Manual Geschlechtertypische Sozialisation (German Edition)

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  1. List of all ongoing and finished projects
  2. Geschlechterunterschiede in den Arbeitswerten: eine Analyse für die alten Bundesländer 1980–2000
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  4. origine du nom de famille savy oeuvres courtes french edition Manual

Linked linear mixed models The complexity of eye-movement control during reading allows measurement of many dependent variables, the most prominent ones being fixation durations and their locations in words. In current practice, either variable may serve as dependent variable or covariate for the other in linear mixed models LMMs featuring also psycholinguistic covariates of word recognition and sentence comprehension.

Rather than analyzing fixation location and duration with separate LMMs, we propose linking the two according to their sequential dependency. Specifically, we include predicted fixation location estimated in the first LMM from psycholinguistic covariates and its associated residual fixation location as covariates in the second, fixation-duration LMM. This linked LMM affords a distinction between direct and indirect effects mediated through fixation location of psycholinguistic covariates on fixation durations. Results confirm the robustness of distributed processing in the perceptual span.

They also offer a resolution of the paradox of the inverted optimal viewing position IOVP effect i. We expect that linked LMMs will be useful for the analysis of other dynamically related multiple outcomes, a conundrum of most psychonomic research. Crux Scenica Therefore we integrated this person into the da- ders of the presentation have no reactive influence on the ta analyses where it seemed appropriate.

The average age response behavior of the participants we tested a two-way was As in the study by Grob et al. After completing the we anticipated that an adolescent not wanting to questionnaires, which took approximately 15 to 20 min- cope with a developmental task on time e. The age of the stimulus person was varied across the Measures four levels of the timing mode. The age norm for each tim- ing mode was based on the age criteria applied in the study Design by Grob et al.

Additionally, age-relat- ed institutional norms which are specific for Switzerland We assigned each subject randomly to a sequence of four served as guidelines with regard to the Swiss educational task descriptions varied by developmental task DT , tim- and apprenticeship system as well as to laws concerning ing mode TM , and gender-role conformity GR. Two majority and becoming a full member of society at the different developmental tasks were selected: 1 achiev- time of the study the age of majority was twenty.

The age ing autonomy from parents and 2 choosing a career or limit for early coping was defined as being younger than profession. As reported earlier, autonomy attempts were 16 years, which means between 12 for making career more important for adolescent girls than for boys. Choos- choices and 15 years for reaching autonomy from par- ing a profession, on the other hand, was equally important ents. For the developmental task of entering the labor for both genders.

Cop- es seemed to be affected by the female gender-role stereo- ing with a developmental task on time was described as type of combining future family and career orientations within the age range 16 choosing a professional edu- Fend, The timing mode was varied systematical- cation to 21 years moving away from home. The age ly, or counterbalanced, across the two developmental tasks for coping late with autonomy was 31, whereas for and the two gender-role conformities.

Each subject re- entering the labor force and choosing a profession the ceived each of the four timing modes only once. In coun- critical age was set somewhat earlier ages 23 and 19 re- terbalancing, the sequence of administration of treatments spectively. Each developmental task was for- fessional choice allows either a job-family-combination mulated with regard to timing and gender-role conformi- or a work interruption for several years during the child ty, characterized as gender-role typical and non-typical.

Therefore, gen- choosing a profession e. The non-typical opmental task DT in order to form a four-level inde- version for autonomy was defined as defending equal pendent variable called gender-role conformity of devel- rights for men and women, favoring a liberal gender-role opmental task DG. Subjects indicated the extent nist in the task situation described above? Please indicate to which they agreed with each statement on a six-point at least one of the following emotions listed.

To ob- GRO-Scores from a minimum of 36 points for persons tain the Emotion Difference Score, we subtracted the sum with an extremely liberal orientation to a maximum of of positive from the sum of negative emotions given by points for individuals with an extremely traditional each person. This procedure resulted in a range from —6 gender-role orientation.

We constructed a scale of six items. For of whom were students. By ing, respectively,. The six cognitive evaluation items, Expectations regarding timing and gender- computed separately for each level of the two indepen- role conformity of developmental tasks dent variables TM and DG, all loaded on one factor. There- fore we computed one summary score over all six items, Timing of developmental tasks which we called Cognitive Evaluation Score COG. Contrary to the findings by Grob et al.

Two late — unable, and late — unwilling. As shown in Table 3, typical ca- four levels of DG. N M SD Min. N Early 0. N Auton. If the developmental However, neither age, gender, educational level, or par- tasks were truly normative, there should be no sample ef- enthood, in interaction with the variable DG affected par- fects whatsoever.

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In sum, the tween-subjects factor with timing mode and gender-role cognitive and emotional evaluations were normative con- conformity of developmental task as within-subjects fac- cerning gender-role conformity of developmental task, but tors using separate GLM procedures see Table 4. Unskilled partici- cognitive and emotional evaluations pants without a high school or professional degree seem to give more positive evaluations than skilled or academ- The second hypothesis was to examine whether the gen- ically educated adults do.

The remaining between-subjects der-role orientation GRO of the participants affected sample effects were not significant, which means that, in emotional and cognitive evaluations regarding the gender- general, our findings support the normative characteristic role conformity of developmental tasks. However, to our surprise, the participants did tively. Participants did not differ in GRO regarding emo- not differ in GRO regarding the cognitive evaluation of tional evaluation of non-typical developmental tasks see non-typical developmental tasks see Figure 2.

Figure 2. GRO-effect on emotional evaluation A two-way repeated-measure analysis of variance re- vealed a significant between-subjects main effect GRO, Discussion The results of our study show that cognitive and emotional evaluations are important indicators for normative social 4. More 2. Career typ. Career non-typ. Consistent with Grob et al. As expected, coping on time and with a gender- 1. Coping late combined with the attribu-. However, contrary -. Before drawing fur- Autonomy typ. As mentioned earlier, we were not able to test for interaction effects be- Figure 2: Cognitive Evaluation Score COG and Emotion Dif- ference Score EMO by gender-role conformity of develop- tween the two within-subjects factors of timing mode and mental task DG as within-subjects and gender-role orientation gender-role conformity of developmental task.

Future GRO as between-subjects factors. Another explanation stems from re- crepancies in evaluations regarding early and timely cop- search on androgyny. Stake, Zand, and Smalley ing with a particular developmental task. Independence and self- acterized as inducing no sample differences in social de- confidence in achieving developmental goals are, in gen- velopmental expectations.

In our study, this was true for eral, considered as healthy and are more often attributed age, gender, and parenthood with respect to timing mode. However, education seemed to affect the cognitive eval- Therefore, it might be that those adolescent girls who cope uation in that, in general, unskilled adults were more op- with career and autonomy in a more instrumental way are timistic regarding future development than skilled and perceived to be just as healthy as those following a typi- academically educated adults. A possible explanation for cal female gender-role.

If adolescent girls are approved in this effect is that unskilled adults without any profession- their self-defined independence from close relationship al degree are a minority in western societies. Therefore it ties with friends and family, and are encouraged to follow may be that this overestimation of non-normative early their own career paths fully, then they might no longer be and late coping with developmental tasks is related to a expected to yield to compromises concerning a combina- higher identification with non-normative life courses.

This tion of career goals and rearing children. Before drawing further conclusions it should be entations did not affect their evaluations regarding non- noted that the unskilled group consisted of only 17 adults.


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One major difference compared a traditional toward a more liberal view took place, which to the previous study by Grob et al. In future studies, it would be inter- sons, and not boys and young men. Therefore, a possible esting to find out how people evaluate gender-role typical explanation is that women have different expectations for and non-typical developmental tasks of adolescent boys girls than for boys, and that they expect girls to cope with and young men.

It might be expected that non-typical, developmental tasks at an earlier age than boys. This ex- more expressive gender-roles for boys are rejected much planation is consistent with findings from a study on more than is true regarding non-typical gender-roles for parental and adolescent expectations regarding develop- girls. As was pointed out by our second hypothesis, people Although these initial results seem promising, further in a given society tend to align their social developmen- research is required to provide more data regarding the tal expectations with their own gender-role orientation.

One way to enhance the va- sumptions of gender schema theory Bem, An ad- mental task gender-role typically. One explanation might vantage of such a multi-perspective approach is that it be that gender-role typical developmental tasks evoke a would provide information about the direct perspective of higher degree of familiarity, especially for people with a the adolescent as well as the meta-perspective of the par- traditional gender-role orientation, whereas non-typical ents.

Parents and adoles- Experiments by nature and design. Concordant and discordant Cantor, N. Life tasks and daily experience. Journal of Personality, 59, 3, — Adolescence in modern derstanding, and consensus as well as general social-cul- Europe. Pluralized transition patterns and their implications tural beliefs.

Geschlechterunterschiede in den Arbeitswerten: eine Analyse für die alten Bundesländer 1980–2000

Journal of Adolescence, 18, to a psychosocial process by which persons reach agree- — The assessment of in- 3, — Stiksrud Eds. In addition, in a rapidly changing society gender-role Dreher, E. It can be assumed that lescence: Questions, results, and hypotheses on the concept the smaller the discrepancies between masculine and fem- of developmental and educational psychology of adoles- inine gender-role stereotypes regarding coping with de- cence].

Oerter Ed. Wein- velopmental tasks, the more will diversity with respect to heim, Germany: Edition Psychologie. Entwicklungsrelevante Er- males and females. Finally, as proposed by research on eignisse aus der Sicht von Jugendlichen [Crucial develop- psychological androgyny e. Entwicklungspsychologie der Adoleszenz in der Mod- erne Bd.

Life course, self, and world acquisition in work, family, and po- litical fields. Developmental psychology of adolescence in References modernity Vol. Bem, S. Before drawing fur- Autonomy typ. As mentioned earlier, we were not able to test for interaction effects be- Figure 2: Cognitive Evaluation Score COG and Emotion Dif- ference Score EMO by gender-role conformity of develop- tween the two within-subjects factors of timing mode and mental task DG as within-subjects and gender-role orientation gender-role conformity of developmental task.

Future GRO as between-subjects factors. Another explanation stems from re- crepancies in evaluations regarding early and timely cop- search on androgyny. Stake, Zand, and Smalley ing with a particular developmental task. Independence and self- acterized as inducing no sample differences in social de- confidence in achieving developmental goals are, in gen- velopmental expectations. In our study, this was true for eral, considered as healthy and are more often attributed age, gender, and parenthood with respect to timing mode.

However, education seemed to affect the cognitive eval- Therefore, it might be that those adolescent girls who cope uation in that, in general, unskilled adults were more op- with career and autonomy in a more instrumental way are timistic regarding future development than skilled and perceived to be just as healthy as those following a typi- academically educated adults. A possible explanation for cal female gender-role. If adolescent girls are approved in this effect is that unskilled adults without any profession- their self-defined independence from close relationship al degree are a minority in western societies.

Therefore it ties with friends and family, and are encouraged to follow may be that this overestimation of non-normative early their own career paths fully, then they might no longer be and late coping with developmental tasks is related to a expected to yield to compromises concerning a combina- higher identification with non-normative life courses. This tion of career goals and rearing children. Before drawing further conclusions it should be entations did not affect their evaluations regarding non- noted that the unskilled group consisted of only 17 adults.

One major difference compared a traditional toward a more liberal view took place, which to the previous study by Grob et al. In future studies, it would be inter- sons, and not boys and young men. Therefore, a possible esting to find out how people evaluate gender-role typical explanation is that women have different expectations for and non-typical developmental tasks of adolescent boys girls than for boys, and that they expect girls to cope with and young men.

It might be expected that non-typical, developmental tasks at an earlier age than boys. This ex- more expressive gender-roles for boys are rejected much planation is consistent with findings from a study on more than is true regarding non-typical gender-roles for parental and adolescent expectations regarding develop- girls. As was pointed out by our second hypothesis, people Although these initial results seem promising, further in a given society tend to align their social developmen- research is required to provide more data regarding the tal expectations with their own gender-role orientation.

One way to enhance the va- sumptions of gender schema theory Bem, An ad- mental task gender-role typically. One explanation might vantage of such a multi-perspective approach is that it be that gender-role typical developmental tasks evoke a would provide information about the direct perspective of higher degree of familiarity, especially for people with a the adolescent as well as the meta-perspective of the par- traditional gender-role orientation, whereas non-typical ents.

Parents and adoles- Experiments by nature and design. Concordant and discordant Cantor, N. Life tasks and daily experience. Journal of Personality, 59, 3, — Adolescence in modern derstanding, and consensus as well as general social-cul- Europe. Pluralized transition patterns and their implications tural beliefs.

Journal of Adolescence, 18, to a psychosocial process by which persons reach agree- — The assessment of in- 3, — Stiksrud Eds.


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In addition, in a rapidly changing society gender-role Dreher, E. It can be assumed that lescence: Questions, results, and hypotheses on the concept the smaller the discrepancies between masculine and fem- of developmental and educational psychology of adoles- inine gender-role stereotypes regarding coping with de- cence]. Oerter Ed.

Wein- velopmental tasks, the more will diversity with respect to heim, Germany: Edition Psychologie. Entwicklungsrelevante Er- males and females. Finally, as proposed by research on eignisse aus der Sicht von Jugendlichen [Crucial develop- psychological androgyny e. Entwicklungspsychologie der Adoleszenz in der Mod- erne Bd. Life course, self, and world acquisition in work, family, and po- litical fields. Developmental psychology of adolescence in References modernity Vol.

Bem, S. Gender schema theory: A cognitive account Flaake, K. Weibliche Adoleszenz. Zur of sex-typing. Psychological Review, 88, 4, — Sozialisation junger Frauen [Female adolescence.

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Social- Berger, R. Entwicklungsaufgaben als Rituale? Ent- with adolescents DFA. Theory, reliability, and validity] wicklungsaufgaben anstelle von Ritualen [Developmental Research Report No. Fribourg, Switzerland: Univer- tasks as rituals? Developmental tasks instead of rituals]? In sity of Fribourg, Psychology Institute. Klosinski Ed. Optimal human de- unserer Gesellschaft [Rites of passage in puberty — Equi- velopment: Some implications for psychology.

Human De- valents and deficits of our society] pp. Bern, velopment, 20, 48— Switzerland: Huber. Brogan, D. Measuring sex-role orienta- Flammer, A. Entwicklungsaufgaben als gesellschaft- tion: A normative approach. Journal of Marriage and the liche Eintrittskarten [Developmental tasks as entrance Family, 38, 31— Mandl, M.

Klausurvorbereitung Modul 1 A Sozialisation

Kor- Bronfenbrenner, U. The ecology of human development. Flammer, A. Psychologische Neugarten, B. Time, age, and the life cycle. The Amer- Theorien der menschlichen Entwicklung 2.

origine du nom de famille savy oeuvres courtes french edition Manual

Auflage [De- ican Journal of Psychiatry, , — Psychological theories of human de- Nurmi, J. How do adolescents see their future? A re- velopment second edition ]. Bern, Switzerland: Huber. Developmental tasks — Developmental Review, 11, 1— Where do they come from? Tracks and tran- G. Mugny Eds. In a different voice: Psychological theory land. International Journal of Psychology, 30, 3, — Zur Dynamik von Entwicklungsaufgaben im versity Press.

Entwicklungsauf- through the life-span]. Aspects and perspectives] pp. Hamburg, Germany: Hoffmann und Campe. Zeitschrift Oerter, R. Baltes, D. Feather- 1, 45— Lerner Eds. Hilsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Daily life and biography of ado- im Jugendalter [Developmental tasks and coping with de- lescent girls Vol.

Opladen, Germany: Leske und Bud- velopmental tasks in adolescence].