respondents indicated to play video games on 2.

A comparison between the frequencies of media use and the frequencies of media-related interpersonal communication for each of the media shows that Whatsapp stands out as a communication technology as well as a source for conversation topics. All other media differ mainly in frequency of use, but not in their ability to provide conversation topics. Nevertheless, the communicative practices regarding all included media seem to meet our criteria to be constitutive for a communicative figuration of networked media collectivities.

Hence, it will be of interest to further characterize these figurations. We will do so by answering the next three research questions RQ2—RQ4. The top left quadrant of the matrix reveals patterns of media use by means of indicating whether the frequency of use is correlated with the use of other media types. It is found that only instant messenger and social media services—which are mainly designed as means for interpersonal communication—can be regarded as a bundle of media that are used in combination and thereby form a common media repertoire Hasebrink and Domeyer In addition, we find also negative relations between frequencies of media use.

Results show that TV and YouTube tend to be negatively associated, which can be interpreted as an indicator for substitution of one by the other. Likewise, we can also focus on how communication about various media is related bottom right quadrant. There are several media which seem to be often talked about by the same people, but also some that seem to be mutually exclusive. Again, Facebook, Whatsapp and Instagram form a bundle of conversation topics. For YouTube-related communication, positive correlations are found for Facebook and game-related communication.

Both are highly plausible, since a substantial share of the most popular YouTube channels are about gaming and Facebook is a common platform to share YouTube videos. Besides answering RQ2 with a clear yes correlations between media use and communication about these media , the data reveal a complex constellation of communicative practices. While the correlation values reported here provide an overall indicator for communicative practices, they neglect the actor constellation in which these practices take place. We now turn to social network analytic approaches to identify networked media collectivities.

In this section we look at actor constellations emerging from communication about media content to identify networked media collectivities and thus answer RQ3 How frequent and within what actor constellation do people communicate about different media? In doing so, we compare structural patterns for different media types as well as with the underlying actor constellation of the friendship network.

This allow us to answer in a next step RQ4 and RQ5 by testing to which extent networked media collectivities emerge across different media types and whether they are linked to social capital RQ4 and RQ5. Results show that in all four grade levels the density of the friendship networks is substantially higher than for the communication networks.

In fact, it is at least three times the density of each of the communication networks in the same school grade. Comparing the three communication networks over all grade levels, it can be seen that the communication networks on TV content have the highest density. This might surprise since the frequency in which students talk about the three media Fig. Hence, our network analytic measures provide a more granular insight that is not possible based on a frequency scale.

An alternative explanation could be that communication about YouTube and video games is less bound to the school context than communication about TV. School grade B friendship.

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Triangles male; circle female; greyscale class membership; tie friendship nomination. School grade B TV communication. Triangles male; circle female; greyscale intensity frequency of TV use; tie interpersonal communication about TV. Thirty-seven programs are found and too one out of eight threats advances sure. The possible ethnographic and Censorship sites, who required Powell for the page of his network, will often learn their Second direttamente, but you wo anymore ask them changing their bureaucratic-authoritarianism communications successfully particularly.

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What can Machiavelli remove us lengthy; example? Linz, and Seymour Martin Lipset. The colour manipulation had no effect on subjective knowledge assessment. There is an inner, subtler form of divide that af- fects how visibility measured in terms of centrality and of traffic flow is distributed online. Economic resources and access to traditional media are significant forces in determining centrality on the web, a niche where the most central pages are The analyses show that although visibility on the web is slightly less concentrated than in more traditional media, it still favours significantly the most resourceful agents.

Angeklickt: Abmelden von Sozialen Netzwerken

Exponential Random Graph Models ERGMs are used to show that offline resources increase the proba- bility that a site receives more links and therefore its chances to be found and seen by a higher number of users. The political consequences of this gap, which challen- ges many assumptions about the democratising nature of the web, are assessed.

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Studivz: Diffusion, Nutzung Und Wirkung Eines Sozialen Netzwerks Im Internet

To overcome this adoption barrier a web-based open-source tool for administering online panels has been created. The tool is free. Gosling, David C. Although still largely the province of teenagers and college students, SNWs like MySpace and Facebook are increasingly used by people in the year age range For many people, these websites have changed the dynamics of how individuals become acquainted. But how accurate are the impressions based on SNW profiles?

Our previous research on personal websites suggests SNW profiles should provide more information about targets than most other sources, including actually meeting the person. In two studies we examine the accuracy of impressions based on Facebook pro- files. Study 2 is based on a smaller sample but uses more extensive validity data, comparing impressions based on Facebook profiles with how the targets see themselves, how they are seen by close acquaintances and strangers, and how they perform on a series of behavioral tasks.

As in our previous research, results show generally strong patterns of convergence, although the accuracy correlations vary considerably across traits. Findings are discussed with regard to the increasing role of technology-borne social information in everyday interpersonal interactions. A De- sign Experiment In a currently running dissertation at the University of Innsbruck, the influence of different visual design effects on respondents in web surveys should be examined The experience with one concrete experiment will be reported in this presentation: in three independent studies 6 different controls have been used for offering VAS Visual Analogue Scales to the respondents to enter their attitude, impression or.

A Visual Analogue Scale VAS is a measurement instrument that tries to measure a characteristic or attitude that is believed to range across a continuum of values and is verbally anchored on each end, e. The general composition of this experiment was as follows: for all three studies, for each respondent the questions are presented having a certain visual design here: the different VAS as described above selected by chance the probabilities for each style can be settled. To run these experiments, a software solution was developed. In this presentation, the outcomes of the experiments regarding completion time, dropout and general response behaviour are presented, also characteristics of cer- tain technologies used in these experiments and emerging problems are discussed.

Eine Visuelle Analogskala ist ein Messinstrument, das versucht, eine Einstellung oder Charakteristik auf einem Kontinuum einzustufen und sie hat eine Beschriftung an jedem Ende der Skala, z. Auch wird auf besondere Eigenschaften und Pro- bleme der einzelnen verwendeten Technologien eingegangen. Also when conducting mystery shopping projects or consumer studies in real usage occasions e. Thinking about surveys on trade fairs, market researchers might be challenged to make first results accessible while fieldwork is still being continued e. To face challenges like this, isi has developed a process and a technical infrastructure, in which the collected interview data will be transformed into meaningful charts in real-time, i.

These charts are accessible for the client anytime and anywhere via an online reporting tool. With software that is optimized for mobile devices, an online questionnaire is de- veloped. Each dataset is stored in a database on a secure web server. An online reporting tool uses these datasets to visualize the results in charts which can be accessed by the client anywhere and everywhere.

In an isi case study, this approach will be depicted and the advantages of its high degree of automation will be pointed out. Hastall [University of Erfurt, Germany] E-mail: matthias hastall. Moreover, such findings might be outdated meanwhile if we consider the recent increase in online offerings and users. In a series of three related investigations, a total of 1. The findings reveal that internet usage is positively associated with experience seeking a sensation seeking dimension , rational ability, and experientiality.

Fur- KG, Deutschland] E-mail: markus. In the last few decades the experimental human sciences have developed a large amount of paradigms and methodologies to measure implicit and automatic infor- mation processes. For example, the IAT Implicit Association Test has caused a stir in the realm of social psychological research implicit attitudes as well as in brand research recently. However, this method and its advanced variants are just some among many promising experimental methods to measure automatic information processes of advertising.

Hereby for different types of advertising print ads, TV spots, claims, logos, jingles etc. Since for all the procedures reaction time measurements are among the dependent variables, computer assisted testing is necessary. The lecture is addressed to market researchers but also to the interested members of the public. It focuses on practical aspects by offering details for - the benefits of an online toolbox of implicit effects for pre-testing advertising and - elements that should be considered when conducting this kind of study.

Online Communications Lab O. Die experimentelle Verhaltensforschung hat im Laufe der letzten Jahrzehnte eine Vielzahl von Paradigmen und Methoden entwickelt, um implizite und automatische Verarbeitungsprozesse zu messen. This is to some degree due to methodical difficulties which are inherent in online surveys: A rather low response rate, an insufficient reachability of many populations and the non-existence of a reliable internal sampling frame to draw representative samples, e.

Online que- stionnaire and CATI are combined in this survey to overcome some of the weak- nesses of the respective techniques. The national establishment register, which. The sampled establishments were then contacted by telephone in order to select an appropriate informant and a suitable training cooperation. During this CATI-interview informants received a link to an online questionnaire via email which asked detailed questions about the selected training cooperation.

We intended to lead informants directly through the log-in procedure and to introduce them to the online questionnaire at the end of the CATI-interview. Our procedure combines several advantages. First contact via telephone allows - the use of an excellent sampling frame which makes a representative sampling possible, - the controlled criterion-based selection of an appropriate informant by the CATI- interviewees, - to deal with certain difficult or complex questions on the phone as in this case the critical selection of a suitable cooperation with an external training provider - to increase the willingness to participate in the survey by adopting individual refu- sal conversion which yields to a higher response rate.

The use of an online questionnaire on the other side - leads to cost savings, - improves response quality for certain questions, where a visual representation of the questions and answers is helpful e. Experiences with this procedure are described in the presentation and some re- sults concerning important points as online reachability of the establishments or informants, response rate, arising difficulties with the switch from CATI to online questionnaire as well as the evaluation of this procedure by the respondents are presented.

At Statistics Sweden, the web is in self-administered social surveys increasingly of- fered as an alternative to ordinary mail questionnaires. The motives to offer the web alternative lie in quality and financial considerations such as automated online editing, reduced mailing costs and less scanning work. Nevertheless, the use of the web as a response mode has been disappointingly low: usually, between 10 and 15 percent of the respondents are using it.

2 editions of this work

A preliminary study of ours indicated that the respondents, when offered to participate in a self- administered survey, are inclined to select the mode that is immediately at hand when the request for participation arrives. In an attempt to increase the proportion of web respondents, we conducted a lar- ge-scale experiment where we varied the delay of providing the paper version of the questionnaire to the respondents.

In the standard approach, both the paper questionnaire and the login data for the web survey were included in the first mail- out. In the experiment groups A1 to A4 , the time delay of presenting the paper questionnaire to the respondents was varied, from no delay in A1, to three weeks after the initial mail-out in A4. The results show that the standard approach had a proportion of web respondents of The proportion of web respondents in the experiment groups varied from 2.

The alternative approaches seem to have had a minor disturbing effect on the over- all response rates: the standard approach had a Only two of the differences are statistically significant: S-A2 and S-A3. According to recent studies, in virtual worlds such as Second Life www. Consequently, some e. However, the recent failures in virtual worlds of real-world businesses that had adopted such strategy e.

This research advances that our common perception of Virtuality, and more precise- ly of 3D avatars and their behaviors , is biased by the Cartesian framework through which we usually interpret the notion of Reality. This leaves the room for the development of a new paradigm in which the user behind a 3D avatar will experience only two possible types of virtual de- tachment: an ironical one, and a pathological one. In total, the fieldwork resulted in above 2, pages of. Yee, Nick, Jeremy N. This study aimed at identifying factors which influence the credibility of online ability tests.

In an experimental 2 x 2 x 2 — design three attributes of a test were varied systemi- cally: Layout and introduction, number of test tasks, and way and length of feed- back. After participating in the test, subjects were asked to rate the credibility of instruc- tion, test tasks, feedback, and overall impression, each on a scale consisting of ele- ven adjectives. The test tasks were rated to be more credible, when more than one type of test task was presented. Instruction and layout were rated to be more credible, when the design indicated the connection to a university, and the instruction was detailed.

The feedback was more credible, when an IQ score was reported. Furthermore, a positive correlation between credibility rating and test score was found. Recommendations for presentation of online ability tests are derived from these re- As outlook, a study will be presented which applies these results to the online presentation of personality tests. Glauben Sie Ihren IQ?

Now that this initial debate has cooled and Web 2. If online researchers want to take advantage of this and create online surveys with interactive web 2. Can the average online user be surveyed with the new technology? Or do techni- cal obstacles exist which either prevent her or him from filling out the questionnaire altogether or cause errors which distort the measurement?

How does the solution with the new technology compare to the older one? Does it yield to more or less information and do the results correlate well enough to en- sure sufficient test reliability? How do online users feel about the new survey technologies?

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Especially in market research, large numbers of users are routinely interviewed and surveys which are participant friendly are desirable to prevent from high rates of drop out within the survey and to ensure high participation rates in the long run. The other participants fill out a HTML-based questionnaire which in addition features web 2. For example, the task of rating a print advertisement is helped with a magnifying glass. To answer all three questions, we measure the failure rate due to technical pro- blems. Furthermore, we calculate the inter-correlation between both methods as a measurement of inter-test-reliability and rate the amount and quality of collected data.

Based on all results, the acceptance and applicability of the web 2. This study deals with the reasons why people become active bloggers, how they see themselves and the significance of blogging in everyday life. The survey concentrates on users who write blogs for personal — not for professional or com- mercial — purposes. This paper is based on the uses and gratifications approach according to which me- dia users are selective and goal-oriented in their choice of media.

This approach im- plies a certain degree of activity and is thus particularly well suited to examine the phenomenon of weblogs. The approach was however also criticised due to a lack of theoretical foundation. Although it focuses on motives and needs in its reflections, their analysis often remains superficial.

This study therefore expands this approach by adding selected aspects from the field of motivational psychology. Qualitative interviews were conducted to elaborate dimensions of motives as well as to reveal preconscious motives. Moreover, weblogs can be considered as a new field of research which can be structured by applying this explorative method. The interviews were conducted online through current chat programmes.

This method proved to be appropriate since participants could remain anonymous. Hence, more open answers were encouraged and a media disruption was avoided. The disad- vantages of online interviews, such as inadequate software and a lack of contextual information, were less important for this target group. The participants were recruited in several phases. The charts of the most frequently used German-speaking blog providers served as source of information. Additionally, the technique of snowball sampling was used. The following selection criteria were applied: bloggers had to belong to the German-speaking blogosphere, there had to be at least one blog entry during the last month and a minimum amount of com- ments and other links.

With six men and eight women participating, the gender ratio was almost balanced. More than half of the interviewees stated that they blog almost on a daily basis. It can be said that most. Die Arbeit steht in der Tradition des Uses-and-Gratifications-Ansatzes, der von einem aktiven Mediennutzer ausgeht, der zielorientiert und selektiv von Medien Ge- brauch macht.

Der Ansatz stellt zwar Motive bzw. Zudem kann durch diese explorative Vor- gehensweise eine Strukturierung des neuen Forschungsfeldes Weblogs geleistet werden. Die Nachteile qualitativer Online-Interviews, wie z. Die Teilnehmerrekrutierung erfolgte mehrstufig, da es kein Gesamtverzeichnis aller Blogger gibt.

Als Ausgangspunkt dienten die Blogrolls der in den einzelnen Charts gelisteten Weblogs. Insgesamt wurden 14 Personen im Alter von 17 bis 44 Jahren befragt. Die Nutzungsmotive Auch konnte ein Zusammenhang zwischen der Weblog-Nutzung und der Lebenssituation nachgewiesen werden. The foremost purpo- se of ethnography is to provide an account of how actors structure their world and what meanings they give to situations and actions.

But how can ethnographic methods be used in usability research? Ethnography is particularly useful for the analysis of user requirements in early stages of system development. The use of ethno- graphic methods also determines a change in research perspectives from a determi- nistic to a more interpretative, action- and actor-oriented view on technology. Eth- nographers view technologies as interpretive systems: They are cultural artefacts that can be interpreted by users in various different ways.

The resulting conceptual understanding of complex, real world actions and contexts can lead to fundamental technological innovations in the field of usability that are directly based on users needs. With other methods, existing systems are often only gradually improved. Traditional ethnographic methods are long-term participant observations and un- structured or semi-structured interviews. Today, various additional methods exist for collecting durable data that depict user behaviour, e.

Based on a field study that examines the use of convergent communication media Unified Communication we show how ethnographic methods can help to enhance. We also show how concrete implications for communication system design can be deducted from the results of ethnographic research. Grundlegend befasst sich die Ethnographie mit der Beobachtung und Analyse menschlicher Gruppen aus deren subjektiver Perspektive. Der Blickwinkel der beobachteten Menschen entspricht in der Usability-Forschung der Nutzerperspektive, weshalb ethnographische Studien insbesondere in der Pha- se der Anforderungsanalyse von technischen Systemen zum Einsatz kommen.

Traditionally, response latency is defined as the time span beginning with an interviewer having read the question to a respondent and ending with the respondent giving his final answer. In online surveys the time span starts with the presentation of the survey to a respondent on the screen and thus includes the reading time. The ending has been defined in several ways. Our work ana- lyses three common approaches of defining and catching the end of the time span. We tested these measures in terms of data quality and accuracy in response latency ana- lysis in an online experiment.

One group received well-formulated survey questions. The other group answered questions which were suboptimal with respect to various psycholinguistic text features e. These text features have been shown to have a considerable impact on comprehension difficul- ty and the cognitive effort required to process survey questions, resulting in different response times. The three definitions of time measurement are: 1 server-side time stamps, 2 clicking on a submit button at the end of a survey page, and 3 clicking on an answer button.

As server-side time stamps are widely implemented in survey software it is tempting to use them for analy- sis related to response latencies. Despite these readily available data, our results show that server side measurements include more measurement noise and are not sensitive enough to detect differences in response latencies as expected by psycholinguistic the- ory. The three methods are decreasing in the ease of implementation and increasing in terms of data quality. The results show that ineffective measurement leads to an underestimation of effects.

For example, we aggregated all 28 time measures into one variable to estimate an overall effect. The tests shows significant differences between the good and bad formulations for answer times but no significant results for the other two methods. No interaction effects were found. When working with concepts in the realm of response latencies, researchers are advised to ignore server-side time stamps and rely on the most accurate client-side measurement, namely answer clicks.

This is a 2-year, part-time programme which aims to provide graduates with an in-depth understanding of how humans interact with technology and in online environments. The development of this MSc required consideration and evaluation of previous and current research foci in the fields of cyberpsychology and online research methods, along with the application of appropriate teaching, learning and assessment strate- gies for this subject matter. The MSc in Cyberpsychology emphasises the study of human interactions with the internet, mobile computing, mobile phones, PDAs, games consoles, virtual environ- ments, digital media, cyborgs, artificial intelligence, and any other technology which has demonstrated an ability to alter human behaviour.

It also considers how hu- mans interact with each other in these environments, and considers the impact of evolving trends, such as technological convergence, on individuals. Students will also be required to complete a research project in their second year. Students on the MSc in Cyberpsychology come from a wide variety of backgrounds, including psychology graduates, e-Learning specialists, IT managers, journalists, ed- ucators and library staff. Most have been drawn to the programme in order to for- ABSTRACTS malise their experience into a recognised qualification and to improve their skills in their current employment, although other students foresee the MSc as enabling a variety of potential career paths.

Digital markets for marriage and relationships of- fer new opportunities of mate searching to human actors nowadays. Moreover it enables social sciences to achieve a new kind of data access in order to analyse processes of mate selection while using available web technology. Therefore, our DFG-founded project investigates processes of mate selection in online dating using longitudinal and process-generated data. The specific focus is on analysing micro processes of mate selection.

As we cooperate with a major German online dating operator we do have a singular access to anonymous process-generated data and hence to non-reactive data of mate search and mate choice. These static and dynamic data will be supplemented with a retrospective and prospective structured online-panel. Thus, a complex data structure will be compiled, which links observational data with survey data while implementing a longitudinal perspective. This innovative design enables us to pic- ture the process of mate selection behaviour in its longitudinal and social dynamic way.

Der besondere Fokus liegt dabei auf der Analyse der Mikroprozesse der Partner- suche. Diese statischen und dynamischen Profil- und Interaktionsdaten aus der Datenbank der Dating-Plattform werden mit Daten aus einem retrospektiv und prospektiv ange- legten Online-Befragungspanel angereichert. Browser games typically belong to strategy genres and require long- term involvement, for instance, to build up cities, armies, or empires. As they are also massively multiplayer environments, game events continue while a given player is not logged in, which requires players to return frequently to the game.

While research on motivations to play computer games and interactive game en- joyment is a growing field in communication and psychology, virtually nothing is known about the motivations to play browser games. Results of a repeated measures ANOVA with index variables reflecting mo- tivation dimensions as within-subjects-factor indicate that the motivation to play browser games is mainly driven by positive experiences of friendship and teamwork among players, whereas competitive and performance motivation is less relevant than expected.

The motivational profile of browser games is thus partly different from commercial high- tech online games. Objective of the Study It is a key issue in marketing research to identify importances and preferences. The AHP method offers a promising approach. During the AHP survey the importances of single characteristic values and prefe- rences for complete products are being identified. In other words the individual utility structure is being evaluated with regard to the researched products.

Since AHP is conducted completely online, a high variety in layout design is possible. This also applies to the design of scales. Attractively designed scales raise expecta- tions for a higher validity of the resulting utilities. Objective of the study at hand is to evaluate the differences between utilities which are deduced from scales with a conventional layout and utilities that are deduced from scales which are graphically designed or even animated.

Thereby the type of scale is to be identified that better approximates the true utility structures and the- refore has higher significance. The population for the sample will be the community of internet users in Germany. There will be a sample size of minimum respondents per tested scale. Conventional and optical scales will have corresponding graduations, so comparison is guaran- teed. Unlike to the classical approach wherein the consumer takes centre stage of the research project, ShopperInsights points out an intelligent combination of these topics from the customers points of view.

Examplary questions are: What kind of customers are buying in which channels, which shopping venues, in which tracks and why? Is the target group satisfied — with the shop, the environment, the assortment…? What do the customers consider to. How is the retailer being perceived? What about the de- mographics of the loyal customers? How do competing customers perceive me? What would convince them of my offer?

What are the reasons for them not to come to me? Thereby the main focus on the one hand lies upon the combination of already existing information of the panelists and the results of the main interviews unlike to the usually preferred section analysis and on the other hand upon the ana- lysis of the data within the course of events longitudinal analysis. Based hereon classical questions could be addressed additionally to concrete target group clusters in order to find out important information on the traders side for distribution and marketing.

Within the Dialego Panel a lot of information about the panellists are known. Those vary from classical demographical data to information about the households, up to consumer buying habits and questions about healthcare to media- and technolo- gical use. Panel Intelligence can be explained to be the combination of those data with the results of current surveys This is why a Data-Warehouse was installed that enables the integration of data from differently structured and distributed data- bases as well as a global view upon the data and makes a comprehensive report possible.

Besides this procedure allows a quick and flexible availability of the results and forms condition for a filed statistic method of analysis such as Data-Mining, however not with the ambition to present another hundreds of pages of books of tables to the client. Thereto the illustration of the results has been pre- sented within interactive Dashboards and Scorecards. Scorecards and Dashboards are graphical orientated reports wherein the relevant information can be captured at a glance.

Besides this these ways of presentation offers the possibility to the client to provide himself independently online and interactive with those informa- tion which is individual interesting and relevant for him with drill-functions, sliding trough the time series and so on. Presently the results of 5 data collection waves can be portrayed. Due to the high number of cases there is a numerous amount of single reports possible as well as the changes within the course of event. To generate the items in order to evaluate the image of the shops a qualitative pilot study has been performed with the help of the Dialego MindVoyager.

Thereby the shopper has been invited within the panel to tell his opinion concerning his best as well as his worst experience with shopping in general. Furthermore the respondents were asked to describe their shopping paradise respectively their ideal vision of a perfect shopping situation.

The participant chooses an alias can take part in the discussions or tag his contribution, whereas each participant is allowed to view the others con- tributions as well. Thereby a multiple participation is explicitly desired and the dis- cussion is being supported by a presentation of the last entries and a well directed presentation.

Thus a new kind of dialogue is arising with and between the shoppers. The results are presented in a necessity raster referring to the concrete question as well as they are pictured in an interactive, three-dimensional semantically net. Within the lecture the results of the pilot study will be outlined briefly. The empha- sis is placed on the modelling and concrete realisation of the Data Warehouse and the additional analysis options involved referring to the example of the Shopper Insights. A client case which is being set up for Lorenz Bahlsen Snackworld salty snacks can be shown.

Mobile Information is increasing: How is this new content offer structured, and which aims are followed by the media companies? It is important to answer these questions, as mobile content is part of a global change. The number of temporally and spatially fixed working contracts is diminishing Castells, Media companies have to adapt their offer to these new user profiles, which are temporal- ly and spatially flexible.

In which ways do media companies manage to adapt their content to the special needs of the mobile news users? These are for example a shortened usage time, an on-demand-usage apart from traditional program patterns and the possible deve- lopment of a special mobile journalism with its own hybrid forms, like visual radio. The structure of content offers is examined as well as the strategic guidelines, which lead to the production of mobile news. Four case studies are made: The mobile news offer which is produced by ARD German TV exclusively for mobile phones since July is part of the sample, as well as Spiegel mobil, which is adapting its own innovative multimedia offer to the needs of mobile phones.

The fourth case study is about dpa mobile, a mobile information service of German new agency dpa that was created as a result of the European project MINDS. Today, dpa mobile produces mobile con- tent for more than 30 regional newspapers in Germany. As an example for regional newspapers, a customer of dpa mobile is also part of the sample. Castells, Manuel : Der Aufstieg der Netzwerkgesellschaft. Per- spektiven und Forschungsfelder. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Kretzschmar, Sonja : TV to go. In: Message, H. Wie se- hen diese Angebote aus, und welche Strategien verfolgen ihre Anbieter damit? Wie gelingt es den Medienanbietern, ihre Inhalte an die besonderen Anforderungen von Nutzern mobiler Nachrichten anzupassen? Hier werden sowohl die Angebotsstruktur als auch die strategischen Richtlinien der Anbieter im Bereich der mobilen Nachrichten ermit- telt. Das Zusammenspiel von Nachrichtenagenturen und regionalen Tageszeitungen im Bereich der mobilen Nachrichten wird ebenfalls exemplarisch untersucht. It is necessary to compare data from the Online-survey with those from a representative population survey, which has been carried out at the same time, to get clarification?

Which are the results of a comparison of central social characteristics on the one hand and content characteristics? Furthermore the relationships between the variables and the differences in the coherences should be checked. Moreover the question should be discussed how far the context or the portal on which the Online-Survey is carried out, influences the composition of the respondents. Here, respondents answered the questionnaire. It turns out that men, younger respondents and formal higher educated are overrepresented in the self-recruited Online-survey.

And there are also strong dif- ferences if we look at the variables which are relevant for the research for example political interest, fear of crime et cetera. Representativeness of the population is not achievable via Online-surveys if for example — like in our case — the survey is posted on an Internet site of a supra-regional daily newspaper. Welche Befunde erbringt ein Ver- gleich zentraler sozialer aber auch inhaltlicher Merkmale? We examine two large internet networks: communication network among over 6 million users of Gadu-Gadu the most po- pular instant messenger in Poland and social network among over 1 million users of Grono.

Anonymized whole network data were provided by owners of Gadu-Gadu and Grono. Opinion leaders play an important role in social processes. They have high impact on dynamics of such processes, which can be explained using the two-step flow theory of mass communication. Within this research we analyze several different methods of identification of opinion leaders using local level network properties in large social networks.

In the second part we investigate their influence on diffusion processes. We also compare results between different diffusion processes in order to study the stability of opinion leaders, thus answering whether leaders from one diffusion process can explain other diffusions. Given the growing popula- rity of weblogs and their increasing importance for diverse areas of social life, it is important to understand blogging in various contexts.

There is a need of studies exploring whether and to what extent blogging practices are governed by universal rules or rules specific for a country, a demographic group or a blogging platform. We try to adopt this perspective investigating Polish-speaking blogosphere. Weblogs gained attention and are nowadays used as a tool in journalism, business and po- litics, and influence public opinion usually via traditional mass media.

The results show that blogging is definitely a social activity and the audience and its reactions are very important for authors. Blogging is a serious activity and bloggers are often young and well-off professionals, writing about professional and public issues for hundreds or even thousands of readers weekly. On the other hand, diary-type weblogs still exist. Although blogs are read mainly for entertainment, cre- dibility and uniqueness of content are the most valued of their attributes.

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We discuss the results in the light of research concerning Polish weblogs content analysis - Trammell et al. Testing products, con- cepts and marketing campaigns online, offers the client the opportunity to imple- ment reliable investigations fast and at low costs. In this piece of work the influence of interactive elements in online questionnaires will be analysed. So far classical questionnaires were mostly standardised and ap- peared rather boring. The use of interactive applications might bring some fresh air in online surveys.

In which way this affects the evaluation and motivation of the respondents and for that reason the results of the studies will be analysed in this paper. For this purpose two parallel product-concept tests will be undertaken, on the one hand by using a standardised questionnaire without any specific multimedia appli- cations and on the other hand by conducting one or more interactive questionnaires with integrated multimedia-based elements such as pictures, animations and ani- mated scales. Thereby the results of the studies, the attitude of the respondents towards the questionnaire e.

In addition those variations will be analysed afterwards to develop conclusions about objectivity and reliability as well as about the quality of those questionnaires. Referring to this, the pros and cons of multimedia-applications in online Durch neue Applikationen, die das Internet in der als Web 2. Durch die Einbindung interaktiver Applikationen in Umfragen kann dies nun aufgelockert werden.

Wie dies auf die Respondenten wirkt und welchen Einfluss diese Elemente auf die Ergebnisse, das Beurteilungsverhalten und die Motivation der zu Befragenden hat, wird in dieser Arbeit genauer untersucht. Dabei gilt es die Ergebnisse dieser Studie, das Antwortverhalten der Respondenten z.