- Ten Commandments in Catholic theology
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It is crucially important that all the faithful should be convinced that they cannot live their faith or share fully in the life of the Christian community unless they take part regularly in the Sunday Eucharistic assembly. Pope Benedict XVI states that Rabbi Neusner "rightly sees this commandment as anchoring the heart of the social order". It strengthens generational relationships, makes explicit the connection between family order and societal stability, and reveals that the family is "both willed and protected by God. The Catechism says this commandment requires duties of children to parents that include: .
Keeping this commandment, according to the Catechism , also requires duties of parents to children which include:. The Gospel of Matthew relates that when told his mother and brothers were waiting to see him, Jesus replied, "Who is my mother and who are my brothers? For whoever does the will of my Father in heaven is my brother, and my sister, and mother. By doing God's will, any person can become part of the universal family of Jesus.
The Catechism specifies "duties of citizens and nations", which Kreeft summarizes as:. This commandment demands respect for human life and is more accurately translated as "thou shalt not murder. Jesus expanded it to prohibit unjust anger, hatred and vengeance, and to require Christians to love their enemies. The Catechism states: "Human life is sacred because from its beginning it involves the creative action of God and it remains forever in a special relationship with the Creator, who is its sole end.
The Catechism states that the embryo "must be treated from conception as a person". The Latin original of as is tamquam , meaning "like" or "just as". Abortion has been specifically and persistently condemned by the Church since the first century. The Church has ministries of reconciliation, such as Project Rachel , for those who sincerely repent of their sin of formal cooperation in abortion. Official Church teaching allows for medical procedures and treatments intended to protect or restore the mother's health if she would be in mortal danger without them,  even when such procedures carry some risk of death to the fetus.
The United States Catechism for Adults devotes a section to in vitro fertilization , stem-cell research and cloning in its explanation of the fifth commandment, because these often involve the destruction of human embryos, considered to be a gravely sinful form of murder. The fifth commandment forbids suicide and the mercy killing of those who are dying, even to eliminate suffering. The ordinary care of those facing an imminent death may not morally be withheld, according to the Church.
Allowing a terminally ill person to die, using painkillers that may shorten their life, or refusing extraordinary treatment to the terminally ill such as chemotherapy or radiation, are considered morally acceptable and not a violation of the fifth commandment, in accordance with the principle of double effect.
For the first two hundred years, Christians "refused to kill in the military, in self-defense, or in the judicial system", but there was no official Church position on the death penalty. Saint Augustine answered objections to capital punishment rooted in the first commandment in The City of God. On August 2, , the church adopted the view that capital punishment is "inadmissible" as it violates the dignity of mankind. The Catechism of the Catholic Church proclaims that "in the light of the Gospel" the death penalty is "an attack on the inviolability and dignity of the person".
Pope Francis has also proclaimed that life imprisonment is a form of torture and "a hidden [form of the] death penalty". According to Church teaching, respect for human life requires respect for one's own body, precluding unhealthy behavior, the abuse of food, alcohol, medicines, illegal drugs, tattoos and piercings.
Kidnapping, terrorism, and torture are forbidden, as well as sterilizations , amputations and mutilations that are not for therapeutic medical reasons. Church belief in the resurrection of the body led to a prohibition against cremation that was pastorally modified at the Second Vatican Council in the s under limited circumstances, but those conditions have been largely ignored even by the clergy.
Organ donation after death and organ transplants under certain terms, also autopsies for legal and scientific reasons are permitted. In the Sermon on the Mount , Jesus recalls the commandment, "You shall not kill"  and then adds to it the proscriptions against anger, hatred and vengeance. The defense of the common good requires that an unjust aggressor be rendered unable to cause harm.
For this reason, those who legitimately hold authority also have the right to use arms to repel aggressors against the civil community entrusted to their responsibility. The Church requires all to pray and work to prevent unjust wars, but allows for just wars if certain conditions are met:. The Catechism classifies scandal under the fifth commandment and defines it as "an attitude or behavior which leads another to do evil".
According to the Church, humans are sexual beings whose sexual identity should be accepted in the unity of body and soul.
After all, young people are always searching for the beauty in love. They want their love to be beautiful. If they give in to weakness, following the models of behavior that can rightly be considered a 'scandal in the contemporary world' and these are, unfortunately, widely diffused models , in the depths of their hearts they still desire a beautiful and pure love. This is as true of boys as it is of girls. Ultimately, they know that only God can give them this love. As a result, they are willing to follow Christ, without caring about the sacrifices this may entail.
Like Orthodox Judaism and Islam, the Catholic Church considers all sexual acts outside of marriage to be grave sins. The gravity of the sin " 'excludes one from sacramental communion' until repented of and forgiven in sacramental confession. Church teaching on the sixth commandment includes a discussion on chastity. The Catechism describes chastity as a "moral virtue The Catechism lists the following "offenses against chastity",  in increasing order of gravity according to Kreeft: . The Catechism devotes a separate section to homosexuality within its explanation of the sixth commandment.
Like heterosexual acts outside of marriage, homosexual acts are considered sins. The Church distinguishes between homosexual attractions, which are not considered sinful, and homosexual acts, which are. The Catechism states that they "violate natural law, cannot bring forth life, and do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved. Homosexuals are, according to the Church, "called to chastity".
They are instructed to practice the virtues of "self-mastery" that teaches "inner freedom" using the support of friends, prayer and grace found in the sacraments of the Church. Two lay movements represent opposing philosophies regarding homosexuality: DignityUSA seeks to change the Church's teachings to justify homosexual acts; Courage International is an organization of homosexuals who "support each other in the sincere effort to live in chastity and in fidelity to Christ and his Church".
According to Church teaching, spousal love is intended to form an unbroken, two-fold end: the union of husband and wife and the transmission of life.
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Church teaching on the marital state requires spousal acceptance of each other's failures and faults, and the recognition that the "call to holiness in marriage" is one that requires a process of spiritual growth and conversion that can last throughout life. The Church position on sexual activity can be summarized as: "sexual activity belongs only in marriage as an expression of total self-giving and union, and always open to the possibility of new life.
This is the consequence of the gift of themselves which they make to each other. Love seeks to be definitive; it cannot be an arrangement 'until further notice. Artificial birth control predates Christianity; the Catholic Church has condemned these methods throughout its history. The papal encyclical Humanae vitae is a reaffirmation of the Catholic Church's traditional view of marriage and marital relations, and a continued condemnation of artificial birth control. The Church sees large families as a sign of God's blessing. Gaudium et spes. The Catechism states, "A child is not something owed to one, but is a gift Many Western Catholics and non-Catholics have voiced disagreement on the Church's support for natural family planning, and contend it contributes to overpopulation and poverty.
In its defense, Catholics cite countries such as Kenya and Uganda, where behavioral changes are encouraged instead of condom use, and where greater progress in controlling the disease has been made than in countries that promote condom use alone. According to the Church, adultery and divorce are considered offenses against the dignity of marriage and are defined as follows:. The Compendium of the Catechism lists other offenses against the dignity of marriage: "polygamy, incest, free unions cohabitation, concubinage , and sexual acts before or outside of marriage".
In addition, there are youthful marriages; marriages of very short duration; marriages marked by serious emotional, physical, or substance abuse; deviant sexual practices; profound and consistent irresponsibility and lack of commitment; conditional consent to a marriage; fraud or deceit to elicit spousal consent; serious mental illness; or a previous bond of marriage.
Ten Commandments in Catholic theology
The determination of the ground should be made after extensive consultation with the parish priest or deacons, and based upon the proofs that are available. The Catechism explains that this commandment regulates worldly goods, and forbids unjustly taking, using or damaging those that belong to someone else. The Catechism addresses the concept of human stewardship of God's creation in its explanation of the seventh commandment and forbids abuse of animals and the environment. According to the Church, people have a right to private property.
However, ownership makes that person "a steward" who is expected to make it "fruitful" or profitable in a way that benefits others after that person has first taken care of their family.
According to the Catechism , theft or stealing means "usurping another's property against the reasonable will of the owner" though exclusion exists for someone in great need to survive. Following acts are also considered as violation of the seventh commandment: price manipulation to get advantage on the harm of others, corruption, appropriation of the public goods for personal interests, work poorly carried out, tax avoidance, counterfeiting of checks or any means of payment, any forms of copyright infringement and piracy, and extravagance.
The papal encyclical Rerum novarum discusses the relationships and mutual duties between labor and capital, as well as government and its citizens. Of primary concern was the need for some amelioration for "the misery and wretchedness pressing so unjustly on the majority of the working class".
Church interpretation of the seventh commandment teaches that business owners should balance a desire for profits that will ensure the future of the business with a responsibility toward the "good of persons". Workers are required to do their jobs conscientiously, as they have been hired to do them, and to avoid dishonesty in the workplace, such as using office goods for personal use without permission embezzlement.
The Church teaches that a balance should exist between government regulation and the laws of the marketplace. It deems that sole reliance on the marketplace pure capitalism insufficiently addresses many human needs, while sole reliance on government regulation pure socialism "perverts the basis of social bonds". Wealthier nations, like wealthier individuals, have a moral obligation to help poorer nations and individuals, and work to reform financial institutions and economic factors to benefit all.
The Catechism explains that bearing false witness or "speaking a falsehood with the intention of deceiving" encompasses all violations of truth. The Church requires those who have damaged the reputation of another to "make reparation for the untruth they have communicated.
Included in the Church teachings of this commandment is the requirement for Christians to bear witness to their faith "without equivocation" in situations that require it. The ninth and tenth commandments deal with coveting, which is an interior disposition not a physical act. The ninth commandment deals with the former and the tenth the latter. Jesus emphasized the need for pure thoughts as well as actions, and stated, "Everyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart" Matthew Purity of heart is suggested as the necessary quality needed to accomplish this task; common Catholic prayers and hymns include a request for this virtue.
Jesus stated, "Blessed are the clean of heart, for they shall see God. The Catechism teaches that "there is a connection between purity of heart, of body and of faith. Detachment from riches is the goal of the tenth commandment and the first Beatitude "blessed are the poor in spirit" because, according to the Catechism , this precept is necessary for entrance into the Kingdom of heaven. Explaining Church teaching of this commandment, Kreeft cites Saint Thomas Aquinas , who wrote, "An evil desire can only be overcome by a stronger good desire.
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Catholicism portal Judaism portal. They were given more directly by God than any other part of the Jewish law, and they were placed in the most holy place, which none but the high priest could enter, and he only once a year. However, since the early centuries, most Gentile Christians have celebrated on the first day of the week, considering themselves free of many of the strictures of Jewish law. They argue that Augustine accepted the Aristotelian Greek Pagan concept of "delayed ensoulment", writing that a human soul cannot live in an unformed body.
Thomas Aquinas asserted that a fetus was not fully alive until quickening. In its explanation, the Catechism states "St. John distinguishes three kinds of covetousness or concupiscence: lust of the flesh, lust of the eyes, and pride of life. The Catechism states that the tenth "unfolds and completes the ninth It forbids coveting the goods of another". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 1 June Retrieved 8 June Explanation of the Ten Commandments.
Translated by Joseph B. Collins; Joseph Kenny, O. New York. Archived from the original on Aug 18, Retrieved 2 April Retrieved 27 December United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved 28 November Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 7 May Nancy Pelosi and the Catholic Church on Abortion". Fox News. The Vincentian Center for Church and Society. Archived from the original on Retrieved London: TimesOnline. Retrieved 28 February Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 10 June Emotional and sexual fidelity are essential to the commitment made in the marriage covenant.
God established marriage as a reflection of his fidelity to us. The Catholic Herald. Retrieved 13 May BBC News. Retrieved 8 April The New York Times. Retrieved 21 February National Public Radio. Retrieved 15 August Retrieved 7 April Catholic Diocese of Arlington. Archived from the original on May 30, Farren, O. Retrieved 5 November Retrieved 6 November And who is more qualified to instruct us than Paul, perhaps the most committed follower of Jesus ever known.
He traveled farther than even the most battle-hardened CEO. His network of connections was immense, stretching across the entire Mediterranean and beyond. He spent his entire life building up the business he cherished. Statesmen sought his council, mega-church leaders clamored for his advice, kings feared his rebuke.
He was so dedicated to his job he paid the ultimate price to see his business succeed. And he did it all for the sake of love. As Christians, we sometimes find ourselves lacking motivation. The list below concentrates on the actions that keep us building through love, in the practical ways. It means he will draw near to us.
Being close to God is connecting to the true source of all energy and power. He created the universe with a word. We attach ourselves to him through his word and prayer. He will motivate us as we speak and listen to Him. Giving freely will lead to greater riches as sure as holding back leads to want. A generous person will prosper and will be continually refreshed. God leads the humble with justice and teaches them his way. The humble will have abundant prosperity. The rewards are riches, honor and life. Putting others first, letting others promote us, having a low estimate of our own importance is the key to godly success.
What Should Be Our Top Priorities?
It gives us an advantage as we gain a deeper understanding of each situation. Listening shows others love and respect. Listening to God gives us security and frees us of anxiety. Fellowship is belonging, being an active part of the body of Christ. Each member belongs to all the others. Two can resist an attack where one is defeated alone. Fellowship keeps us sharp just as iron sharpens iron. We have a sense of purpose and fulfillment as we choose to be responsible with our talent.