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Confidently stylish and sexy to the core, Brigitte Trogneux was a married mum-of-three and teacher at a school in small-town Amiens when she first met Macron, then a year-old school pupil. The pair fell in love, prompting enormous scandal at the time, and subsequently married. They are the embodiment of open mindedness. The French capital has long been known as 'gay Paree', with an openly proud gay mayor for 13 years until and an open gay and lesbian scene.
Nevertheless, reactions to the legalisation of same-sex marriage in France in were mixed and at times extreme, exposing a deeply conservative streak in some French people. Demonstrators repeatedly marched through the streets of Paris, Lyon and other cities in protest at the law, and in , following an appeal by French mayors who claimed the new law violated the country's constitution, France's high court ruled that mayors and registrars, irrespective of personal or religious beliefs, did not have the right to refuse to conduct a gay marriage.
Lesbian couples do not have the right to receive fertility treatment in France, a situation that is expected to change in They go to the movies once a month, work 35 hours a week many French still toil 39 hours or more a week — employers can enforce a hour work week for a negotiable extra cost , and enjoy five weeks' holiday and almost a dozen bank public holidays a year. The couple view the start-up launched by their year-old son in Paris with a bemusing mix of pride, scepticism and non-comprehension.
Their year-old daughter is a student: France's overcrowded state-run universities are free and open to anyone who passes the baccalaureate. Then there's their youngest, aged 10 and one of France's many children who have no school on Wednesday — the four-day week is a ball for kids, but not so easy for working parents who have to sort out childcare for that one day each week.
Madame buys a load of hot-gossip weekly magazines, Monsieur meets his mates to play boules, and the first two weeks of August is the only time to go on a summer holiday with the rest of France. Dodging dog poo on pavements is a sport practised from birth and everything goes on the carte bleue credit or debit card when shopping. Women were granted suffrage in , but until a woman needed her husband's permission to open a bank account or get a passport.
Younger French women in particular are quite outspoken and emancipated. But this self-confidence has yet to translate into equality in the workplace, where women hold few senior and management positions. Sexual harassment is addressed with a law imposing financial penalties on the offender. Abortion is legal during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, and girls under 16 do not need parental consent provided they are accompanied by an adult of their choice: 30 abortions take place in France for every live births. Above all else French women are known for their natural chic, style and class.
And there's no doubt that contemporary French women are sassier than ever. Take the Rykiel women: in the s, legendary Parisian knitwear designer Sonia Rykiel — designed the skin-tight, boob-hugging sweater worn with no bra beneath. In the new millennium, daughter Nathalie created Rykiel Woman, a sensual label embracing everything from lingerie to sex toys and aimed squarely at women who know what they want. Then, of course, there is Spanish-born Anne Hidalgo, Paris' first ever female mayor, elected in Allez les femmes!
Speaking a language other than their own is an emotional affair for the French, memorably illustrated a few years back when the-then French president Jacques Chirac walked out of an EU summit session after a fellow countryman had the audacity to address the meeting in English. French newspapers and the French blogosphere seethed with debate on linguistic patriotism the following day, French bloggers — many of whom write in English — rightly pointing out that French has not been the primary international language for a long, long time.
Former president Nicolas Sarkozy fared marginally better than his monolingual predecessor. Yet Sarkozy also stuck to what he knew best in public, so much so that the couple of lines he did utter in English were instantly plastered over the internet as a video link and swiftly went viral. And indeed, since the arrival of Emmanuel Macron — a fluent English speaker — on the political scene in , English has assumed a new de rigueur in France. During his electoral campaign, Macron was slammed by the far-right opponents for addressing a conference in Brussels in English rather than French.
Yet since assuming the French presidency, Macron's silver-tongued ability to speak at ease in both English and French has won over the world. French broadcasting laws restrict the amount of airtime radio and TV stations can devote to non-French music, but nothing can be done to restrict who airs what on the internet.
With English words like 'weekend', 'jogging', 'stop' and 'OK' firmly entrenched in daily French usage, language purists might just have lost the battle. Nothing reflects this dichotomy better than the law, in place since , banning the Islamic headscarf, Jewish skullcap, crucifix and other religious symbols in French schools, or the more recent burkini ban on beaches in southern France.
Most are illegal immigrants living in poverty-stricken bidonvilles shanty towns around Paris, Lyon, Marseille and other metropolitan centres. Most French wouldn't be seen dead walking down the street in trainers and tracksuits. But contrary to appearances, they love sport. Shaved-leg cyclists toil up Mont Ventoux, football fans fill stadiums and anyone who can flits off for the weekend to ski or snowboard. Les 24 Heures du Mans and the F1 Grand Prix in Monaco are the world's raciest dates in motor sports; the French Open, aka Roland Garros, in Paris in late May to early June is the second of the year's four grand-slam tennis tournaments; and the Tour de France is — indisputably — the world's most prestigious bicycle race.
The route in between changes each year but wherever it goes, the French systematically turn out in droves — armed with tables, chairs and picnic hampers — to make a day of it. The serpentine publicity caravan preceding the cyclists showers roadside spectators with coffee samples, logo-emblazoned balloons, pens and other free junk-advertising gifts and is easily as much fun as watching the cyclists themselves speed through — in 10 seconds flat.
France's greatest moment in football history came at the World Cup, which the country hosted and won. The son of Algerian immigrants, Marseille-born midfielder Zinedine Zidane b wooed the nation with a sparkling career of goal-scoring headers and extraordinary footwork that unfortunately ended with him head-butting an Italian player during the World Cup final. But such was the power of his humble Marseillais grin since used to advertise Adidas sports gear, Volvic mineral water and Christian Dior fashion that the French nation instantly forgave this 'golden boy' of French football.
France's second-greatest moment in football history came at the World Cup which Les Bleues won - almost 20 years to the day since their first World Cup win. The team's coach Didier Deschamps made history by becoming just the third person in the world to first captain a World Cup winning team and then, 20 years later, win it again as trainer of the national side. French football is clearly back in the spotlight. In the finest of traditions, tales of the rivalry between rosbifs 'literally 'the roast beefs', aka the English and frogs the French sell like hotcakes.
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In Paris it is two: unless parties are related, very close friends or haven't seen each other in an age, anything more is deemed affected. That said, in hipster something circles, friends swap three or four cheek-skimming kisses. Travel south and les bises kisses , or les bisous as the French colloquially say, multiply; three or four is the norm in Provence.
The bits of France neighbouring Switzerland around Lake Geneva tend to be three-kiss country in keeping with Swiss habits ; and in the Loire Valley it is four. Corsicans, bizarrely, stick to two but kiss left cheek first — which can lead to locked lips given that everyone else in France starts with the right cheek. Indeed, it is only since that French women no longer have to tick one of two boxes when filling out official forms and documents — 'Madame' meaning 'Mrs' or 'married' and 'Mademoiselle' meaning 'Miss' or 'young and not married'.
Later merged with ' ma' to denote an unmarried woman, the term was tantamount to 'sad old spinster who can't find a husband' in the 17th and 18th centuries. In the 19th century, novelist Adolphe Belot borrowed the term to depict a frigid wife in Mademoiselle Giraud, ma Femme. These days, for a woman over 35, being addressed as 'mademoiselle' is a subtle way of being told 'you're young! No films better illustrate what southerners think of those from 'the sticks' in the far north than Dany Boon's original Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis Welcome to the Sticks; and recent sequel a decade later, La Ch'tite Famille The two are a classic commentary on France's north—south divide.
For starters, the weather in the cold rainy north is revolting. The weather changes when he passes the 'Nord-Pas de Calais' sign — at which point it doesn't just rain but slashes down beyond windscreen-wiper control. Even the gendarme police officer on the autoroute, upon stopping him for driving too slowly, lets him off with a sympathetic smile and his deepest condolences when he hears where he's heading: Bergues, an ex-mining town of inhabitants, 9km from Dunkirk.
Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis is a kaleidoscope of comic scenes that slowly chip away at the deeply entrenched prejudices surrounding this northern land of redundant coal mines and its unemployed, impoverished, pale, unhealthy and 'uncultured' inhabitants who drink too much beer and speak like this — 'Ej t'ermerci inne banes' that means Merci beaucoup. Yes, their thick Ch'timi dialect old Picard peppered with Flemish is incomprehensible to outsiders.
Yes, they skip the traditional French three-course lunch for an alfresco round of frites fricadelle, sauce picadilly chips 'n' meatballs — eaten with their fingers. And yes, their very nickname les Ch'tis was borne out of prejudice during WWI when French soldiers mocked the thickly accented way their northern comrades spoke — ' ch'est ti, ch'est mi' c'est toi, c'est moi — it's you, it's me , hence 'Ch'ti'. The French Council of State declared the ruling illegal, but the body-covering beach wear still remains banned on some beaches in Cannes, Nice and elsewhere.
A timeless bestseller addressing French culture is Pamela Druckerman's French Children Don't Throw Food , a witty and entertaining look at how French parents in Paris raise their kids by an American living in the city. Both are played by men on a gravel pitch. Funny, sad, caustic and hugely insightful, it is a wonderful anthropological portrait of modern France. Dubbed the southern version of Dany Boon's Les Ch'tis, the comic film Marseille provides a rich and entertaining commentary on the regional characteristics of the Marseillais and the wealth of mixed cultures the port city embraces.
Paolo, a born-and-bred Marseillais exiled to Quebec, returns after 25 years to nurse his ageing father. France maintains a rigid distinction between church and state. The country is a secular republic, meaning there can be no mention of religion on national school syllabuses. Literature, music, painting, cinema: France's vast artistic heritage is the essence of French art de vivre.
Contemporary French writers might struggle to be published abroad, but Voltaire, Victor Hugo, Marcel Proust and Simone de Beauvoir walk the hall of fame. Music is embedded in the French soul, with world-class rap, dance and electronica coming out of Paris. French painting, with its roots in prehistoric cave art, continues to break new ground with provocative street art, while French film is enjoying a marvellous renaissance. Troubadours' lyric poems of courtly love dominated medieval French literature, while the roman literally 'romance', now meaning 'novel' drew on old Celtic tales.
French Renaissance literature was extensive and varied. Michel de Montaigne —92 covered cannibals, war horses, drunkenness and the resemblance of children to their fathers, along with other themes. The philosophical Voltaire — dominated the 18th century. Verlaine shared a tempestuous homosexual relationship with poet Arthur Rimbaud —91 : enter French literature's first modern poems. The world's longest novel — a seven-volume 9,,character giant by Marcel Proust — — dominated the early 20th century. Surrealism proved a vital force until WWII. In Paris the bohemian Colette — captivated and shocked with her titillating novels detailing the amorous exploits of heroines such as schoolgirl Claudine.
He captured the hearts of millions with his magical yet philosophical tale for children about an aviator's adventures with a little blonde-haired Prince from Asteroid B The nouveau roman of the s saw experimental young writers seek new ways of organising narratives, with Nathalie Sarraute slashing identifiable characters and plot in Les Fruits d'Or The Golden Fruits. Histoire d'O Story of O , an erotic sadomasochistic novel written by Dominique Aury under a pseudonym in , sold more copies outside France than any other contemporary French novel.
The subsequent fast-paced, hedonistic lifestyle pursued by the party-loving, bourgeois-born writer ensured she remained in the spotlight until her death in Marc Levy www. The film rights of his first novel were snapped up for the Stephen Spielberg box-office hit, Just Like Heaven , and his novels have since been translated into 49 languages. Comedian-dramatist Nelly Alard www. Christine Angot is widely known as la Reine de l'Autofiction the queen of autobiography , while Yasmina Khadra is actually a man — a former colonel in the Algerian army who adopted his wife's name as a nom de plume.
His most recent work, Dieu n'habite pas la Havane, was published in Born and bred on a ghetto housing estate outside Paris, she stunned critics with her debut novel, Kiffe Kiffe Demain , sold in 27 countries and published in English as Just Like Tomorrow Only in the s could he return to Algeria. Her third novel, Les Gens du Balto , published in English as Bar Balto , is a series of colloquial, first-person monologues by various characters who live on a street in a Parisian suburb.
Delphine de Vigan b is another female Parisian writer to be widely translated in English. The bulk of his childhood was spent in Nigeria and he studied in Bristol, England, and Aix-en-Provence. In he won the Nobel Prize in Literature. The work of Paris-born Patrick Modiano b was only really discovered by an Anglophone audience after the novelist was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in His latest novel is Souvenirs dormants French Baroque music heavily influenced European musical output in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Modern orchestration was founded by French Romantic Hector Berlioz — He demanded gargantuan forces: his ideal orchestra included stringed instruments, 30 grand pianos and 30 harps. Contemporary composer Olivier Messiaen —92 combined modern, almost mystical music with natural sounds such as birdsong. His student Pierre Boulez — worked with computer-generated sound to create some of France's most powerful electronic, instrumental music.
Post-WWII ushered in a much-appreciated bunch of musicians, mostly black Americans who opted to remain in Paris' bohemian Montmartre rather than return to the brutal racism and segregation of the USA: Sidney Bechet called Paris home from , jazz drummer Kenny 'Klook' Clarke followed in , pianist Bud Powell in , and saxophonist Dexter Gordon in the early s. Claude Luter and his Dixieland band were hot in the s.
In the s irresistible crooners Jean-Pierre Lang and Pierre Bachelet revived the chanson tradition with classics such as 'Les Corons' , a passionate ode to northern France's miners. Her subsequent third album, Paris is a musical ode to the French capital with 13 songs evoking Paris' irresistible charm and romance. Her first live album, Sur la Route , only confirms that Zaz is one of France's hottest contemporary female voices. Most big-name rappers are French twenty-somethings of Arabic or African origin whose prime preoccupations are the frustrations and fury of fed-up immigrants in the French banlieues suburbs.
In he returned as rap artist Disiz La Peste, releasing a rash of albums culminating in with Pacifique, his 11th album. France's other big rap band is Marseille's home-grown IAM www. A ninth album is expected in , followed by a world tour in to celebrate the band's 30th birthday. French rap continues to inspire fresh talent. One could be forgiven for thinking that French pop is becoming dynastic. Serge Gainsbourg's daughter with Jane Birkin, Charlotte Gainsbourg b , made her musical debut in with the single 'Lemon Incest' and — several albums later — released a cover version of the song 'Hey Joe' as soundtrack to the film Nymphomaniac in which she also starred as the leading lady.
Always worth a listen is Louise Attaque who, after a year break, released its new album, L'Anomalie, with huge success in Nosfell www. Travels abroad likewise provided the inspiration for the album Palermo Hollywood, by talented singer-songwriter Benjamin Biolay b Marseille-born Marina Kaye b won France's Got Talent TV show at the age of 13, as well as huge acclaim with her debut single 'Homeless'; she released her first album Fearless in Celebrity singer Nolwenn Leroy b performs in Breton, English and Irish as well as French, while Paris' very own Indila b woos France with her edgy pop and rai a style derived from Algerian folk music.
Then there's Louane b. France does dance music well: computer-enhanced Chicago blues and Detroit techno are often mixed with s lounge music and vintage tracks from the likes of Gainsbourg and Brassens to create a distinctly urban, highly portable sound. Internationally successful bands like Daft Punk and Justice head the scene.
Daft Punk www. Its debut album Homework fused disco, house funk and techno, while Random Access Memories boldly ditched computer-generated sound for a strong disco beat played by session musicians. Raved about for its rock and indie influences, Justice has released several albums since, most recently Woman Manu Chao www. In the Dordogne, it is the prehistoric art in caves at Lascaux that stuns. According to Voltaire, French painting proper began with Baroque painter Nicolas Poussin — , known for his classical mythological and biblical scenes bathed in golden light.
Wind forward a couple of centuries and modern still life popped up with Jean-Baptiste Chardin — A century later, neoclassical artist Jacques Louis David — wooed the public with vast history paintings.
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It was in a flower-filled garden in a Normandy village that Claude Monet — expounded impressionism, a term of derision taken from the title of his experimental painting Impression: Soleil Levant Impression: Sunrise; In St-Tropez, pointillism took off: Georges Seurat —91 was the first to apply paint in small dots or uniform brush strokes of unmixed colour, but it was his pupil Paul Signac — who is best known for pointillist works.
Twentieth-century French painting is characterised by a bewildering diversity of styles, including cubism, and Fauvism, named after the slur of a critic who compared the exhibitors at the autumn Salon in Paris with fauves wild animals because of their radical use of intensely bright colours. The early 20th century also saw the rise of the Dada movement, and no piece of French art better captures its rebellious spirit than Marcel Duchamp's Mona Lisa, complete with moustache and goatee.
In German Dadaist Max Ernst moved to Paris and worked on surrealism, a Dada offshoot that drew on the theories of Freud to reunite the conscious and unconscious realms and permeate daily life with fantasies and dreams. The focus shifted back to southern France in the s with new realists such as Arman — and Yves Klein —62 , both from Nice. Artists turned to the minutiae of everyday urban life to express social and political angst. Conceptual artist Daniel Buren b reduced his painting to a signature series of vertical 8.
The painter who in , as part of the radical groupe BMPT, signed a manifesto declaring he was not a painter was the enfant terrible of French art in the s. Partner-in-crime Michel Parmentier — insisted on monochrome painting — blue in , grey in and red in Paris-born conceptual artist Sophie Calle b brazenly exposes her private life in public with eye-catching installations such as Prenez Soin de Vous Take Care of Yourself; , a compelling and addictive work of art in book form exposing the reactions of women to an email Calle received from her French lover, dumping her.
Her Rachel, Monique evoked the death and lingering memory of her mother in the form of a photographic exhibition first shown at Paris' Palais de Tokyo, later as a live reading performance at the Festival d'Avignon, and most recently in a chapel in New York. The publication of Sophie Calle: My All , a photo-book documenting all 54 of her artworks to date, confirmed her reputation as France's most famous conceptual artist. The Parisian artist, born as Xavier Prou, began by spraying tiny rats in hidden corners of the streets of Paris, went on to develop stencil graffiti as a recognised form, and notably inspired British street artist Banksy.
12222 European Parliament election in France
Then there is digital art. In the world's largest collective street-art exhibition, La Tour Paris 13 www. NI Bayrou. P Wauquiez. P Le Pen. NI Cormand. P Bayrou. P Arthaud. P Roussel. P Balas. NI Faure. NI Guerini. NI Wauquiez. NI Le Pen. NI Aubry. NI Glucksmann. NI Jadot. NI Bellamy. NI Loiseau. NI Bardella. P Lalanne. P Bourg. Ruth Elkrief Apolline de Malherbe. Pascal Durand. Mireille d'Ornano Florian Philippot.
Younous Omarjee. Emmanuel Maurel. Jean-Christophe Lagarde. Marie-Pierre Vieu. Julie Pontalba PCR. Michel Branchi PCM. Cathy Apourceau-Poly. Emmanuel Maurel GRS. Gabriel Amard. Benoit Schneckenburger. Catherine Coutard MRC. William Martinet. Jean-Marie Brom. Christian Benedetti. Charlotte Girard. Sarah Soilihi. Guillaume Balas. Isabelle Thomas. Pierre Serne. Laura Slimani. Pierre Larrouturou. Nora Mebarek. Jean-Marc Germain. Karine Gloanec Maurin. Philippe Naillet. Gabrielle Siry. Gwendoline Delbos-Corfield. Claude Gruffat. Marine Tondelier. Ex- EELV.
Laurence Despaux-Farreng. Chrysoula Zacharopoulou. Jean Veil. Louis Giscard d'Estaing.
Philippe Laurent. Lydia Guirous. Karine Charbonnier. Bruno North. Maxette Grisoni-Pirbakas. Jean-Lin Lacapelle. Philippe Vardon. Thibaut de La Tocnaye. Christian Houdet. Cyril Nauth. Wallerand de Saint-Just. Dominique Martin. Julien Sanchez. Jean-Luc Touly. The Trotskyst party describes its goal as a "socialist United States of Europe", advocating for universal freedom of movement for all in order to help those fleeing war and poverty, banning layoffs, increasing wages by at least euros, indexing wages and pensions to inflation, and abolishing the EU's Directive on the Protection of Trade Secrets.
The PCF calls for a "European minimum wage system", banning offshoring , cracking down on tax evasion achieved through foreign domiciles, creating a form of public service dedicated to "energy renovation", developing an "ecologically sustainable industrial strategy", issuing " humanitarian visas " near sites of origin, revising the Dublin Regulation to end the "first safe country" requirement, and increasing the involvement of national parliaments in EU policymaking.
On ecology, it proposes the creation of a "green rule" i. Other proposals include the creation of a "European aid and rescue corps" in the Mediterranean to end migrant deaths at sea. Hamon's list calls for a " Green New Deal ", providing billion euros per year towards the ecological transition including a shift to organic farming using Common Agricultural Policy funds and a border tax on non-organic imports , a European wealth tax and minimum wage, and "moving towards" a continental universal basic income through a robot tax.
The movement, which also claims the helm of ecology, advocates for creating a European environmental court and outlawing endocrine disruptors and fracking. Proposals of the common list include a European Finance-Climate Pact with billion euros per year in funding dedicated to the ecological transition, focused on renovating outdated buildings, expanding the use of renewable energy, and a kerosene tax on European aviation. With regard to immigration, the PS—Place Publique list plans include a "European version" of the Mediterranean rescue operation, abolishing the Dublin Regulation , and issuance of " humanitarian visas and legal channels for migration".
EELV aims to create a zero-carbon economy , end support for fossil fuels, eliminate free trade agreements including CETA , implement a "green protectionism" including a "socio-environmental border tax", create of a European bank for "climate and diversity" with billion euros per year in funding dedicated to " eco-sufficiency , energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable transport ", and develop a "social fund for the ecological transition" financed by a financial transaction tax.
It also proposes environmental courts to prosecute environmental crimes, eliminating the usage of toxins e. The Renaissance list calls for a European minimum wage corresponding to each country's relative purchasing power, reforming the Posted Workers Directive , creating a continental digital tax on large firms to clamp down on tax evasion within the EU, investing at least 1 trillion euros "to develop clean energy and transport, renovate housing and accompany the retraining of workers and sectors in transition", creating a "European climate bank" to direct funds towards "green growth" and carbon taxation of foreign products, the "harmonization of asylum criteria", increasing the number of border personnel, strengthening the Schengen Area , empowering the European Parliament with the right of legislative initiative , and reducing the number of European Commissioners.
The UDI supports "harmonization" of corporate taxation, reinforcing the Common Agricultural Policy by abolishing the UK rebate , creating a Livret E in the same vein as the Livret A to fund "major environmental projects", as well as identifying "alternatives" to glyphosate and copper sulphate , fighting terrorism by establishing a European FBI, migration agency, and "cyber army".
With regard to institutional changes, the UDI proposes the end of unanimity requirements, requiring European Commissioners to receive the backing of at least 40 MEPs, the direct election of the president of the European Council , and creation of a "European citizens' referendum". Proposals of the LR list include creating a "European and French" preference over foreign products similar to the Buy American Act , ensuring reciprocal access to foreign public procurement markets, fully funding the Common Agricultural Policy budget, restoring community preference "in the agricultural sector", amending the Posted Workers Directive , imposing anti-pollution custom duties on countries that fail to meet environmental or social standards, modifying the Schengen Borders Code to account for the "restoration of internal border controls", processing asylum applications outside of the EU, ending new migrant reception structures, tripling the Frontex budget, returning migrant boats to ports of origin, and maintaining a common register of deportees.
It also opposes the further expansion of the EU or Schengen, calls for making Strasbourg the sole seat of the European Parliament , and limiting the authority of the Commission and instead delegating its responsibilities to the European Parliament and Council of the European Union. The souverainist platform also calls for the restoration of national border controls with the abolition of the Schengen Area , deportation of "illegal immigrants and foreign criminals", and ending immigration via family reunification.
Though it does not advocate for the departure of France from the EU , it does support the dissolution of the European Commission , granting veto power to any of the five most populous EU nations France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Poland , and to make French the official working language of the EU after Brexit. The RN advocates for "an economic patriotism", seeking to repeal the Posted Workers Directive , replace the Common Agricultural Policy with a "French agricultural policy", and changing the mandates of the European Central Bank abandoning its past support of leaving the Eurozone.
It also emphasizes the restoration of "national border controls", ending legal immigration, expelling sans-papiers and "foreign Islamists", and shutting down "radical mosques". The Patriots, the party of ex-FN vice president Florian Philippot, is principally focused on Frexit to regain control over national borders; most of its proposals are concerned with national issues e.
It also backs the citizens' initiative referendum RIC , a principal demand of the yellow vests movement , and proportional representation in all elections. The UPR, which also advocates for the departure of France from the EU , which it argues would allow the country to end offshoring, target tax evasion, and improve export competitiveness, and also argues for the French departure from NATO to reassert the "military and diplomatic independence" of France and empowerment of voters through citizens' initiative referenda RIC.
Prenez le pouvoir, liste soutenue par Marine Le Pen. Debout la France! Nicolas Dupont-Aignan. Pour l'Europe des gens, contre l'Europe de l'argent. Dominique Bourg.
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NB-France production “L’Acadie, un pays qui se ra-conte” unveils its cast
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