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- Reflections on the Operation of the Present System of Education, 1853 by Andrews
The relatively prosperous s gave way by to a depression that was part of a worldwide crisis. The General Strike was called during in support of the miners and their falling wages, but it failed. The strike marked the start of the slow decline of the British coal industry. In two hundred unemployed men walked from Jarrow to London in a bid to show the plight of the industrial poor, but the Jarrow March , had little impact and it was not until that industrial prospects improved.
The war was a "people's war" that enlisted every party, class and every region and every interest, with strikingly little dissent.
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Fear of bombing led to women and children were moved from London and other cities liable to air raids and evacuated to the country. Most returned some months later and remained in the cities until the end of the war. There were half the number of military casualties in this war than the last, but the improvements in aerial warfare meant that there were many more civilian casualties and a foreign war seemed much closer to home. The early years of the war in which Britain "stood alone" and the Blitz spirit which developed as Britain suffered under aerial bombardment helped pull the nation together after the divisions of the previous decade, and campaigns such as " Dig for Victory " helped give the nation a common purpose.
The focus on agriculture to feed the nation gave some people their first introduction to the countryside, and women played an important part in the war effort as the Land Girls. A half a million women served in the armed forces, led by Princess Elizabeth , the future queen, who donned the ATS soldier's uniform as a lorry driver. The Labour Party victory in represented pent-up frustrations. The strong sense that all Britons had joined in a "People's War" and all deserved a reward animated voters. But the Treasury was near bankruptcy and Labour's nationalization programs were expensive.
Prewar levels of prosperity did not return until the s. It was called the Age of Austerity. It promised to give cradle to grave care for everyone in the country, regardless of income.
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Wartime rationing continued, and was extended to bread. In the war the government banned ice cream and rationed sweets, such as chocolates and confections; sweets were rationed until Housewives organized to oppose the austerity. As prosperity returned after , Britons became more family centred. Holiday camps , which had first opened in the s, became popular holiday destinations in the s — and people increasingly had money to pursue their personal hobbies.
The BBC 's early television service was given a major boost in with the coronation of Elizabeth II , attracting an estimated audience of twenty million, proving an impetus for middle-class people to buy televisions. As austerity receded after and consumer demand kept growing, the Labour Party hurt itself by shunning consumerism as the antithesis of the socialism it demanded. Small neighbourhood stores were increasingly replaced by chain stores and shopping centres , with their wide variety of goods, smart-advertising, and frequent sales.
Cars were becoming a significant part of British life, with city-centre congestion and ribbon developments springing up along many of the major roads. These problems led to the idea of the green belt to protect the countryside, which was at risk from development of new housing units. The s saw dramatic shifts in attitudes and values led by youth.
Some Historical Reflections On A National Curriculum
It was a worldwide phenomenon, in which British rock musicians especially The Beatles played an international role. Sexual morals changed. One notable event was the publication of D. Although first printed in , the release in of an inexpensive mass-market paperback version prompted a court case. The prosecuting council's question, "Would you want your wife or servants to read this book? The book was seen as one of the first events in a general relaxation of sexual attitudes.
Other elements of the sexual revolution included the development of The Pill , Mary Quant 's miniskirt and the legalisation of homosexuality. There was a rise in the incidence of divorce and abortion, and a resurgence of the women's liberation movement , whose campaigning helped secure the Equal Pay Act and the Sex Discrimination Act in The s were a time of greater disregard for the establishment, with a satire boom led by people who were willing to attack their elders. Pop music became a dominant form of expression for the young, and bands like The Beatles and the Rolling Stones were seen as leaders of youth culture.
Youth-based subcultures such as the mods , rockers , hippies and skinheads became more visible. Reforms in education led to the effective elimination of the grammar school. The rise of the comprehensive school was aimed at producing a more egalitarian educational system, and there were ever-increasing numbers of people going into higher education. In the s and s, immigration of people to the United Kingdom , mainly from former British colonies in the Caribbean , India and Pakistan , began to escalate, leading to racism.
Dire predictions were made about the effect of these new arrivals on British society most famously Enoch Powell 's Rivers of Blood speech , and tension led to a few race riots. In the longer term, many people with differing cultures have successfully integrated into the country, and some have risen to high positions. One important change during the s was the opportunity given to many to buy their council houses , which resulted in many more people becoming property owners in a stakeholder society.
At the same time, Conservative Margaret Thatcher weakened her bitter enemy, the trade unions. The environmentalism movements of the s reduced the emphasis on intensive farming , and promoted organic farming and conservation of the countryside. Religious observance declined notably in Britain during the second half of the 20th century, even with the growth of non-Christian religions due to immigration and travel see Islam in the UK.
Church of England attendance has particularly dropped, although charismatic churches like Elim and AOG are growing. The movement to Keep Sunday Special seemed to have lost at the beginning of the 21st century. Following on from the resurgence of economic liberalism in the s, the last decade of the 20th century was noted for a greater embrace of social liberalism within British society, largely attributed to the greater influence of the generation born in the socially transformative s.
The death of Diana, Princess of Wales in was also observed to have demonstrated the way in which social attitudes towards mourning had changed, with the unprecedented mass public outpourings of grief that characterised the days after her death being remarked upon as reflecting a change in the national psyche. Growing disparity in the relative affluence of those who have benefitted and those 'left behind' from the deindustrialisation and globalisation of the economy was attributed as one of the primary factors behind the surprise victory of the 'leave' campaign in the European Union membership referendum , and began wider discourse on the emergence of 'two countries' within England that represented greatly differing social attitudes and outlooks.
The social history of the medieval period was primarily developed by Eileen Power , H. Burchardt evaluates the state of English rural history and focuses on an "orthodox" school dealing chiefly with the economic history of agriculture. The orthodox historians made "impressive progress" in quantifying and explaining the growth of output and productivity since the agricultural revolution. A challenge came from a dissident tradition that looked chiefly at the negative social costs of agricultural progress, especially enclosure.
In the late 20th century there arose a new school, associated with the journal Rural History. Led by Alun Howkins,  it links rural Britain to a wider social history. Burchardt calls for a new countryside history, paying more attention to the cultural and representational aspects that shaped 20th-century rural life.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on the. Social history of England History of education in England History of the economy of England History of the politics of England English overseas possessions History of the English language. By county. By city or town. Prehistoric Britain until c. See also: Roman Britain. See also: History of Anglo-Saxon England.
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See also: Religion in Medieval England. See also: Economy of England in the Middle Ages. See also: Tudor period and Elizabethan era. For the conservation organisation, see Georgian Group. See also: Georgian era. See also: Victorian era. See also: Interwar Britain and Roaring Twenties.
See also: Great Depression in the United Kingdom. Main article: Social history of the United Kingdom —present. Bolton, Medieval English Economy, — 2nd ed. Trevelyan Fritze and William B. Robison, Historical dictionary of Stuart England, — p.
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Houston and Steven C. Sharpe, "The history of crime in late medieval and early modern England: a review of the field" Social History 7 2 pp. Cambridge Law Journal Thompson, Douglas Hay, et al. Chapman, "Crime in eighteenth century England: E. Thompson and the conflict theory of crime. Dyos; Michael Wolff January The Victorian City. Psychology Press. Retrieved 10 August Social History of Medicine. The National Archives. Retrieved 11 March Thesing, A companion to the Victorian novel p. Citizenship in Britain: A History.
Edinburgh University Press. Retrieved 11 February The A to Z of Environmentalism. Scarecrow Press. The strange death of moral Britain. Transaction Publishers. The Economist. Retrieved 1 June British Isles. English Scots. Economic Empire Maritime Military. Cabinet list Civil service Departments Prime Minister list. Countries of the United Kingdom. Outline Index. Categories : Social history of England English society.
England portal. Prehistoric Britain. Find more at www. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy.
Reflections on the Operation of the Present System of Education, 1853 by Andrews
In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works. Andrews Affichage du livre entier - Unlike some other reproductions of classic texts 1 We have not used OCR Optical Character Recognition , as this leads to bad quality books with introduced typos. Although occasionally there may be certain imperfections with these old texts, we feel they deserve to be made available for future generations to enjoy.
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