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Pathophysiology of noise and air pollution-induced cardiovascular disease
Contents:
  1. Stress levels 'too high' in Americans
  2. Environmental Stressors and Their Impact on Health and Disease with Focus on Oxidative Stress.
  3. Stress: its surprising implications for health
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  5. Environmental Stressors and Their Impact on Health and Disease with Focus on Oxidative Stress.

Taken together, noise, particularly at nighttime has been demonstrated to cause sympathovagal imbalance, vascular dysfunction, and increased blood pressure. These changes are consistent with changes in multiple large-scale studies, where noise exposure increases blood pressure in subjects exposed to road or railway noise. A variety of different approaches have been adopted to study the effects of air pollution in the experimental context. These approaches include exposure to concentrated ambient particles, diesel exhaust from engines to mimic road traffic exposure, air pollution mixtures in exposure chambers and finally direct exposure to ambient atmospheres, in both animals and humans.

Stress levels 'too high' in Americans

Oxidative stress pathways are integral to the mechanism of the vascular damage induced by air pollution, and increases in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers or activation of genes have been shown to result from diesel exhaust, wood smoke, PM 2. Changes in blood pressure in animal models are also associated with activation of central sympathetic mechanisms. In animals, exposure to PM 2. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to result in facilitation of a number of pathways that are pro-atherogenic.

Pathophysiology of noise and air pollution-induced cardiovascular disease

The formation of highly oxidized forms of phospholipids oxidatively modified 1-palmitoylarachidonoyl- sn -phosphatidylcholine or oxPAPC and cholesterol e. The evidence of an association between long-term exposure to PM 2. Although the cross-sectional nature of these data warrants caution, the similarity of findings, and the bias towards the null inherent with the estimations of long-term exposure, support a biological relationship between air pollution exposure and atherosclerosis.

Environmental Stressors and Their Impact on Health and Disease with Focus on Oxidative Stress.

Importantly, a reduction in PM 2. Prior reviews have covered the experimental evidence and mechanisms by which air pollution can independently increase risk for T2DM.

Hypothetical framework of investigations that combine technological innovation in biometric data with personalized exposure information in real time to study interactive effects of environmental risk factors on cardiovascular end-points. In summary, the present review summarizes mechanisms of importance in mediating cardiometabolic risk in response to noise and particulate matter as important and novel cardiovascular risk factors. Noise and PM may cause oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction, autonomic imbalance and metabolic abnormalities, potentiating not only risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes but culminating in progression of atherosclerosis and susceptibility to cardiovascular events.


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There is increasing rationale for studying the interaction between these novel risk factors and their collective impact on cardiometabolic disease. The authors thank Margot Neuser for graphical support and Saumya Kanakanala for formulation of tables. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search.

Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Pathophysiology of noise and air pollution-induced cardiovascular disease. Noise pollution: mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events. Air pollution: mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events. Gaps in current knowledge of air and noise pollution-mediated disease. Author's contributions. Oxford Academic.

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Google Scholar. Tommaso Gori. Frank P. Xiaoquan Rao. Frank R. Lung Chi Chen. Robert D. Sanjay Rajagopalan. Article history. Revision Received:. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Noise , Air pollution , Oxidative stress , Inflammation , Atherosclerosis , Cardiovascular risk factor , Environment , Cardiometabolic disease. Analogous to traditional risk factors, a growing body of evidence has substantiated the concept that air pollution and noise leads to vascular endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and complications including myocardial infarction, stroke, and congestive heart failure.

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Stress: its surprising implications for health

There are currently no studies that simultaneously have examined the effects of noise and air pollution exposure in experimental models or humans. A number of important questions at the mechanistic level in animals may help provide direction for future human studies. The impact of traffic-related air pollutant co-exposure with noise is most worthy of initial study.

However, the extent of these advances in knowledge are tempered by the need to manage subject burden and costs and less accurate or precise data due to the inexpensive nature of the devices available for use or reliance on individuals for their proper use.

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Search ADS. Aircraft noise effects on sleep: application of the results of a large polysomnographic field study. A field study of sleep disturbance: effects of aircraft noise and other factors on 5, nights of actimetrically monitored sleep in a large subject sample. However, the health impacts of environmental stressors range from relatively mild psychological effects like annoyance to effects on morbidity such as asthma, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and premature mortality. This diversity of health effects challenges the comparison of the impacts of alternative policies.

The objectives of the multinational European EBoDE-project Environmental Burden of Disease in the European region included updating previous environmental burden of disease EBD assessments, identifying stressors relevant for the European region, testing a harmonized EBD methodology in the participating countries, and developing and making available the methodology for other countries.

The project has assessed the environmental burden of disease related to nine selected stressors across six countries: Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. The assessed stressors were: benzene, dioxins including furans and dioxin-like PCBs , non-smokers exposure to second-hand smoke, formaldehyde, lead, transportation noise including road, rail and air traffic , ozone, particulate matter PM2.

The environmental burden of disease is expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs , which are a summary measure of population health combining mortality and morbidity. Calculations were based on the most recent scientific evidence concerning population exposure and health effects, national exposure data and WHO burden of disease data. BMJ ;e Inverse occurrence of cancer and Alzheimer's disease: A population-based incidence study.

Environmental Stressors and Their Impact on Health and Disease with Focus on Oxidative Stress.

Neurology ; Risk of cancer after the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease: A historical cohort study. Mov Disord ; Nonfatal cancer preceding Parkinson's disease: A case-control study. Epidemiology ; A common biological mechanism in cancer and Alzheimer's disease? Curr Alzheimer Res ; Mitotic activation: A convergent mechanism for a cohort of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurobiol Aging ; Staropoli JF. Tumorigenesis and neurodegeneration: Two sides of the same coin?

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