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For men, she also corresponds to the kind of woman he's attracted to but not especially in marriage which is more symbolized by the Moon, Venus is the lover and not the wife. Her element is the Air, she is moist, rules Taurus and Libra, is in exaltation in Pisces and is in analogy with the kidneys, the venous system, the bladder, the neck. She represents the artists, tradesmen, occupations linked to beauty and charm; the age of Venus goes from 15 to about 25 years old. Temperament : Sanguine and Lymphatic. Venus describes your affective life. On the day of your birth, she is found in Cancer.

Emotions and sensations are indissociable from your imagination, your dreams and your inner life. There is something romantic and fabulous in the way you experience love. You can really feel passion only within a subtle, refined and quite mysterious relationship. In love, your imagination has unlimited powers. Tenderness is the key to your sentimental fulfilment. You dread violent passions and storms and you strive to fulfil your needs for gentleness and harmony. For you, love is a refuge.

You treasure the security of your couple cell and you protect the intimacy and the secrets of your relationship. Whims are of course the indispensable ingredients of your sentimental life, its salt and sugar. However, you may pour too much salt in your affectivity! Imagination may be tricky. You become the victim of your mood swings and strange desires overwhelm your thoughts. Your romantic sensitivity requires its fair share of dreams and mystery. Better than anyone, you create an atmosphere of sweet intimacy, which is the basis of a fulfilled love relationship, even, and above all, in the everyday life.

Venus expresses her characteristics through the 12th House values. Your affectivity obeys a quite complex logic. Indeed, love is not simple. More than anyone else, you are in search of an inaccessible sentimental absolute. Beyond the appearances, there is an almost mystical form of love which implies self-sacrifice and total fusion. This may lead to delusions and unfulfilled hopes. It is not easy to praise love to the skies in our implacable world.

However, your affective experiences are intense. If Venus is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Venusian: you are a sensual and emotional person particularly receptive to the natural likes and dislikes aroused by your contact with people. You are prone to frequent instinctive aversions and true passions which are exclusively driven by the feeling of love.

The heart has its reasons which Reason knows nothing of Your balance is based on the richness of your affective life. Without love, the Venusian is resourceless, lost, and deprived of any reason for living. You have an obvious and strong will to charm and to arouse the attachments without which you cannot properly function. Every area of your life is thus marked by your affectivity. The danger is that you may "be taken in" by charm. In such cases, you would prefer to keep your emotions under better control. Thus, hyper-sensitivity has its own inconveniences. Nevertheless, better than anyone else, you know how to play with feelings and attractions.

Although you are sometimes caught in the traps of an over sensitive emotionalism, feelings remain your best assets in many circumstances. There is another aspect to the Venusian dominant. According to the Tradition, this planet rules the Arts, and you are endowed with some degree of artistic dispositions, ranging from good to excellent. Humble, patient, and thrifty character. This degree brings about dexterity, fertility, and fulfilled life.

One has the ability to bring one's work to a successful conclusion. Although one is unlikely to enjoy fame, one achieves successes which go beyond one's ambitions, and one earns the esteem of one's entourage.

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There is a danger of accidents caused by a weapon or a working tool. Mars represents the desire for action and physical energy, sexuality, strength. For a woman, Mars corresponds to the kind of man she's attracted to but not especially in marriage which is rather symbolized by the Sun, Mars is the lover, not the husband. Fire is its element, it is hot and dry, and it rules Aries and Scorpio along with Pluto , is in exaltation with Capricorn and is in analogy with the muscles and the spleen. It represents the soldiers, sportsmen, warriors, surgeons, blacksmiths Characterology : Emotive, Active, Primary type.

It is a Choleric. The planet Mars indicates how you react to life concrete stimulations. It also describes your fighting spirit, your abilities to stand for yourself and to take action. With Mars in Aries, boldness and energy bring about successes and setbacks. Success in all enterprises requiring swift reactions and decisions, quick-mindedness.

Setbacks in your relationships when emotionalism is stronger than reason. You react promptly when you face adversity. Your offensive mind works wonders when the context requires fighting spirit. The danger is that your hasty actions may harm your long-terms interests. This configuration is double-edged, indeed. With Mars in the 11th House, you are concerned about lost causes. More than anyone else, you feel the need to take action now, straight away, and to devote yourself in order to improve the situation.

You don't need to make long speeches! What is important is to actively participate, on the field, in the project you are interested in. You never hesitate to intervene when individual freedom is threatened, or when injustice strikes one of your close friends. If Mars is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Marsian: in your hand-to-hand struggle for life, you demonstrate an acute and active sense of confrontation with the world, with other people, and with your own destiny.

You need to take action and to fight for your projects and your desires. You perceive all situations with deep intensity, and you react to the here and now without bothering to step back in order to ensure that events are under your control. You take up challenges with excessive foolhardiness as a consequence of your impulsiveness. However, better than anyone else, you know how to mobilise your resources in case of crisis.

You take action whenever it is necessary to do so, and you are present in a timely manner. With Mars, your attitudes are dictated by the realities of the moment, by your emotions, and by everything which proved to have worked in the past. When this dominant is not well integrated, it may bring about an aggressive or impulsive behaviour.

Therefore, you must learn to control your hyper-sensitivity and your fits of temper. You are also endowed with Marsian qualities: the fighting spirit and the taste for duel without which one may find oneself overwhelmed by events. When this willpower is well channelled, its precious energy enables to cope with all sorts of contingencies. There are a thousand ways to win, and a thousand challenges to take up with the enthusiasm and the dynamism which make life so worthy.

A certain idea of life which is wild, passionate, and in tune with events. Refined, benevolent, and impressionable character. Because one lacks willpower, one often allows other people to take decisions.


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One does not have the heart to break up even though so-called friends prove to be harmful and covet one's spouse or romantic partner, one's wealth or one's position at work. However, the snakes represent protective occult powers which are readily available, provided that one displays willpower and fortitude.

Jupiter represents expansion and power, benevolence, large vision and generosity. Its element is Air, it is hot and moist, and it rules Sagittarius and Pisces along with Neptune , is in exaltation with Cancer and is in analogy with the hips and endocrinal system. It represents the governors, magistrates, professors, religious men too; the age of Jupiter goes from 50 to 55 or even 70 years old. Temperament : Sanguine. Characterology : Emotive, Active, Primary type; it is an extrovert Choleric.

Actually the humid version of Mars, inclined to action like him. The planet Jupiter symbolizes expansion, broadness and generosity. Jupiter is associated with the functions of synthesis, enthusiasm and optimism. In your natal chart, his house position is more important than his sign position because, like Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, he is a slow planet. Many people born in the same period have Jupiter in the same sign. This is the reason why the sign occupied here is less meaningful than when it is occupied by the so-called fast planets, i.

Therefore, some caution is to be exercised as you read what follows. Jupiter in Pisces increases your natural generosity and your dedication capacity. Your empathy is strong and you are inclined to offer your strength and your enthusiasm to the most deprived people and to give unlimited assistance to others. Jupiter is in the 10th House. There he is, the "Greater Benefic", Jupiter, culminating in the middle of your natal sky.

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A good star, as the Tradition has it. It is most likely that your adaptation faculties and your enterprising mind do not go unnoticed. People trust you and open doors for you, or at least, keep them ajar. Here as elsewhere, nothing is gained effortlessly. Nevertheless, enthusiasm and optimism favour successes.

The only danger is that you may think too big! If Jupiter is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Jupiterian: because this planet brings about a keen interest in social and professional success, the Tradition considers it to be beneficial. Indeed, you know how to adjust to events and to jump at the chance when it arises. The members of your entourage gladly entrust you with high responsibilities because they are often impressed by your learning skills and your adaptation abilities as you deal with new structures and new languages. What is the secret of your good star?

It is your self-confidence which wins public support. Now, what is the secret of your charm? Definitely, enthusiasm, euphoria, and exaltation. Exaggeration also. When this dominant is well integrated, it is a factor of affluence and optimism, and a certain degree of joviality enables you to easily fit into various spheres. It constitutes your main asset to manage your life. However, you must at times curb your desire for integration, lest your sense of opportunity turns into extreme opportunism.

Here also, the key to success lies in a correct estimate of everyone's chances and possibilities. Although management is one of your forte, and you can adjust your objectives to current realities better than other people, you lack the hindsight which enables you to avoid short-term vagaries and daily fluctuations. If you strive too much to adapt, you run a risk of betraying yourself. This is the other traditional side of the coin with "The Greater Benefic"! Wise, ambitious, and altruistic character endowed with psychic gifts. Researches in chemistry, medicine, or political sciences are rewarded by a prize or some high distinction, but they also arouse many petty jealousies and slanderous campaigns.

Saturn represents concentration, effort, perseverance, time, the hard reality, inevitable consequences. Earth is its element, it is cold and dry, and it rules Capricorn and Aquarius along with Uranus , is in exaltation in Libra and is in analogy with the bones skeleton and the skin. It represents the grandparents, old people, scientists, knowledgeable men, Saturn corresponds to old age; it goes from 70 years old until death. The planet Saturn symbolizes contraction, effort, time, limitation and concentration.

Saturn eliminates anything that is not authentic, sooner or later. It is impossible to cheat him as he gives an irresistible desire to form a coherent whole with oneself, in responsible and wise ways. He is the great purifier. He represents our limitations but also our truth. In your natal chart, the house position where Saturn is posited is more important than his sign position because, like Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, he is a slow planet.

Many people born in the same period have Saturn in the same sign. Saturn in Virgo gives you a persevering and precise nature. This good combination increases your taste for sciences and for effort and you are constantly striving to improve yourself. Your tenacity works wonders. In your natal chart, Saturn is in the 3rd House. Learning to communicate is a difficult task for you. Your mode of assimilation is demanding and selective, which excludes simple relationships and fanciful innovations. Before you can accept a person, an idea, or a formula, you need to sift them through your inflexible will, and to understand them.

It is probable that you sort out all pieces of information with a serious mind, but also with caution and scepticism. If Saturn is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Saturnian: you gladly leave to other people the decision to take life as it comes. As far as you are concerned, you prefer to take advantage of your experiences in order to discover, to grow, and to question yourself. Inventive, generous and tolerant character endowed with a flexible mind devoid of prejudices.

One understands that the importance of money is relative, and thus, one behaves with altruism. Thanks to one's wide range of talents, success and honours are achieved in one's field of competence. Uranus represents individual freedom, originality, independence, marginality, avant guard inspiration, ultra modernism. Fire is its element, it is dry, and it rules Aquarius, is in exaltation with Scorpio and is in analogy with the brain and the nerves.

Temperament : Nervous to the extreme. Characterology : Emotive, Active, Secondary type; it is a Passionate type. The planet Uranus symbolizes originality, independence and cerebral energy bursting suddenly. Uranus triggers the irresistible need for freedom that we have in ourselves. Uranus tends to break the constraints that have become unbearable and gives us the courage and the will to get rid of what has become a burden; when he is well aspected, he also indicates genius.

Many people born in the same period have Uranus in the same sign.

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The sign positions of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto have a collective meaning. In such cases, the activity of the slow planet is very highlighted. Uranus in Aquarius is in his own sign and, according to the Tradition, he is most potent and at his best: you are freedom-oriented and your desire to revolutionize the world in your fields of interest is irresistible. You are attracted by avant-gardist areas such as higher technologies, astrology etc.

With Uranus in the 9th House, you consider that to venture beyond the frontiers of your knowledge, and to renew your concepts is to progress. It is your keyword, and you apply it in your daily life. This planetary configuration translates into a large range of fields of interest, from modern technologies to liberal and libertarian concepts.

You believe that growth means doing one's own revolution, and asserting one's morals and models. Intolerance is revolution's distinctive feature If Uranus is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Uranian: personal values are prevailing. Inner certainties fuel an inflexible will and a desire to call attention on yourself as well as to follow your beliefs through. This planet prompts you to behave with determination, to put forward your own truth, and to start your personal revolution. More than other people, you are willing to keep some degree of autonomy in all circumstances, and you often display an individualistic nature.

In order to achieve your ideal of freedom and independence, you may act like a despot as you try to convince and to impose your views, whether smoothly or forcefully. Regardless of the flexibility of your comportment, some situations demand an absolute firmness as well as uncompromising, frank and straightforward attitudes. People may criticise you for your intransigence and say that you are a hardliner. Outsider's opinions don't matter!

The most important thing is that you act in all conscience and reach your primary objectives. More than anyone else, you know how to use your willpower and to focus your energy on a precise aim, relentlessly, whatever the consequences might be. In the chapter of qualities, let's mention a definite sense of responsibility, an innovative mind open to techniques and modern ideas, as well as a natural self-discipline which overcomes many an obstacle.

Therefore, people are well-advised not to hound you into a corner. Withdrawn, envious, and selfish character with strong misanthropic tendencies. One can achieve success in all occupations requiring discretion and excellent investigation skills such as the police or intelligence services. One must refrain from using one's shrewdness with the purpose to sow discord, suspicion and slanders, lest life ends up in loneliness and poverty.

This degree may also indicate that, as a result of a serious accident or a painful disappointment, one decides to live in seclusion. If one makes the effort to open up to the world and learns the joys of sharing, life will immediately change for the better. Neptune represents escapism, impressionability, daydreaming, delusions, carelessness, deception or intuition, dishonesty or inspiration, telepathy. Water is its element, it is moist, it rules Pisces, is in exaltation in Cancer, though some authors say it is Leo, and is in analogy with the vegetative system.

It represents dreamers, mediums, magicians, merchants of illusion, drug addicts. Temperament : rather Lymphatic. The planet Neptune symbolizes extreme receptivity, intense emotional sharpness, impressionability and inspiration; it is the planet of mediums, mystics and religious faith. Many people born in the same period have Neptune in the same sign. Neptune in Capricorn brings a touch of humanity and emotion into your ambition made of cold and calculated vision. Or, on the contrary, it may disrupt your precise and clear vision of your professional future.

With Neptune in the 7th House, your social life is subtle and vague, and follows an underlying and imperceptible, yet inflexible, logic. You are unable to figure out why you feel in tune with such or such person, whereas with another person, you just cannot relate.

A glance, or a move, is all is needed in order to establish the contact Life is made of subtleties which reason knows nothing of. The partner is a mirror, and sometimes, a distorting mirror. If Neptune is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Neptunian: your intuition is highly developed. You are of a contemplative nature, and you are particularly receptive to ambiances, places, and people. You gladly cultivate the art of letting-go, and you allow the natural unfolding of events to construct your world.

You follow your inspirations, for better or for worse. At times, you display an extraordinary clairvoyance gift. You seem to be able to read your subconscious like a book, and you track down subtle underlying mechanisms, flaws, or open breaches. This innate intuition might explain the strokes of good luck which the Neptunian is sometimes credited with.

However, you may also be the victim of illusions and misleading intuitions. You are an idealist, and you let your deepest aspirations prevail over the realities of the moment. Then, you set off in quest of some quixotic objective, living like a Don Quixote who relentlessly pursues an impossible dream.

You have a great talent for psychology and the mysteries of the human soul. Since you instinctively perceive people's intents and motivations, as you swim in the complexity of human nature, you feel in your element. The subtlety of your perceptiveness is the source of both special affections and irrevocable rejections. What is the danger of such a dominant? If it is not offset by other influences in your natal chart, you may not have an iron will.

Your trump card is your instinct, which may be developed to the extent that it becomes clairvoyance. Withdrawn, enduring, and honest character. One revels in solitude and quiet activities such as reading and writing. Although one is very skilful in one's field of competence, one is unwilling to compete with others and contents oneself with a simple life devoid of conflicts.

Pluto represents deep transformations, mutations and eliminations, sexuality and magnetism, power and secrets, destruction with a view to regeneration, the phoenix rising from the ashes. Its element is indefinite; burning like lava in fusion? It represents dictators, sadistic people, violent characters, is instinctive and powerful but also mysterious with hidden strengths. Temperament : rather Bilious. The planet Pluto symbolizes deep disruptions and upheavals, domination and sexual instincts, and the inner power we have in ourselves. Pluto destroys in order to reconstruct and he provokes painful crises that are needed in metamorphosis.

It is the hidden and unconscious violence that can explode in us with incredible intensity before being projected in our actions; in itself, the planet is not negative: the might and the intensity of its energy are beyond the conceivable but it can be funnelled. Pluto is the only possibility we have at our disposal to overcome our inner blocks and to eliminate outgrown situations that have become inextricable.

Pluto allows to reconstruct and to regenerate parts of our personality or whole stretches of our life, provided that we manage to funnel his wild energy and to step back. It is impossible to tame this energy, given its essence. However, it is possible to take advantage of it for a precise aim, through a temporary identification of some parts of us with this energy. In such a case, the outcome is our final evolution and even, our transformation. Many people born in the same period have Pluto in the same sign. Pluto in Aries intensifies your instinctive power and may unleash your violence.

With Pluto in the 10th House, you often play your game well when you face a situation of crisis or a muddled environment. In the professional and social areas, your progression is special and subtle. The art of manipulation behind the scenes turns you into an efficient and formidable partner. You intervene in the dark, far from social niceties. You easily detect weaknesses and false values, and you carry out your work with clear-sightedness, aiming at your self-interests, and with a scheming mind. If Pluto is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Plutonian: you sometimes feel like a foreigner who does not belong to the world, to its laws, and its concerns.

The rules of life in society are not necessarily yours. You are interested in what is unknown and in the subtle laws of a hidden order. So, you take malicious pleasure in ridiculing the patterns you find too simplistic or too rigid. You also revel in underlining the limits of explanations you deem too common. There is something unconventional about the way you are, the way you think, and the way you act.

What is your specificity made of? Is it an extraordinary partner? A life off the beaten path? Or do you only distance yourself from conventional morals? In any case, you have the feeling, sometimes quite vague, that you come from nowhere, and that you do not belong to any definite group In short, it means that you cannot be simplified in order to conform to existing models.

The gap between you and ordinary mortals is also an element of your strength. Your deep clear-sightedness, firstly, enables you to put things into perspective and to grant them only the attention they deserve. Your other remarkable asset is your capacity to intervene from behind the scenes, to secretly organise events, and to bring about the desirable outcome without seeming to impose or to dictate anything. However, you must still overcome one of the major difficulties of this dominant, which is to get people to accept your difference and to smoothly fit into your environment. Sociable, honest, and generous nature endowed with strong domestic instincts.

Family matters are of utmost importance and priority is given to well-being at home and to education. Child-rearing practices are based on the principles of honour, effort, and integrity. One achieves some success in social work, but not in other areas, unless the Sun in the natal chart is posited on this degree. Chiron is almost renowned and used everywhere. Most astrologers consider it as a kind of "mediator" between Saturn and outer planets.

Consequently, Chiron is of Saturn's nature and at the same time is influenced by Uranus, the first slow-moving planet. Astrologically, it symbolizes wisdom, patience and the faculty to reduce others' sufferings: it is said to be the "great healer" of the zodiac. Like all the secondary bodies, it must be in close conjunction with planets or angles in order to fully express its action.

Ceres , the biggest of the four minor asteroids used besides Chiron, is associated with the mythological goddess of growing plants and harvest and also symbolizes physical constitution, vitality and fertility. She's also known as Demeter, according to the astrologer Zipporah Dobyns, linked to the symbolism of the mother but in a less emotive and more physical way than the Moon.

Ceres is thought to be the ruler of Virgo, in exaltation in Gemini, in exile in Pisces and in fall in Sagittarius. Keywords associated with Ceres could be order, practical sense, worry, precision, modesty, method, sobriety, motherhood, fertility, the Earth: a kind of a more cerebral Moon Pallas is sometimes used in modern Astrology: she represents intelligence, abstract and global thinking talents. It is usually considered to be a determining element in political strategy. Juno is the asteroid corresponding to the adaptation to the marital partner and to the defence of individual rights; it is thus used in the field of marriage.

Vesta is rarely used and brings the ability to efficiently devote oneself to a cause. The North Node True Node here represents the goals that must be achieved during life, in the karmic sense according to some traditions. Its position in house indicates in what field an effort is necessary in order to evolve. The North Node is often called the Dragon's head, it is usually considered beneficial, a bit like Jupiter with the planets.

The Lunar nodes are fictional points and not actual heavenly bodies: they are the intersections of the Moon with the Ecliptic the path made by the Sun in its orbit as seen from the Earth. The axis of the Lunar nodes moves 19 degrees each year, namely a bit more than three minutes each day. The South Node is diametrically opposed to the North Node, therefore it faces it it's not drawn here, it's the same symbol but upside down. It symbolizes what has already been achieved or acquired, in a karmic sense: it's the past from which it's advised to move on in order to progress.

The South Node is rather negative, of a Saturnian nature: the experience through suffering. Patient, observant, and shrewd character endowed with a great capacity to wait for the good opportunity, no matter how long it takes. One is able to spend much time in thorough analysis, and when the time is ripe, one knows how to swiftly make the right decisions. Success can be achieved in diplomacy and in all occupations requiring self-control, flexibility, and perseverance. Lilith or the Dark Moon True Lilith here represents the uncrossable threshold, taboos, the individual's provocative and fascinating side, including on a sexual level.

She symbolizes violence and "untameability", the radical and deep-seated refusal to submit. The keywords for Lilith can be sterility, sadism, perversity, castration, sadomasochism, eroticism, orgasm, forbidden fantasies, marginality, cruelty; redemption, illumination, rebelliousness Lilith's opposite point is called Priapus; it is the Lunar perigee, the position where the Moon is closest to the Earth. It symbolizes man's primitive nature, the horror hidden in our deepest self; masochism, extreme sensuality, impulsiveness, irrationality and excess.

Physically speaking, the Dark Moon is the focal point unoccupied by the Earth: it is not a concrete body but a mathematical point. Futile, restless, and indecisive character. Huge efforts are made even though the task requires none. Owing to procrastination, nice opportunities are missed. Furthermore, many good initiatives are doomed to failure for lack of perseverance.

Life is most likely to unfold in precariousness and to end up in sadness, unless one decides to become serious and display tenacity, straight away. The Part of Fortune is an ancient concept, used by Ptolemy and other astrologers before him. Firstly, it has nothing to do with fortune! In modern astrology, it is actually used to enhance a planet or angle when in close conjunction with it: it thus amplifies the meaning associated to the point affected by its presence. It is calculated in the following way:. Careful, courageous, and resilient character.

One can achieve success in all occupations linked to the sea and foreign lands such as fishing, import-export trade, the exploitation of merchant ships or tankers, thalassotherapy, etc. But the most serious threats also come from the sea, and all precautions must be taken in order to face them, for instance by subscribing a comprehensive professional and family insurance policy. The First House or Ascendant represents one's behaviour in the eyes of others, and also one's health.

It corresponds to the way the individual acts in the world. It is the image of the personality seen by others and the person's visible behaviour expressed outwardly. The 1st House is in analogy with Aries and thus Mars too, and then the Sun. It is an angular house, the most important one with the Midheaven, maybe even more so due to its link with the body and health.

You are dreamy, with a psychological nature that is oriented towards nostalgia for things past, towards your mother and your family. Your instinct and your need to protect yourself from the outside world are highly developed. Your inner life is rich, with a vivid and even unlimited imagination, a propensity to avoid all risks and to pursue security.

You show your true face only to persons you can trust and you need the well being brought about by the nostalgia for the past. With this Ascendant, you come across as emotional, sentimental, restful, sensitive, loyal, enduring, protective, vulnerable, generous, romantic, tender, poetic, paternal or maternal, dreamy, indolent, greedy and dedicated.

You may also be fearful, unrealistic, evasive, passive, touchy, anxious, dependent, stubborn, lunatic, backward-looking, lazy, burdensome, impenetrable and a homebody. Intelligent, serious, and subtle character. One is prone to extreme mood swings which shift quickly from optimism to despair and vice-versa. The waxing moon stands for remarkably good memory and indicates precocious successes in studies. Science, literature, philosophy, the arts, trips and discoveries are very favoured.

It is most likely that one keeps on enhancing one's intellectual skills throughout life, and one remains interested in modern improvements even as one ages. Despite a few ordeals, life is successful. If in the natal chart, Mercury is in the 1st House and in conjunction with this degree, it heralds some unexpected reward for one's knowledge. The Tenth House still called the Midheaven , is the highest point amidst the houses, at the top of the chart, in the South, and relates to destiny in general and career and not daily work as meant by the Sixth House.

The Midheaven represents our achievements and goals in the social sphere, our social position in society, and becomes more and more important as we get older. It is in analogy with Capricorn and Saturn. The Tenth House is the most important angular house along with the Ascendant. Your destiny is commensurate with your indecisive but flexible and adaptable nature. Indeed, you are able to fit well in nearly any circle provided that rigour, precision, and competition do not prevail. Since atmosphere is an element of paramount importance, if you can work in a nice ambiance and at your own pace, you feel very comfortable and in total harmony with your workplace.

In general, all occupations delivering a service to other people, such as catering, cleaning, caregiving, etc. You can also be very successful in humanitarian work or in the defence of Human Rights. Boastful, coward, and selfish character prone to exaggeration. Unless the natal chart clearly indicates that one has courage, high ideals, and strong will, one shows strength when there is no danger and hides away when the situation requires real bravery.

The First House or Ascendant represents one's behaviour in the eyes of others and also one's health. It is the image of the personality as seen by others and the person's visible behaviour expressed outwardly. The 1st House is in analogy with Aries and thus Mars too and then the Sun. It is an angular house, the most important one with the Midheaven, maybe even more so due to its link with the body and health; the Ascendant is as important as the Sun in a natal chart.

The Second House is the sphere of material security, the money we earn, our possessions, also in a symbolic meaning close people etc. It is in analogy with Taurus and Venus. It is a succedent house, quite important. The Third House is the sphere of social and intellectual apprenticeship, studies, relationships with close people and surroundings, short trips, light-hearted and quick contacts, correspondences. It is in analogy with Gemini and Mercury. It's a cadent house, less important than the angular and succedent ones.

The Fourth House also called Immum Coeli is the sphere of inner emotions, family, the father, home and roots, but also the home one creates. It's Home Sweet Home, security and cocoon. It is in analogy with Cancer and the Moon. It's an angular and important house. Imaginative, inspired, and benevolent character. One devotes oneself to various disciplines of natural medicine such as herbal therapy, magnetism, diagnosis using a pendulum, etc. One exerts a mysterious and soothing influence on other people. Success can be achieved in horticulture or the arts, particularly in music and poetry.

The Fifth House is the sphere of pleasures and love affairs but not commitment or marriage , creations and entertainments, children, arts and game. It is in analogy with Leo and the Sun. It's a succedent and quite important house. The Sixth House is the sphere of apprenticeship and effort in the work environment, daily life, health on a daily basis and not operations or long-term diseases, relationships with co-workers or subordinates, desire for improvement, analysis and detail.

It is in analogy with Virgo and Mercury. It is a cadent house, less important than the angular and succedent ones. The Seventh House also called the Descendant in front of the Ascendant is the sphere of partnership, marriage, contracts, relationships with others, the outer world. It is in analogy with Libra and Venus, and Saturn to a lesser extent. It is an angular and important house.

Shrewd, secretive, and subtle character endowed with swift thinking process. All activities based on speed are favoured, such as cycling or flying, as well as all positions requiring quick decision-making capacities. Success can also be achieved in the police, in genealogy, and in all kinds of investigation work. However, if mental cleverness is misused and serves illegal purposes, one incurs a heavy punishment such as a prison sentence or exile. The Eighth House is the sphere of emotional security, the depths of the self, secrets and paranormal, transcendence, sexuality, mysteries, upheavals, surgical operations, others' money investments, inheritances , crises, transformation after evolution, death.

It is in analogy with Scorpio and Pluto, and Mars to a lesser extent. It is a succedent and quite important house. The Ninth House is the sphere of high studies, both physical and mental journeys philosophy, spirituality , rebelliousness, changes of scenery, desire for dealing with the unknown. It is in analogy with Sagittarius and Jupiter. The Eleventh House is the sphere of friendship and protection, projects, search for social acceptance and security, collective and humanitarian actions. It is in analogy with Aquarius and Uranus, and Saturn to a lesser extent. The Twelfth House is the sphere of hidden things, enemies, closed or remote places hospital, prison, convent etc.

It is in analogy with Pisces and Neptune. The Vertex , sometimes called counter-Ascendant, is a fictitious point which is at the intersection of two great circles, the Ecliptic and the great vertical circle Prime Vertical in the West of the birthplace, linking the East, the Zenith, the West, and the Nadir.

It is always located in the West of the chart around the Descendant. It is the chart's fifth angle, so to speak, less important than the other angles. Its interpretation is controversial, because certain astrologers pay no attention to it. The Vertex is sometimes considered to be the second Descendant because, like the latter, it is related to communication and exchanges. It has to do with associations and fated encounters, those that are not chosen, and reveals the type of sensitivity and reactivity we have in our dealings with other people: a refined and tolerant way in Libra, straightforward and spontaneous in Aries, etc.

Intelligent, crafty, and stingy character. This degree describes all sorts of thieves and crooks, from street pickpockets to large-scale white-collar embezzlers. Anything acquired through reprehensible means is doomed to be lost or stolen, sooner or later. Life is plagued by violence, dishonesty, and accidents, unless the natal chart clearly indicates otherwise. The East Point is a fictitious point at the intersection of two great circles, the Ecliptic and the great vertical circle Prime Vertical in the East of the birthplace, linking the East, the Zenith, the West, and the Nadir.

It is always located in the East of the chart, around the Ascendant. The East Point is sometimes considered to be a second Ascendant, less important, but also related to how one is seen by other people, and to how one expresses one's personality. Inventive, fickle, and restless character. One is often overwhelmed by the constant stream of ideas which, as good as they are, need be sorted out, lest they are not appreciated at their real value.

This would be a pity because this degree brings good luck and promises fame, wealth and happiness. Cupido is a hypothetical trans-Neptunian planet, the existence of which is not proven. On the upside, Cupido is related to socialisation, the arts, and marital life. On the downside, it indicates vanity, addiction to pleasures, and being strongly influenced by groups of people. Hades is a hypothetical trans-Neptunian planet, the existence of which is not proven. Hades corresponds to intellectual rigour, service rendered to people, the purpose of being useful. On the downside; it leads to carelessness, indifference, apathy, and mess.

Zeus is a hypothetical trans-Neptunian planet, the existence of which is not proven. Zeus is related to creativity, as well as to organisational and leadership capacities. On the downside, it may lead to aggressiveness and to excessive militancy. Kronos is a hypothetical trans-Neptunian planet, the existence of which is not proven. Kronos is related to authority and cleverness. In tough aspect, it may make the person conceited, presumptuous, or elitist. Apollon is a hypothetical trans-Neptunian planet, the existence of which is not proven.

Apollon is related to the ability to synthesise, as well as to broad-mindedness, and fame. In difficult aspect, it may bring about superficiality or extravagance. Admetos is a hypothetical trans-Neptunian planet, the existence of which is not proven. Admetos is related to the deepness of the mind, asceticism, simplicity, and analytical mind.

In tough aspect, it may make the person nit-picking, inflexible, and narrow-minded. Vulcanus is a hypothetical trans-Neptunian planet, the existence of which is not proven. Vulcanus, sometimes said to be the higher octave of Saturn, provides strength to improve collective relations, to structure things, to be efficient, and to get straight to the point. On the downside, he may bring about arrogance and scattered efforts.

Poseidon is a hypothetical trans-Neptunian planet, the existence of which is not proven. Poseidon brings about wisdom, a clear mind, and sometimes spirituality. On the downside, it may make the person dogmatic, manipulative, or out of touch with reality. Proserpina , sometimes referred to as Persephone, is a trans-Plutonian hypothetical planet.

Proserpina is related to mysteries, revival and reconstruction, as well as cycles. She enriches the unconscious, and gives the possibility to combine modern life with spirituality, the East with the West, and mysticism with concrete life. Disclaimer : these short excerpts of astrological charts are computer processed.

Maximilian of Hapsburg

They are, by no means, of a personal nature. This principle is valid for the 56, celebrities included in our database. These texts provide the meanings of planets, or combination of planets, in signs and in houses, as well as the interpretations of planetary dominants in line with modern Western astrology rules. Moreover, since Astrotheme is not a polemic website, no negative aspect which may damage the good reputation of a celebrity is posted here, unlike in the comprehensive astrological portrait. Here are some character traits from Maximilian I of Mexico's birth chart.

In a matter of minutes, you can get at your email address your astrological portrait approximately 32 pages , a much more comprehensive report than this portrait of Maximilian I of Mexico. When interpreting a natal chart, the best method is to start gradually from general features to specific ones. Thus, there is usually a plan to be followed, from the overall analysis of the chart and its structure, to the description of its different character traits. In the first part, an overall analysis of the chart enables us to figure out the personality's main features and to emphasize several points that are confirmed or not in the detailed analysis: in any case, those general traits are taken into account.

Human personality is an infinitely intricate entity and describing it is a complex task. Claiming to rapidly summarize it is illusory, although it does not mean that it is an impossible challenge. It is essential to read a natal chart several times in order to absorb all its different meanings and to grasp all this complexity. But the exercise is worthwhile. In brief, a natal chart is composed of ten planets: two luminaries, the Sun and the Moon, three fast-moving or individual planets, Mercury, Venus and Mars, two slow-moving planets, Jupiter and Saturn, and three very slow-moving planets, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.

They are all posited on the Zodiac wheel consisting of twelve signs, from Aries to Pisces, and divided into twelve astrological houses. The first step is to evaluate the importance of each planet. This is what we call identifying the dominant planets. This process obeys rules that depend on the astrologer's sensitivity and experience but it also has precise and steady bases: thus, we can take into account the parameters of a planet's activity the number of active aspects a planet forms, the importance of each aspect according to its nature and its exactness , angularity parameters; proximity to the four angles, Ascendant, Midheaven, Descendant and Imum Coeli or Nadir, all of them being evaluated numerically, according to the kind of angle and the planet-angle distance and quality parameters rulership, exaltation, exile and fall.

Finally, other criteria such as the rulership of the Ascendant and the Midheaven etc. These different criteria allow a planet to be highlighted and lead to useful conclusions when interpreting the chart. The overall chart analysis begins with the observation of three sorts of planetary distributions in the chart: Eastern or Western hemisphere, Northern or Southern hemisphere, and quadrants North-eastern, North-western, South-eastern and South-western. These three distributions give a general tone in terms of introversion and extraversion, willpower, sociability, and behavioural predispositions.

Then, there are three additional distributions: elements called triplicity since there are three groups of signs for each one - Fire, Air, Earth and Water - corresponding to a character typology, modality or quadruplicity with four groups of signs for each one - Cardinal, Fixed and Mutable - and polarity Yin and Yang. There are three types of dominants: dominant planets, dominant signs and dominant houses. The novice thinks astrology means only "to be Aries" or sometimes, for example, "to be Aries Ascendant Virgo".

It is actually far more complex. Although the Sun and the Ascendant alone may reveal a large part of the character - approximately a third or a half of your psychological signature, a person is neither "just the Sun" called the sign nor just "the first house" the Ascendant. Thus, a particular planet's influence may be significantly increased; a particular sign or house may contain a group of planets that will bring nuances and sometimes weaken the role of the Ascendant, of the Sun sign etc. Lastly, there are two other criteria: accentuations angular, succedent and cadent which are a classification of astrological houses and types of decanates that are occupied each sign is divided into three decanates of ten degrees each.

They provide some additional informations. These general character traits must not be taken literally; they are, somehow, preparing for the chart reading. They allow to understand the second part of the analysis, which is more detailed and precise. It focuses on every area of the personality and provides a synthesis of all the above-mentioned parameters according to sound hierarchical rules. Each quadrant is a combination of the four hemispheres of your birth chart and relates to a character typology. Maximilian I of Mexico, the nocturnal North-eastern quadrant, consisting of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd houses, prevails in your chart: this sector favours self-assertion and material security to the detriment of your perception of others.

You consider self-transformation to be a hazardous adventure. You are inclined to seek stability and you tend to protect yourself with your actions. Possession, acquisition but also communication, without opening up too much, are part of your deep motivations. You are rather autonomous and constant, however it is important that you pay more attention to others, so that you can improve your outcomes. Maximilian I of Mexico, here are the graphs of your Elements and Modes, based on planets' position and angles in the twelve signs:.

The predominance of Water signs indicates high sensitivity and elevation through feelings, Maximilian I of Mexico. Your heart and your emotions are your driving forces, and you can't do anything on Earth if you don't feel a strong affective charge as a matter of fact, the word "feeling" is essential in your psychology. You need to love in order to understand, and to feel in order to take action, which causes a certain vulnerability which you should fight against. Cheers for communication and mobility, Maximilian I of Mexico! The predominance of Air signs in your chart favours and amplifies your taste for relations and for all kinds of short trips, whether real travels or symbolic new ideas, mind speculations.

You gain in flexibility and adaptability what you lose in self-assertion or in pragmatism. The twelve zodiacal signs are split up into three groups or modes, called quadruplicities, a learned word meaning only that these three groups include four signs. The Cardinal, Fixed and Mutable modes are more or less represented in your natal chart, depending on planets' positions and importance, and on angles in the twelve signs. Maximilian I of Mexico, the Cardinal mode is dominant here and indicates a predisposition to action, and more exactly, to impulsion and to undertake: you are very keen to implement the plans you have in mind, to get things going and to create them.

This is the most important aspect that inspires enthusiasm and adrenalin in you, without which you can grow weary rapidly. In accepting it afterwards, he made known that he looked upon himself as the elect of the nation, not as the nominee of a powerful interest. From the moment of his arrival he held out the olive branch to the Republicans, and sought their confidence by offering them place and power.

Many accepted his offers, and he was surrounded by men who were hateful to those who had seated him on the throne. In adopting this policy it was impossible to draw a line, to examine antecedents, or to reject utterly any candidate for favour. After a long delay, which exasperated the trembling holders of Church property, as well as those whom they had despoiled, he decided that all legal purchases should be confirmed, and those which were fraudulent revised, but that nothing should be restored to the clergy, who were to be paid by the State.

The Nuncio quarrelled with him upon this, and left the country. Maximilian, irritated by the hostile attitude of the clergy, went further, and restored what was called the Exequatur, a law forbidding any document to be published in ecclesiastical affairs without the consent of the civil power. It could not be defended as a liberal law, and its revival seemed to be simply a blow at the independence of religion.

The clergy protested that they had not borne the burden of civil war and brought foreign armies into the country, in order that a prince of their choosing should confirm decrees which had made their property the spoil of their enemies. They declared that their position was worse under their friend then it had been under their persecutor Juarez. Thenceforth they withdrew their support, and observed a hostile neutrality, watching the time when the Emperor, driven to extremities, would be ready to purchase their assistance at any sacrifice they might demand.

In some instances they even fomented the Republican opposition. This was the first great and visible disaster that the Empire incurred. Another was soon known to be imminent. But the imported Minister died, and could not be replaced. As he could not fulfil his engagements with the Emperor Napoleon, he was guilty of a breach of the treaty signed between them, and gave France an excuse, when her turn came, to justify her own breach of faith.

The year passed prosperously, on the whole. Maximilian visited many of the towns, saw what he could with his own eyes, and devoted his time to the fabrication of decrees by which he hoped to regenerate the country. Maximilian was an anxious and determined educator, and his zeal was praiseworthy, for ninety per cent of the people could neither read or write. But it shows a want of practical capacity when in a community wanting the first necessaries of popular instruction the Sovereign founds an Academy of Sciences, and gravely inculcates on his Ministers the importance of encouraging the study of metaphysics.

He found himself in the rare position of a lawgiver called to legislate in a country for which everything remained to be done, and he enjoyed the luxury of carrying out, at least on paper, systems nurtured in days of visionary retirement. He had not time or vigour to execute much of what he had projected. There was one question that called for an act of high and generous statesmanship. The Indians had been reduced by their poverty and want of energy to the position of serfs.

They were in debt to their landlords, and the whole hopeless labour of their lives, without the chance of profit or release, was due to their creditors. They had greeted the coming of Maximilian as the dawn of their deliverance, and he might have made them the willing prop of the imperial throne. In the , square miles of Mexico, peopled by 8,, of men, but capable of sustaining ,,, it would have been easy, without any spoliation, to distribute land among the countrymen of its ancient owners.

Maximilian adopted a half measure. The Indians were not satisfied, and the landowners were alienated. Something, but not enough, was done for the creation of a native army to defend the crown and country when the French should depart. An Austrian and a Belgian corps were formed, but did not answer expectation.

Next to the French, the most efficient body was the division of the Indian general Mejia, a man of a very pure fame. But the French were successful in all they undertook during the whole of The Republican bands were scattered, many of their generals made their submission, and Juarez, driven from place to place, disappeared at last at a point in the extreme north of Mexico, on the American frontier, more than a thousand miles from the capital. It was reported that he had escaped into the United States. At this time also the four years for which he had been elected expired, and it was impossible to convene a Congress for a new election.

Many of his followers now held that he had ceased to govern, and the Vice-President Ortega, the defender of Puebla, claimed the vacant post. The strict legality which had been the strength of the position of Juarez was seriously impaired, and his authority was unquestionably shaken. The country was in a wretched state of insecurity and misery. Plunderers and assassins plied their trade under pretence of being real combatants. Mexican warfare is often scarcely distinguishable from armed robbery, and, as it was the plan of the Republicans to fight in small guerilla bands, the line separating the soldier from the brigand was often indistinct.

The Government thought the time had come to exterminate these bands, and to protect the inhabitants against their incursions. The victory over the regular army was complete, and it seemed that men who infested the roads, when organised resistance was over, did not deserve the treatment of prisoners of war. Immediately after its publication a Republican force, commanded by Arteaga, was defeated, and the leaders were captured.

In obedience to the new order the Imperial General Mendez put them to death. But the Republicans, though dispersed and dispirited, were not destroyed. A report made to the Emperor in November estimates their force at 24, men, and Juarez had not abandoned the struggle. He remained on Mexican territory, in a town on the Rio del Norte, from which a boat could take him in a few minutes to the American bank, and he remained in communication with the generals of his party. There he waited for the deliverance which he knew was coming. For at that moment, near the close of , his cause was taken up by an ally so powerful and so much feared as to be able, without firing a shot or wasting a single life, to expel the French from Mexico, and to lay the Empire in the dust.

The United States had watched the intervention and the erection of the Empire with anger and alarm. They knew that it had sprung from a desire to cripple their influence, and they could not be indifferent to the presence of an European army on their frontier while they were embarrassed by a civil war.

They denied that the Empire was the free choice of the Mexicans, and they highly disapproved of an Emperor that was absolute, for he retained in his own hands all the powers of the State. They refused to recognise him, but they remained neutral, determined not to act until they could act decisively.

They rejected various schemes for assisting Juarez with money in return for land, and they declined not only the overtures of Napoleon and of Juarez, but one which was still more tempting. During the siege of Richmond the Confederates proposed that they should unite their armies for the conquest of Mexico and of Canada, but the North refused. When the war of Secession was over, the Government of Washington had to apply a little diplomatic pressure to the Emperor Napoleon to hasten the recall of his troops.

Events were passing in Europe which made him impatient that Maximilian should restore his legions. In June war broke out in Italy and in Germany, and in the first week of July Prussia had struck a blow that made half Europe tremble, and menaced the military supremacy and the pride of France. In these circumstances it was certain that the offensive language of America could not be resented, and Mr. Seward used his advantage with cruel complacency. Napoleon informed Maximilian that he must provide for himself, and he informed the American Government that he would retire from Mexico in March Rumours of this strange correspondence, and of its probable result, reached Mexico and gave new spirit to the Republicans.

Maximilian had refused permission to 25, confederates to settle in his dominions; but stragglers found their way to the armies of Juarez, and in June the important town of Matamoros was surrendered to Escobedo by Mejia. From the moment of that reverse fortune began rapidly to change; and as the French retired from more distant posts, swarms of Republicans appeared in every direction.

When Maximilian learnt the altered intention of Napoleon, he foresaw the end, and spoke of abdication. The Empress persuaded him to remain, while she undertook a journey to Europe. She would compel the French Emperor to fulfil his promises. She would induce the Pope to reconcile the clergy with the Empire.

She failed utterly in both endeavours, and in her last interview with Pius IX. Early in October the news reached her husband, and then his courage gave way. He had lately exchanged what was called a Liberal for a Conservative Ministry, and had offered the principal departments to two French generals. But they were forbidden by Napoleon to accept, and still no substantial help came from the clergy.

His most trusted adviser, a Belgian, who had accompanied the Empress, attempted at this conjuncture to draw him away by an appeal to his ambition. He described the discontent of the humbled Austrians and assured him that they wished his brother to abdicate, while sympathy for himself was increasing throughout the country. Francis Joseph was aware of this intrigue, but he made a last effort to save his brother by restoring to him, if he would return, his position at the head of the princes of the blood. An aide-de-camp of Napoleon arrived in Mexico to hasten the departure of the troops, and instructed to use everything but force to induce Maximilian to abdicate.

The French did not like the dishonour of leaving him to his fate, and they hoped, if he ceased to reign, to make their own terms with the Mexicans, and to leave behind them a government not utterly hostile to themselves. That the expedition was a gigantic failure, injurious to the reputation of the army and the stability of the throne, could not be disguised. But the blow would be more keenly felt if the man on whom they had made war for four years, and with whom they had refused to treat, remained unshaken in his office, victorious over the arms and arts of Napoleon III. So great was their urgency that Maximilian felt insulted, and at last believed himself betrayed.

Whilst he was wavering and lingering near the coast, an American frigate appeared at Vera Cruz, conveying General Sherman and Mr. Campbell, accredited as envoys to Juarez. They had sailed from New York on the 11th of November, when it was supposed that Maximilian had abdicated, leaving the French in the country. The Government at Washington were determined that in that case their candidate, and not that of Napoleon, should prevail.

Campbell was charged to offer support and aid to the Republic, and the presence of the ablest soldier of the Union indicated ostentatiously of what nature that aid was to be. The Emperor did not believe that an American Minister, escorted by such a personage as Sherman, had come all the way to Vera Cruz and had gone away without doing anything. He persuaded himself that France and America had come to an understanding, and had made a bargain of which his crown was to be the price. The pressing invitations to depart with the French appeared to him perfidious, and he thought it would be disgraceful that his life should be rescued by those who had bartered his throne.

Meantime the Church party, which had so long coldly stood aloof, thought that the moment had arrived when it could impose its own conditions. It was represented to the Emperor that the disappearance of the invaders would remove the cause of his unpopularity, and that good patriots would support him now, who had refused to acknowledge the nominee of a foreign Power. Miramon arrived from Europe at the critical moment and offered his sword to Maximilian. The Prussian Minister also advised him to remain. The clergy promised their powerful aid, and he yielded.

There was nothing for him to look forward to in Europe. No public career was open to the man who had failed so signally in an enterprise of his own seeking. His position in Austria, which was distressing before, would be intolerable now. He had quarrelled with his family, with his church, with the protector to whose temptations he had hearkened.

And for him there was to be no more the happiness of the domestic hearth. In Mexico there were no hopes to live for, but there was still a cause in which it would be glorious to die. There were friends whom he could not leave to perish in expiation of measures which had been his work.

He knew what the vengeance of the victors would be. He knew that those who had been most faithful to him would be most surely slaughtered; and he deemed that he, who had never yet been seen on a field of battle, had no right to fly without fighting. He yielded, and returned, sullenly and slowly, to the capital. What concessions had been wrung from the party in whose hands he was, I do not know. But he addressed a letter to the Pope, expressing regret for the policy which had failed, and at Rome, where he was once regarded as a persecutor and almost an apostate, the letter was hailed as a solemn and complete retraction.

From that moment Maximilian was no longer the chief of a national government, but a partisan leader, who had not even the control of his party. He laid aside the pomp of Majesty, and lived in private houses, especially as the guest of the clergy. He declared that he was only provisionally the chief of the State, and held office only until a national assembly had decided what should be the future of Mexico.

He invited Juarez to submit his claim to the same peaceful arbitration, and proposed that there should be a general amnesty, to stop the shedding of blood. The Republicans saw nothing in all this but the signs of weakness, and of their own approaching triumph. They opposed no obstacles in the way of the departing French, but they closed in overwhelming numbers upon the feeble army of the Empire. The defeat of Miramon on the great North road in February compelled Maximilian to take the field. He put himself for the first time at the head of his troops, and joined Miramon at Queretaro.

On this day last year he was surrounded and besieged by Escobedo with an army which rose speedily to more than 40, men. Marquez was sent to Mexico for reinforcements, but he never returned, and spent the short time that remained in wringing money from the inhabitants. The siege proceeded slowly, and on the 24th of April Miramon made a successful sally, and opened for a moment the road to the capital. But the men were worn out with fighting, and the Emperor refused to leave them. He declared he had not come to Queretaro to fly from danger.

At length the supplies were nearly exhausted, the certainty of the treason of Marquez removed all hope of relief, and it was resolved that the garrison should make an attempt to cut its way through the enemy on the 15th of May. It was too late. Late in the night of the 14th he saw the Emperor; and then, at two in the morning, he introduced a Republican general into the fort. This general was disguised, and carried concealed arms. He remained two hours, and examined the interior of the works.

Then Lopez withdrew the Imperial sentries, and their posts were silently occupied by the soldiers of Riva Palacio, the only officer who had been excepted, by name, from the decree of October. At daybreak the bells of the churches of Queretaro announced to the Republican camp that the place was won. The traitor went up to the Emperor's room, and told him that the enemy was in the town. Maximilian rushed forth, and was stopped by Republican soldiers, who did not recognise him. Lopez whispered to the officer who it was. Then the generous Mexican allowed the Emperor to pass, pretending to take him for a civilian; and he escaped to a fortified position at some distance.

Here he was joined by the faithful Mejia, and as many officers and men as could hew their way through the columns of Republicans that were now pouring into the town. Miramon alone attempted a forlorn resistance. A shot struck him in the face, and he fell, blinded with blood, into the hands of his enemies.

The position occupied by the Imperialists was swept by artillery and could not be defended, and at eight o'clock they surrendered. Among the prisoners was Mendez, who had caused the decree of October to be executed on Arteaga and his companions. The Emperor was shut up, with Miramon and Mejia, in a cell of the Capuchin convent, and it was announced to them that they would be tried by court-martial, under the decree of January. From that moment Maximilian retained no hope of life. He presented his war-horse to Riva Palacio, the most chivalrous of his enemies, and telegraphed to Mexico for the Prussian Minister, and for legal advice in preparing his defence.

Mexico was already besieged by a Republican army, and hollow shells were thrown into the town, stuffed with telegrams proclaiming the fall of Queretaro. But Marquez, the most detested of the Imperial generals, wished to gain time, and he suppressed the news. Maximilian had deposited his abdication in the hands of the President of Council, to be produced if he died or fell a prisoner; but Marquez compelled him to keep it secret, and prevented for several days the departure of the defenders who had been summoned.

The most eminent of these was the advocate Riva Palacio, the father of the general, a leading Republican, who had refused all solicitations to serve the Emperor in the days of his power. The others seem to have been less distinguished, but they were all chosen among the Republicans. The Prussian Minister, Baron Magnus, had lived on intimate terms with the Emperor, and had been one of the advisers of the expedition which had ended so fatally.

No European Power was less compromised in Mexican affairs, or less obnoxious to the dominant party than Prussia, and it was thought that Baron Magnus would be the best mediator. The seat of Government was at San Luis, miles beyond Queretaro, but connected with it by telegraph. The court-martial which was to try the prisoners met on the stage of the theatre of Queretaro on the morning of Friday, the 14th of June.

The house was lighted up and full of spectators. Maximilian had been ill in bed for several days, and self-respect forbad him to appear on such a scene. Their case was manifestly desperate; yet the defender of Mejia caused a deep impression when he claimed for his client the same mercy, which, in spite of stern decrees, he had always shown to his captives, and appealed to Escobedo to say how he had fared when he was Mejia's prisoner. The defence of Miramon was less dignified and less loyal. He pleaded that he had had no command while the French were in the country, that he had been hostile to the Empire which had sent him on an idle mission to Europe, and that he had offered his services to the chief of the Republic.

These facts were true; and at Paris Miramon had said openly that the end of the intervention would be to make him President again. Maximilian knew all this, and he knew the manner of his defence. This must not be forgotten when we come to the last scene of all, and see how the Emperor bore himself towards the brave but ambitious soldier, who had been ready to desert the cause in which he was to die.

The strongest points of the indictment against Maximilian were, that he had known the decree of January, which had been published long before he came; that the necessity of foreign support must have proved to him that he was not the legitimate, national Sovereign, and that he could not therefore justify the October decree, by which it was pretended, with great exaggeration, that 40, Mexicans had suffered death; that he was responsible for the continuance of civil war after the departure of the French, and for the introduction of Belgian and Austrian soldiers, whose Governments were not at war with the Republic, and who came therefore in the character of filibusters and assassins.

The reply to these charges was narrow and technical, and not worthy of the occasion. It amounted in substance to that which the Emperor had said himself: "You may dispute the original probability of my success, but not the sincerity of my motives. Meanwhile the issue of the trial had been foreseen, and the friends of the Emperor were pleading with Juarez for his pardon.

On the ground of political expediency their position was undoubtedly more favourable than that of men restricted to legal arguments. During the war in Mexico a yet deadlier struggle had raged beyond the American border. The author of Secession was not a foreigner, like Maximilian, but a citizen of the country in which he had conspired.

He too had been defeated and captured, and then, while European monarchies suppressed revolution with atrocious cruelty, Jefferson Davies had been released by the great Republic. Therefore, they said, the honour of Republican institutions was in the keeping of Juarez, and required that Mexico should follow that example of triumphant clemency, and should betray neither hatred for the past nor alarm for the future.

The President and his minister, Lerdo, listened patiently but coldly. They said that Europe could give no guarantee that it would not renew the same attempt, that Maximilian would continue, even in spite of himself, to be a pretext and a rallying cry for faction, and an instrument by which foreign Powers, when complications arose, might gain a party in the country. The decree of October cried for expiation, and the death of its author would enable them to spare the rest. Many Mexicans had been put to death under the decree of January, and the punishment of inferiors could not be justified if that of the leader was remitted.

They seem to have believed that if the door-posts of the Republic were marked with the blood of a prince, the angel of destruction would pass them by. They showed no inclination to cast on others the responsibility of their act, but it is difficult to believe that it was determined by reason of state dispassionately weighed. We can imagine what their feelings would be towards the foreigner whose title was a vote extracted by the bayonets of invaders, who had ordered their countrymen and themselves to be slaughtered, and who was now convicted of having been a pretender and a usurper, as he was the champion of the weaker party.

It is probable that the real author of the Emperor's execution is Escobedo, and that Juarez was powerless to save him. When the news that he was to die in three hours reached San Luis at noon on the Sunday, the Prussian Minister prayed for a short delay. He knew that Maximilian had matters to settle before death, and there was some hope that foreign intercession would be in time to save his life. But the American Government, at the request of the Emperor of Austria, had already interceded for his brother, and had interceded in vain.

A delay of three days was granted, but the order did not reach Queretaro till the last moment, when the prisoners had made themselves ready for immediate death. For himself, indeed, Maximilian had no hope, and was perfectly resigned. A report that his wife was dead made him meet his fate with joy.

On the eve of his execution he telegraphed to Juarez requesting that he might be the only victim. At six in the morning of Wednesday, the 19th of last June, he was led forth to the doom he had not deserved. His last act before going to the place of execution had been to write the following letter to his implacable conqueror: "I give up my life willingly, if the sacrifice can promote the welfare of my new country. But nothing healthy can grow upon a soil saturated with blood, and therefore, I entreat you, let mine be the last you shed.

The fortitude with which you upheld the cause that triumphs now won my admiration in happier days, and I pray that it may not fail you in the peaceful work of conciliation that is to come. Maximilian thanked him, and said that he must obey orders. Mejia was in great trouble and dejection.