Freud et G.
Se venger by Marie-France Hazebroucq
Dans Psychologie des Foules , G. Le Bon, elle est variable et brutale, les individus y sont sous influence. Le Bon dans Psychologie des Foules. Pourtant G. Zola dans Germinal met en relief comment la foule agrandit les individus en leur insufflant la foi. Ainsi G. Mais revenons sur Terre! Les foules suivront-elles toujours les tyrans? En effet, H. Le texte de H. D Thoreau est fondateur, car il dit non au nom de valeurs universelles. En , H. A quoi bon la conscience individuelle alors?! Ainsi par exemple, en , du 17 mars au 6 avril, il organisa la marche du sel avec quelques milliers de sympathisants vers les marais salants de Jabalpur.
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Ce sont des actes personnels proviennent de la conscience qui les envisage comme des devoirs qui ont une vocation collective. Comme le dit P. If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? Discover Prime Book Box for Kids. Learn more. Amazon Global Store UK International products have separate terms, are sold from abroad and may differ from local products, including fit, age ratings, and language of product, labeling or instructions.
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Chance to win daily prizes. Get ready for Prime Day with the Amazon App. No purchase necessary. Get started. No customer reviews. Share your thoughts with other customers. He then turned successfully to music writing. Gordy developed from his stint at Ford and perhaps under the influence of his father, a self-made entrepreneur both a desire to facilitate the upward mobility of Blacks and a sense of industrial organization. In , Maxine Powell, who owned a finishing school, was hired to polish his artists, teach them how to walk, talk, and dress.
Similarly, Maurice King, a veteran of the jazz club scene, introduced them to the subtlety of stage patter. Besides, Gordy did extend his influence to the music. Like Jerry Wexler, he aimed at presenting a music that could reach and please white, middle America by removing the too direct evocations of the funky world of rhythm and blues.
Hence his rejection of material that sounded too bluesy and a preference for the call-and-response pattern of gospel, to which he added the insistent rhythm of tambourines and drums, the punctuation of horns, orchestral string sections, and the slick, suave voices of his all-girls bands. The family-like organization at Motown was reminiscent of the paternalism of Henry Ford in the early years of the century. Gordy also controlled the shows on which his artists appeared, making sure they were all the slick, glossy ones that reached white America the Ed Sullivan Show, the Dean Martin Show, Las Vegas hotels, etc.
Under his tutelage, Motown became a model of black capitalism. They stand as emblematic brokers of a culture they tried to sell to middle America, go-betweens between the realm of money and that of art, moneymakers with a message, and a purpose. With their more rock-oriented peers, it is harder to find the same combination of business savvy and artistic acumen. One key move was the inclusion of audio-cassettes in the fanzine he published, Subterranean Pop , which led to radio interviews, a growing fan base, and the setting up of Sub Pop Records. However, once again, such moves were hardly more than standard, efficient business practices, and it would be stretching too far to credit Pavitt for having had a truly creative impact.
Death Row, founded in by the controversial Suge Knight and Dr. Dre, is considered as the breeding ground of gangsta rap, the West Coast style that developed in the early s with artists like Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, or Tupac Shakur. In order to achieve such a level of success, Knight gave complete artistic freedom to his artists, while Dr.
Dre was more involved with the production aspects of the business. Freedom included in this case involvement with the underworld. Knight himself ended up embroiled in several, sometimes serious, cases. On the contrary, Knight urged them to rely on their experience as drug dealers or gang members, to the extent that violence became a key component of gangsta rap, and that the whole genre developed in part around the fascination Suge Knight generated. Simmons had already played an active role in shaping East-Coast rap.
Rakim, The Beastie Boys. The pair came up with groundbreaking ideas, which, as with rhythm and blues before, turned rap into a mainstream sound.
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They also introduced brevity and song-structure into hip-hop, making it easier to be played on the radio. Diddy, is another extremely influential rap businessman, the second fortune in rap, just before Simmons.
The first hip-hop fortune belongs to Def Jam President and CEO, Jay-Z, the founder of the Roc-A-Fella empire record, film, and clothes companies, clubs, various brands of drinks, sports teams, real estate corporations, etc. Once again, Jay-Z is a complex figure, involved both in the business world as an extraordinarily successful entrepreneur, and in the music world as an artist, while providing through his record companies outlets for other African-American artists to perform and make a name for themselves.
At a level rarely reached before, these successful though often controversial businessmen cum artistic brokers though infrequently involved with producing new sounds or shaping new styles, provided black youth with the possibility to make music that reached both the white and the black communities, both the specialists and the mainstream.
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This at least is sufficient to include them in our roster. If indeed we chose to examine other facets of the music business, and turned to media people or concert promoters, the most successful people we would find would have little or no specific connection with the black community, neither through their own ethnic origins nor through their involvement. It is probably one of the reasons why the business and the authorities cracked down on him so harshly when the payola bribery scandal hit rock and roll while other radio or television DJs like Dick Clark of American Bandstand fame escaped unscathed.
However, none of the most famous and influential media personalities from Dick Clark to Jann Wenner, the founder of Rolling Stone , were particularly close to the black community. Neither did they exert an influence on music comparable to that of the black businessmen we have mentioned. The key to understanding this specificity may be given by rap music.
Through double entendre and signifying practices, rappers have repeatedly signaled that the numerous allusions to hoes, pimps, and prostitution were more than allusions to hoes, pimps, and prostitution. Rappers earn a living by selling their words, in the same way as pimps sells their girls. Their clients are the record buyers and concert goers; these pay to hear the artists, who sell themselves and their words.
Such emphasis on money can be read, and his often explicitly described by rappers themselves, as the ultimate way to fit in. A successful rap businessman is the embodiment of mainstream America. By adopting the core values of white America, rappers emphasize that there is only one history left, the American one. In the process, they gave this community pride, cultural clout, and enhanced economic power. It is not surprising that it is the entrepreneurs closest to the music, the record makers, rather than the concert promoters or media personalities, who had the strongest creative and artistic impact.
For we are dealing here with people who belong to the margin of mainstream society, those whose entanglement with the artists is at its closest. As Michael S. Those marginalized by existing social arrangements have a different angle of vision on the culture, and need alternative avenues for cultural expression. For many of these marginalized individuals, music was another venue of social and cultural mobility. Perhaps, as Kimmel suggests, in countries with a strong, well-defined social class system like Britain, it is the self-conscious working-class which, being the underdog, will strive for recognition through the few outlets left for them, sports or the popular arts.
So, if not rebels, these businessmen nevertheless represent a progressive force, changing the social order, opening new vistas. Because the music industry allows and enables members of these different ethnic minorities to reach positions of power, they exert a musical influence of a nature that mainstream professionals rarely provide. More than money, it is visibility they strive for. Music is not a mere aesthetic pursuit, but a quest for identity, be it vicariously.
Hence the influence they exert on musical choices, their desire to soften certain sounds to enable them to reach the mainstream, to groom their artists, or, on the contrary, at other periods, to boost the ferociousness, the unsavory appeal of their performers if such are the expectations of the crowds.
They add an urgency and a purpose that, with the help of the artists they produce and release, translate into new, different sounds. Seemann Publ. Washington: Library of Congress, , rpt. Irving R.