- BEBÉS BIEN AJUSTADOS
- badufyjuhi.cf: Spanish - Pregnancy & Childbirth / Parenting & Relationships: Books
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration
This paper describes the development of this new tool and how it may be used. The main technical goals for develop a FFQ are the following: to be easily accessible to a lot of people at the same time and in different places by mean of Internet , to have configurable nutritional data and the possibility of changing the number of questions and his sequence. Based in this goals the system has an architecture based in a web portal developed with ASP. The system uses a relational database supported by a SQL Server that provides high store capacity and quick access to multiple users at the same time.
All this technologies are installed on a Windows Server R2 and uses Internet Information Server 7 to publish the portal over Internet. This questionnaire is based on a reference period of the past year to capture the seasonal variation of foods available. The food list was on the basis of the common dietary habits of the Valencian region for this reason it was not necessary to modify the food list because both are geographically and culturally similar regions. The number of food items listed was 84 and they were classified into six groups to facilitate dietary reporting: dairy products Group I ; eggs, meat and fish Group II ; vegetables, legumes and fruits Group III ; bread, cereals and similar Group IV ; oils, fats and sweets Group V ; beverages and precooked Group VI.
The number of food items used in the present study was not increased beyond foods. A questionnaire with more items may result in the subjects experiencing boredom, which may then impair accuracy of the answer. For each food item, participants were asked to report their consumption frequency and portion size. To obtain quantitative data three portion sizes per food item were photographed small A ; medium B ; big C and were presented in one colour photograph fig. Approximately, photographs were displayed in the online FFQ. Participants had to choose their usual serving size between seven possible options of response: "a lesser quantity than in photo A", "an equal quantity to in photo A", "a quantity between photo A and B", "an equal quantity to that in photo B", "a quantity between photo B and C", "an equal quantity to that in photo C", "a greater quantity than in photo C".
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During the development phase, a pilot study was conducted to test for the comprehension and ease-of-use. A sample of 57 participants completed the online FFQ in a time of 15 minutes. This sample had an age between 20 to 35 years and had a similar education level and computer experience. Furthermore, it was recruited maintaining the same characteristics that the target population of the present study. The participants had to fill in the questionnaire and they could write all their suggestions and opinions.
None of the participants reported difficulty with computer data entry and they describe that the questionnaire was very trouble-free and with a good comprehension. The homepage of the online FFQ contained information about data security and privacy and included a brief explication about the aim of the study. The participants obligatorily had to introduce his email address for future accesses and for the sending of information fig.
The FFQ itself was preceded by a general questionnaire fig. This general questionnaire consisted of three topics: corporal perception 3 items , habits 5 items , and physical activity 9 items. The participants also indicated gender, age, weight self-reported , height self-reported , among others. The tool was programmed to require participants to answer all questions, if not they could not go on to the following screen. In this part, for every food group there is a screen to know if the participants consume some food inside this group fig. Furthermore, there are 3 different screens for each food item.
The first screen is a general question to know if the participants consume this food in particular fig. The second one is about the frequency of consumption fig. The third screen is about the portion size fig.
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Each screen contained a box with information to help the participants to complete the questionnaire. Specifically, there are examples to calculate the frequency x. Also, there is a headline with different colors that indicates the food group where participant is in this moment. Participants have an "Exit" button to leave of the questionnaire when they wanted and they continued for the same question when they entered again.
Figure 5 shows a flow chart explaining the use of the FFQ. The questionnaire begins with the Group I and successively continues with the other groups. The questionnaire asks a question to find out if the respondent eats any food contained within the Group I do consume dairy products? Two response options are given: "yes" or "no". If the answer is negative, the program sends him to the following food group in this example, it would be the Group II ; but if he confirms, a question is formulated to find out which specific food item inside the Group I is consumed by the respondent.
The first food item inside the Group I is the full-cream milk do you consume full-cream milk?
badufyjuhi.cf: Spanish - Pregnancy & Childbirth / Parenting & Relationships: Books
Again, two response options are given: "yes" or "no". If the answer is negative, the program moves you to the next food of the list inside the same group. On the following screen, the respondent has to answer to the question on the consumed quantity. He has to choose between three color photographs A-C that represents to three portion sizes per food: small, medium and big, respectively.
Every time that one questionnaire is answered by one person the system computes the nutritional algorithm based on the base nutritional information and the answers, finally it stores the results in the database. These results can be exported through the same system for authorized personal to a Comma Separated Values. The frequency of consumption was multiplied by its serving weight. Finally, the total energy and the other nutrients were calculated by applying a table of composition of foods that contains the nutritional value of every food items of the list.
This composition table was elaborated by means of the GEA program. The FFQ also provides the responses of the general questionnaire corporal perception, habits and physical activity. The online FFQ covered the time period of the preceding 12 months. Other authors have also used this time frame to estimate dietary intake.
Different authors have concluded that the choice of portion size is a difficult task. For this reason, the tool included discrete portion questions supported by approximately photographs that help the participant to indicate the best fit portion size category. Furthermore, the inclusion of photographs helps to prevent the monotony because the questionnaire is more attractive.
The pilot study concluded that the questionnaire was easily administrable and it was completed in approximately 15 minutes. Moreover, it indicated that the target audience understood and the concepts were identified correctly. First, this FFQ only can be useful in this specific population group university population and in this specific geographical area Valencian region.
If another target population is studied or in another geographical area, it would be necessary to adapt the food list and to do another pilot study. Second, the questions about frequency and portion size were closed and furthermore a predefined food list was used, consequently, some information about the foods actually eaten may be missed. Additional work is need to study the validity and reproducibility of the UPV-FFQ, and so, they are currently being assessed. World Health Organization. Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases.
Geneva: WHO, Socioeconomic differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among middleaged French adults: adherence to the 5 a day recommendations.
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J Am Diet Assoc ; Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: global burden of disease study. Lancet ; The public health impact of obesity. Annu Rev Public Health ; The efficacy of web-based and print-delivered computer-tailores interventions to reduce fat intake: results of a randomized, controlled trial. J Nutr Educ Behav ; The application and impact of computer-generated personalized nutrition education: a review of the literature. Patient Educ Counsel ; Health Council of the Netherlands.
Dietary Reference Intakes: energy, proteins, fats and digestible carbohydrates. Eur J Clin Nutr ; Ganji V, Betts N. Fat, cholesterol, fiber and sodium intakes of US population: evaluation of diets reported in nationwide food consumption survey. Willett W. Invited commentary: a further look at dietary questionnaire validation. Ronald Weiss, MD. Rick Dina, MD. Valter Longo, PhD. Robby Barbaro. Richard Bryce, MD. Alan Goldhamer, MD. Susan Peirce Thompson, PhD. Daniele Hargenrader. Marc Ramirez.
Laurie Marbas, MD. Dustyn Williams, MD. Kylie Buckner, RN. Steve Lawenda, MD. Susan Levin, RD. Mumtaz George, MD.
Julieanna Hever, RD. Chef AJ. Rip Esselstyn. Andrew Taylor. Eric Adams. Bono 5: Esenciales De Despensa. Mi glucosa en ayunas fue de Eso es normal? Jeff P. Danny A. He bajado 14 libras. Estoy disfrutando mis comidas y comiendo afuera de casa con confianza en mis decisiones. Estoy alerta mentalmente todo el dia. Comenzando a caminar diariamente. Esto en verdad funciona. MD me conviene! Jane W. T2D sin medicina Esta lloviendo afuera y es un dia esplendido! Gracias al equipo de masteringdiabetes. Kimberly N. He perdido 4 kilos, no se cuanto es eso en libras. No usamos esas unidades en Noruega.
Y todo esto en tres semanas. Luke K. Susan T. Graduado de la Universidad de Florida, y es el co-fundador de Mastering Diabetes. Robby disfruta del ejercicio diario, pasar tiempo con sus amigos y compartir su estilo de vida en Instagram, Facebook, y YouTube. Marc y su esposa, Kim, adoptaron un estilo de vida basado en plantas. Que estupendo ver estos resultados!