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- Once Lost, Now Found
Other editions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Once Lost Now Found; a poetry book written over the course of my teenage years. Every emotion felt is translated into words, typed up, put onto paper and is now in your hands to carry with you on this crazy journey called life.
Get A Copy. Plato tell us a defensive wall once surrounded the city, but no definitive evidence of it is seen. And after crossing the three outer harbours, one found a wall which began at the sea and ran round in a circle, at a uniform distance of fifty stades from the largest circle and harbor; and its ends converged at the seaward mouth of the channel. Plato provides the following information: Like as we previously stated concerning the allotments of the Gods, that they portioned out the whole earth, here into larger allotments, and there into smaller, and provided for themselves shrines and sacrifices, even so Poseidon took for his allotment the island of Atlantis and settled therein the children whom he had begotten of a mortal woman in a region of the island of the following description.
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Bordering on the sea, and extending through the centre of the whole island there was a plain, which is said to have the fairest of all plains and highly fertile; and moreover, near the plain, over against its centre, at a distance of about 50 stades, there stood a mountain that was low on all sides.
Thereon dwelt one of the natives originally sprung from the earth, Evenor by name, with his wife Leucippe; and they had for offspring an only-begotten daughter, Cleito.
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And when this damsel was now come to marriageable age, her mother died and also her father; and Poseidon, being smitten with desire for her, wedded her; and to make the hill whereon she dwelt impregnable be broke it off all around about; one another alternately, some greater, some smaller, two being of land and three of sea, which he carved as it were out of the midst of the island; and these belts were at equal distance on all sides, so as to be impassible for man; for at that time neither ships nor sailing were as yet in existence [Plato1, Critias, C-D, pp. Plato placed this mountain about 6 miles 50 stades from the center of the city, which is close to its actual distance.
According to Plato, Poseidon collapsed this mountain to form defensive rings of land and water to protect his mortal wife Cleito, who lived at its center. Although the crater contains no water today, the climate was likely sufficiently wet during the prosperous days of the city to impound water. A ship entering the city would cross two rings of islands to reach the main harbor, which was surrounded by the third and largest ring of islands. A ring of water ran around the outside of the inner ring, but today the harbor is completely dry.
The main harbor area was once filled with buildings, ship sheds, and ships. Today all signs of these are gone. Nevertheless, it is clear that a large city once occupied this site. Although a section of the former ring of water is today covered by soil, it was once complete. Patterns of stones on islands can be seen to sometimes run in straight lines and in circles. Some shorelines are lined with darker stones.
The statistical probability of these patterns having been created at random is extremely low. A ground survey will be required to reconstruct the city.
Oi! to hold arts projects "Once lost but now found" and "Contagious Reading" (with photos)
The water channel around this island was about one stades ft. Gardens Ear Nose Docks? When viewed from high altitude, this image is unmistakable, but at ground level it is nearly impossible to recognize due to its coarse features. Straight edges and right angles along its shoreline appear to have been docks. An extensive network of channels may have been the location of marvelous gardens described by Plato. And the outflowing water they conducted to the sacred grove of Poseidon, which contained trees of all kinds that were of marvelous beauty and height because of the richness of the soil; and by means of channels they led the water through the outer circles over against the bridges.
And there they had constructed many temples for gods, and many gardens and many exercising grounds, some for men and some set apart for horses, in each of the circular belts of island; and besides the rest they had in the centre of the large island a racecourse laid out for horses, which was a stade in width, while as to length, a strip which ran round the whole circumference was reserved for equestrian contests [Plato1, Critias, B-C, p.
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And this island, wherein stood the royal palace, was of five stades in diameter. Now this island and the circles and the bridge, which was a plethrum in breath, they encompassed round about, on this side and that, with a wall of stone; and upon the bridges on each side, over against the passages for the sea, they erected towers and gates.
And the stone they quarried beneath the central island all around, and beneath the outer and inner circles, some of it being white, some black, and some red; and while quarrying it they constructed two inner docks, hollowed out and roofed over by the native rock [Plato1, Critias, EB, p.
Both the royal palace and the Temple of Poseidon were located on Central Island. The royal palace within the acropolis was arranged in this manner. In the centre there stood a temple sacred to Cleito and Poseidon, which was reserved as holy ground, and encircled with a wall of gold [Plato1, Critias, A-B, p. And the temple of Poseidon himself was a stade in length, three plethra in breadth, and of a height which appeared symmetrical therewith; and there was something of the barbaric in its appearance [Plato1, Critias, D, p.
Counting the image of Poseidon as an island, three islands are identified that have diameters of about 5 stades 0. One of these islands is likely Central Island, but there is no clear indication which it might be.
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The best candidate is the island carved into an image of Poseidon. This island certainly has room for a royal palace and a large temple, but there is no evidence of them. Bridge locations cannot be identified. If roofed docks are found, their artifacts most likely will have been removed long ago by treasure hunters or have disintegrated over time. And the shipyards were full of triremes and all the tackling that belongs to triremes, and they were all amply equipped [Plato1, Critias, D, p.
And this region, all along the island, faced towards the South and was sheltered from the Northern blasts. And the mountains which surrounded it were at that time celebrated as surpassing all that now exist in number, magnitude, and beauty; for they had upon them many rich villages of country folk, and streams and lakes and meadows which furnished ample nutriment to all the animals both tame and wild, and timber of various sizes and descriptions, abundantly sufficient for the needs of all and every craft [Plato1, Critias, A-B, pp.
Atlantis was located on a small plain enclosed within a ring of hills, or low mountains, centered on the Triton River. Well outside this ring is a far larger ring of mountains and highlands that encloses a large basin that defines the drainage area for Lake Tritonis. The Atlas Mountains border this basin along its north and west boundaries.
Far to the southwest the Atlas Mountains merge with highlands in Algeria that run east for hundreds of miles to form the south boundary. Far to the southeast these highland merge with high ground that runs north to the Triton River. Figure 8 shows the plain southwest of the former Lake Tritonis, now called the Western Plain, that is larger than the mile-long by milies-wide plain described by Plato. The Western Plain, which covers much of Tunisia and Algeria, is clearly the plain described by Plato.
West of Lake Tritonis were extensive marsh lands. This material appears to have been laid down long ago in a string of lakes connected by a central river flowing up from the southwest. It appears to have been more fertile and better watered than the plain east of the Central River. A modern map shows many dry streambeds running across the Western Plain to the Central River. Google Earth reveals large expanses of farmed ground. Former agricultural lands should be investigated to determine if they were under cultivation before the 15th Century BC.
This trench had a depth of ft. Plato was skeptical about the size of this trench, but reported what he had heard. It was originally a quadrangle, rectilinear for the most past, and elongated; and what it lacked of this shape they made right by means of a trench dug round about it. Now, as regards to the depth of this trench and its breadth and length, it seemed incredible that it should be so large as the account states, considering that it was made by hand, and in addition to all the other operations, but none the less we must report what we heard; it was dug out to the depth of a plethrum and to a uniform breadth of a stade, and since it was dug around the whole plain its consequent length was 10, stades.
It received the streams which came down from the mountains and after circling round the plain, and coming towards the city on this side and that, it discharged them thereabouts into the sea. In fact, an irrigation canal of this size would have required a source of water greater than can reasonably be considered possible. A theoretical model is now described to explain why this trench would have qualified as a storage reservoir supplying water for irrigation.
Without water storage, the spring runoff from the Atlas Mountains would have flowed across the plain and directly into Lake Tritonis. Most spring runoff would have been lost to agriculture. Irrigation requires a reliable source of water throughout the growing season. The most obvious plan for storing water would have been to build dams in canyons and valleys.
Once Lost, Now Found
However, construction of the very large dams that would have been needed would have exceeded the engineering skill level of the empire. The best plan was to dig a reservoir at the western boundary of the plain at a high elevation. This plan required use of all the man and animal power available to dig the trench. Since the Western Plain was sloped, a large circular reservoir was not practical. The best design was a long, narrow lake running cross ways to the slope and connecting to a river. A small surface-to-volume ratio was needed to minimize water loss from evaporation. This meant that the best reservoir was as deep as practical and as long as necessary to hold the water needed.
It seems possible that dams were built along the reservoir to release water at a controlled rate. Devices to pump water out of the reservoir were probably necessary. The occasional flood large enough to cause a dam to fail could be controlled by stopping diversion of water from the river. It seems possible that several reservoirs were built along the western edge of the plain. In addition, the Central River may have been seen as an extension of the trench. If so, an observer from Egypt might have thought that a single manmade trench ran along the entire perimeter of the Western Plain.
This band maintains a constant elevation for at least 20 miles. Its constant elevation and uniform cross section reveals it to be manmade. Closer examination reveals this band to actually be a continuous mound of soil that rises to over ft. Logically, such a large volume of soil must come from a trench, but there is no obvious trench. However, careful examination of the nearby area reveals that at about 0.
These faint lines appear to define the sides of a former reservoir now filled with soil. They are not continuous, but they follow the mound for 20 miles. Figure 10 shows the band of lighter colored soil and the postulated trench running parallel to it. Adding weight to this possibility are formerly irrigated fields less than a half miles away. Figure 11 shows a cross section of the mound and postulated trench. If soil in the mound came from a trench, its volume would equal the volume of the trench. With a height of over ft. This determination will require a detailed survey from the ground by qualified scientists.
He appears to be describing the slopes of the Atlas Mountains. Herds of elephants roamed the plains; lions stalked antelope; crocodiles lurked in rivers; and large snakes inhabited marshes. Tribes of men hunted game and gathered food. It brought forth in abundance all the timbers that a forest provides for the labors of carpenters; and of animals it produced a sufficiency, both of tame and wild.
Moreover, it contained a very large stock of elephants; for there was an ample food-supply not only for all the other animals which haunt the marshes and lakes and rivers, or the mountains or the plains, but likewise also for this animal, which of its nature is the largest and most voracious. Pre-owned: lowest price The lowest-priced item that has been used or worn previously. Authors: English, Lauren. Once Lost Now Found. Title: Once Lost Now Found. Binding: Paperback. Used Book Condition. Condition: Used; Good. Weight: Read full description.
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