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With its columns, generous outdoor areas and ample windows, the Worcester asylum aptly captured the optimism of many alienists as psychiatrists were then called. Even in medical circles, it was generally believed that in these institutions, when properly treated, the vast majority of patients could be permanently cured Report 20— Moore, c. That Edward Dickinson, a local political leader, wholeheartedly embraced the movement toward institutionalization as opposed to neglect or criminalization is strongly suggested by an essay he wrote in college and by the fact that he served from to as a trustee for the Northampton Lunatic Asylum Habegger ; Annual Report , Northampton Lunatic Asylum founded adhered closely to the architectural ideas of one of the leading psychiatrists of the time, Dr.

Thomas Kirkbride. Constructed with more windows to provide views of a pastoral, salubrious landscape, Kirkbride asylums were generally long, tall, and quite impressive, especially as they were often built on hills. As Kirkbride writes in A hospital for the insane should have a cheerful and comfortable appearance, everything repulsive and prison-like should be carefully avoided, and even the means of effecting the proper degree of security should be masked, as far as possible, by arrangements of a pleasant and attractive character 11— Under the direction of Dr.

Pliny Earle superintendent and treasurer of the institution from — , who appeared to have a more pragmatic view about the likelihood of complete rehabilitation for his patients than Kirkbride, Northampton aimed to follow a cutting edge therapeutic program: systematically controlled, healthy environments coupled with strict regimens of work, moral and religious instruction, and dietary restrictions. When Edward Dickinson looks at alienists, he quite literally sees demi-gods in white. Intersecting with the mid-nineteenth-century surge of optimism about the curability of mental disease through balanced living and systematically organized early forms of occupational therapy, debates about evolution—be it through Lamarckian transformism, Darwinian natural selection, or other forces—began framing human development in multi-generational and transmissible terms.

At the hypothetical Dickinsonian dinner table, insanity would no longer have been seen as divine punishment or as mere physical damage to the brain but would instead have been revealed as a slippery slope, with a host of behaviors and environmental factors ready to push a predisposed individual over the edge. Odd behavior in the here and now suddenly appeared to be directly caused by past generations. For a poet like Dickinson, growing up in a household affected by some of the ailments Ray mentions such as eccentricity and tuberculosis and by crippling anxieties over the possibility of contracting such diseases, this observation must have hit close to home Habegger 75— The Brain within its Groove Enjoying a degree of schooling that was, by any comparison, remarkable for her time and learning almost exclusively from textbooks designed for her male peers, Emily Dickinson understood from a fairly young age what the brain was, what it did, and what it looked like.

Indeed, terminologically, an axial cut through the brain fig. Illustration of a sagittal section Cutter Figure 4. Illustration of an axial section Cutter Even in total darkness, the spider— perhaps the brain, perhaps a specific thought crawling across it—weaves a web of mental connections in a self-contained system that allows for little outside interference. As such, it is unavoidably a posteriori to the brain and nourished by it to blossom. I would know whether this material soul keeps with the body in the coffin, and if so, whether it might not be convenient to build a repository for it; in order to which I would know what shape it is of, whether round, triangular, or four- square; or whether it is a number of long fine strings reaching from the head to the foot; and whether it does not live a very discontented life.

I am afraid when the coffin gives way, the earth will fall in and crush it Edwards addresses here, in similarly stark imagery, an issue Dickinson also wrestles with: if we begin to equate soul and brain, what happens to the Christian promise of resurrection and a heavenly afterlife? The illustration suggests an understanding of the brain that does not serve to elevate the mind into heavenly spheres of gods, angels, and souls. Dickinson does so by taking her inquiry to the extremes of the human mind: madness, despair, terror, grief, death.

There is something moribund in the brain that causes the sensations experienced. While such a brief assessment does not come close to unraveling the intricacies of meaning in this poem, it does help us see how Dickinson frames feeling. And as she does so, she finds such emotions to be physical processes contained in the organ that is the brain.

Grief that approaches insanity is, here, not an abstract longing, a sad gaze, or a tear on the cheek—it is a material event in the brain. In an authorial mode Charles R. Using the trope of insanity, Dickinson thinks through the limits that a biologically constrained mind imposes on the individual. With the acceptance of strictly neural bases for mind and emotion comes the uneasy possibility that self-determination as we commonly understand it might be illusory. While an average mind immersed in the hubbub of everyday existence discloses little about its constitution and its make-up—or rather: what it discloses is largely invisible to a being entangled in the same society—abnormal minds disclose more.

For Dickinson, a mind that stands out in full contrast to society, a mind that is dangerously different, clearly and visibly circumscribes its boundaries. In her poetry, facing insanity is an existential act, informing the self of itself. Dickinson encountered scientific ideas about the brain and insanity through a discourse that, in a variety of ways, echoed the familiar debates of her time between dualism and monism, religion and materialism, free will and determinism. Thinking through these ideas, she found her poetic voice in the utmost expression of limitation—at the mercy of a material brain that contains all and is strictly constituted by biological laws.

When Dickinson speaks about insanity, she is neither in a confessional mode nor attempting to self-diagnose; she is performing existential experiments. Special thanks are due to Arianna Rigon. Notes 1. Fred D. For more detail on these, I refer to records of the Massachusetts Historical Society, especially the area surveys conducted in the s see, for instance, Lonergan.

It seems unlikely, therefore, that Edward considered his daughter insane or in danger of becoming insane at any point of his life. Pliny Earle — , born in Leicester, Massachusetts about 30 miles east of Amherst , was one of the leading psychiatric figures of the nineteenth century and co-founder of the American Medical Association.

Educated at the University of Pennsylvania five years after Kirkbride, he studied institutions for the insane in Europe before being involved in leading positions in a number of asylums in New England. On his life, see Sanborn. Thomas Story Kirkbride — , born to a Quaker family in Pennsylvania, became an outspoken advocate for the mentally ill after having received his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania in Even as late as Earle sent annual reports to Edward Dickinson.

Prince himself did not have a good standing in Northampton and left the hospital in debt. Ray was also the author of the highly successful book Mental Hygiene, written for a general audience and expressing many of the same ideas as his Atlantic Monthly piece. As the medical works discussed in this section including some mentioned by Edward in his letters are not extant either in the Homestead or at Harvard, they might have been part of his book-gift to the Northampton asylum.

This notion seems to have been more than poetical musing. This playful use of semi-medical terminology in everyday communication between friends discloses what must have been a shared familiarity with discourses surrounding the brain. Pliny Earle, himself an amateur poet, also used this trope in his works. Citation by poem number. This guarantee is not a tall order, of course, when you have the Complete Works to play with! Ted Hughes is one of those who have wondered why on earth this should be so. X Project, hosted by the University of Calgary. When a huge stranger enters the main hall in Camelot during a banquet and invites any of the assembly there to take a single swipe at him with his own axe, in return for a similar swipe at them in the future, he has no volunteers.

Gawain finally accepts the challenge because, he says, he is the youngest and so his life was the least indispensable of all those present. The Knight bows his neck, Gawain raises the axe and decapitates the Knight with his single blow; whereupon the Knight picks up his head, confirms a return meeting with Gawain a year and a day from thence, tucks his head under his arm, re-mounts his horse, and rides off into the murk.

Aye, and what then? World Poets - Dylan Thomas. The second was to glimpse, through a rain-spattered bus window just outside Laugharne in West Wales, the white boathouse where he wrote. Dylan happens to people like that, steals up on them so that they have to drink his poems with him and he buys all the rounds. World Poets - Edward Thomas. Fast beat My heart at the sight of the tall slope Or grass and yews, as if my feet. Only by scaling its steps of chalk Would see something no other hill Ever disclosed.

This throws light on how poetry suddenly surfaced in him: it was there all the time, in the glorious pastoral eloquence of his prose in praise of place and nature. The World Poets series of lecture-performances-with-readings. Walt Whitman Born here of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same. Many poets since, on both sides of the Atlantic, including Gerard Manley Hopkins, Oscar Wilde, D H Lawrence and Pablo Neruda, and several composers too, Vaughan Williams and Delius first among them, have found new solace for the spirit in this great voice.

In my experience, readers — and listeners - love Whitman for his extraordinary musical gifts as a poet and for his invigorating wisdom which sheds light on our lives left, right and centre as though he had been passing our house and stopped to talk to us through the window. Especially from his poetry:. W B Yeats sang in the name of an ancient Ireland. His passionate study of mysticism and the supernatural fired his active involvement in a movement for the revival of Celtic identity, a poetic currency of Irish fairies, dreams, and the melancholy of decay.

He cherished folk-tales, celebrating them in his verse as vitally as he did the history of his own times. He's inseparable from what we understand the medium of the English language is capable of producing on the page. It was like being invited to dance along with both Yeats, his poems, and your vision of both. And like all good dances, it leaves one exhausted and exhilarated, and ready for more.

Robert-Louis Abrahamson, Dorset, Poetry and the Soul. This is an opportunity to hear the poems deeply, reflect on them, and, if and when we wish to, share the insights they encourage in us. Instead, we can concern ourselves simply with the ways poetry can speak to our deepest selves. George Herbert at Bemerton by William Dyce Elizabeth Jennings. R S Thomas. Mary Oliver. Poetry readings with commentary series. Walt Whitman. Federico Garcia Lorca. Edna St Vincent Millay. W H Auden. Marianne Moore. Graham was in New York last summer finding out about these poets and their lives and work in the City, teaching their poetry, tracking down their homes and work-places and lecturing with, and talking to, Americans about them.

It is while walking the streets of Manhattan and Brooklyn that a new clarity can often offer answers to why. Walt Whitman loved ferries, the sea, and his fellow human beings with such democratic passion;. Edna St Vincent Millay was so movingly and dramatically at home in the sonnet;. Federico Garcia Lorca landed there in the late 20s and was thrilled and horrified into a startlingly surreal poetry at the heart of which was his eye-witness rhapsody in black on the Wall Street Crash;.

Graham Fawcett gave lectures and seminars on these poets in New York in late June and wandered her streets in early July of Unsuspected veils kept on dropping from the poems they had written there as the place not only gave them a frame but shot through with new light the content of so many of their pages. Poets of New York Night is his story of that experience. Casida de la rosa.

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La rosa no buscaba la aurora: casi eterna en su ramo, buscaba otra cosa. La rosa, no buscaba la rosa. Casida of the rose. The rose. It was looking for something else,. To book this lecture for your local venue: :. Inspirers of legend, their speed, depth, stirred surface and beauty imitate aliveness whose source is unknowable. Forget maps. For full week-by-week details of this fifteen-week course, designed for you to join at any point, click here at. They feel like kin, luring us to a life we can only aspire to. We envy their freedom, breathe easy that our survival is less precarious.

The power of life and death they have had over us from the beginning infuses any great attempt in word or image to capture the formidable forces of the four elements. We marvel at how they collaborate, recoil when they clash. Life in, and after, Eden is the elephant in the room of their encounter.

Body language and the double portrait are manna to the creative appetite. Seen and heard through the silence of page and canvas, the child is always who we were, and the hare of memory is set running at once. Innocence confronts vulnerability and makes conflict heart-rending and vital. Ever since we stopped hunting and gathering, there have been settlements — by lakes, in deep country, villages, towns, cities — and dwellings set apart.

But the restless spirit longs wondrously for Elsewhere. The canvas and the page capture events, as they happen or happened, in a breath: war and peace, diplomacy and stand-off, the rituals of coronation and revolution, building and destruction, and their images, whether eye-witness or fantastic, all read like real history.

Men and women are creators of what they write, paint and give form to. But so often their art is about creation itself: it visibly meditates on the act of imitating the original Creator or moment of coming into being, feels towards art as a whole new world. Poetry and Violin Recital. Join writer and broadcaster Graham Fawcett, virtuoso violinist Elizabeth Cooney and pianist Grace Mo for an evening of poetry, prose and music.

Elizabeth and Grace will perform music inspired by the writings including The Lark Ascending by Vaughan Williams as well as pieces by Elgar and Mozart. He had by now already written the great Odes to a Nightingale, a Grecian Urn, Melancholy, Psyche and Indolence, earlier in the same year. The play of light and shadow here in the energies of nature and the heart may lead you to feel that Keats is gathering his strength to say goodbye to the summer of his life — he will actually have one more — and to prepare for its winter.

Tchaikovsky - Song of Autumn for Violin and Piano. William Cobbett , from Rural Rides serialised , book Two passages from an English classic written by an Englishman who loved his country and the country: the passion, candour and sheer detail of his style are as though Pepys and Defoe had been re-born to do for Surrey, Hampshire and Sussex what they had once done for London and journalism. He is a crusader for English rural tradition. Mozart, arr. White was an early exponent of the art of watching birds rather than simply shooting them, and his writing conjures up what must have been a true picture of a peaceful rural idyll published in the same year as the outbreak of the French Revolution.

Jane Austen , from Emma , chapters 42 and 43 Dec Picnicking under the sky was felt to as romantic as the out-door English poetry of the time, a getting-back-to-nature forerunner of the special new passion among artists in the mid th to paint in the fresh air. It is years ago this year that Tennyson, on 5 June , first visited the site on Blackdown near Haslemere for what would become his new home on the Downs, Aldworth. But that poem had ended without a shred of consolation and now the older man set to work to add some. We join it tonight as King Arthur, mortally wounded after his last battle with Sir Mordred, orders the knight Sir Bedivere to throw his trusty sword Excalibur into the lake, on whose shore he is now lying, thus restoring it to the lady of the lake who had originally gifted it to him.

Elgar - Chanson de Matin. Chanson de Nuit for Violin and Piano. This year marks the centenary of the death of Edward Thomas on the battlefield at Arras in France on 9 th April Persuaded by the American poet Robert Frost during the summer of that he was actually a poet but had never believed it, Thomas finally started writing poems in December , and in the two years and four months left of his life wrote of them. He meant us poets of nature. The LitMus Trio. Join writer and broadcaster Graham Fawcett, virtuoso violinist Elizabeth Cooney and pianist Siu Chui Li for an evening of poetry, prose and music.

Featuring writers and composers who were born or lived in Surrey and Hampshire. LitMus Trio. Graham Fawcett, reader. Elizabeth Cooney, violin. Siu Chui Li, piano. He would have been glad, then, not only for the. J M Barrie and Virginia Woolf were among. Magazine first published, in instalments, in and Hound is famously set on Dartmoor,.

Emily Dickinson. The moon and the night are always with us here. Keats, knowing Ode as the Ancient Greek for song, intends. John Field beat Keats to it. Flora Thompson , from Lark Rise to Candleford There is nothing like a furniture van or a travel-happy parent in your life to reinvigorate a sense. Admired to this day for her trilogy Lark Rise to Candleford , Thompson moved - from. Lark Rise - to work in a post office at Fringford her future Candleford near Bicester from age. Mozart age 22 wrote his E minor.

Zurich, Bologna, Rome, and Milan. W A Mozart , Sonata in E minor Drinks are free but donations to costs are much appreciated. Antonio Bazzini , La Ronde des Lutins, op. Long before and long after Shaw, in his play In the Beginning made his wise serpent.

Ode on Melancholy

Championed as a violinist by Paganini, Bazzini conjured this scherzo fantastique dance in which. R L Stevenson Origin of Species Stevenson had devoured as an undergraduate in Edinburgh when it was still a. Lake in New York State, inspires the landscape of these poems. Charles Darwin was the. When Thomas Hardy and his bride of a few months Emma Gifford moved into their first home.

Emily Dickinson - Voices & Visions

Hardy recaptured. Love makes his memories return as she no longer. Schwanengesang cycle and transcribed here, the more poignant because we are to believe that. It may be one of the great ironies we fail so often to unravel that our sense of incompleteness. Just how unfamiliar we may be with our. Sir Edward Elgar , Sonata in E min, op. Graham studied Classics at Christ's Hospital, Horsham, where he was drawn to the teaching of. Graham talks about. England, Italy, Spain and America, and gives annual illustrated lectures on literature and art in.

He broadcast on literature and music on Radio 3 for 25 years and taught at The. Poetry School from to He is under the impression that he lives and works like this,. Elizabeth Cooney. Elizabeth was raised in Cork, Ireland and is now living in Farnham with her husband Nick and.

Pin by Yvonne Lieblein on me dot com | Dickinson poems, Emily dickinson poems, Writing poetry

She studied on scholarship at the Royal College of Music with Itzhak. Rashkovsky where she subsequently became Junior Fellow and assistant to her professor. Elizabeth is leader of the Farnham Sinfonia and. She is a keen chamber musician and. She enjoys cinema, swimming and reading.

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Siu Chui Li. Siu Chui Li is in demand as a recitalist and collaborative pianist and has given chamber concerts. She has performed in major festivals. Festival du Menton in France. Siu Chui has performed in notable venues such as the Wigmore. Siu Chui. To see the full programme and to book in advance,. How can we know, before we ever go there, that a new place will exhilarate us? Painting, photography, fiction, travel-writing, and poetry can put us on the plane with expectations, and pictures in our minds, and of course we then match what they promise against the realities that await us.

Afterwards, art and writing intensify what we found, show us sights we missed, clothing our memories of them in the aura of legend as they had our hopes, so we may wonder if they exist when we are not there. They catch our eye and instantly deliver both real and imagined destinations in great art and writing. Exhilarating Places 1.

New York. Manhattan was a meadow once. First class information, discussion, reading and listening. Exhilarating Places 2. Exhilarating Places 3. St Petersburg. Exhilarating Places 4. South Cornwall. Exhilarating Places 5. North Cornwall. Exhilarating Places 6. Exhilarating Places 7. Exhilarating Places 8. Exhilarating Places 9. Thermopylae and Roncesvalles. They for a while sat in their buggy on one side of the street, observed the maneuvers of the company, and then, when the company was marching in open order down the street, and near the center of it, started their course up the street with the view to drive through the midst of the company.

Adams, colored, commanding the company, baited his men and expostulated with Getsen and Butler against their attempt to drive through the ranks of his company. They, Getsen and Butler, persisted in their purpose, although there was sufficient room to pass on one side, and Captain Adams, to prevent trouble, opened a passage through the company for them, and they passed through.

The detention was but for a few moments, and was not, save perhaps in the matter of feeling, of the slightest consequence to Getsen and Butler, or to the militia company. But, as the destruction of the militia company was desired by democrats, it was determined to take advantage of the occurrence for that purpose. Accordingly, two or three days afterward a verbal complaint was made, not by said Getsen or Butler, but by R. Butler, father of Thomas Butler, and father-in-law of Getsen, to Prince Rivers, colored, trial justice at Hamburgh , against the officers of the militia company for obstructing the street on the above occasion.

The trial justice issued a summons, not a warrant calling the officers before him to answer the charge. On the day of the proposed trial and final hearing, the case having been on a former day partially inquired into and postponed, appeared in Hamburgh, General M.

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  6. Butler, of Edgefield County. At or about the same time there came into the village about one hundred white men, thoroughly armed with guns and pistols. This body of white men immediately gathered about General M. Butler, and submitted to his direction and control. General Butler first assumed to appear as the attorney of R. Butler, to prosecute the inquiry before Trial-Justice Rivers against the officers of the militia company. But the officers of the militia company, hearing of the threats against their lives, made by the white armed men surrounding General Butler, refused to appear before Trial-Justice Rivers for the purpose of further examination.

    At this stage of the proceedings, the farce begun before the trial-justice was abandoned, and Gen. Butler sent a demand to Capt. Adams to surrender to him the arms of his company. This demand was refused by Captain Adams, as General M. Butler had not in law a shadow of right to make the demand, and not a shadow of right to receive the guns if they bad been surrendered. Finally General Butler notified Captain Adams "that he was going to have the arms in fifteen minutes.

    Butler commenced posting his men, now increased to several hundred, so as to command the brick building used as a drill-room and an armory by Captain Adams's company. Captain Adams and twenty-five members of his company had retired to this building. After General Butler had stationed his men he again sent word to Captain Adams that the time was up, and inquired if he was going to give the guns up: to which Captain Adams replied that he could not give them up; that he did not desire any fuss, and that he and his men bad gone out of the streets and into their hall for safety, and there they could remain.

    They fired rapidly for about half an hour, and broke out nearly all the glass in the four windows in the front of the building. In the meantime Captain Adams's men kept under cover, were not injured, and did not return the fire. About this time General Butler's men began apparently to close in about the brick armory, and Captain Adams gave orders to his men to fire on them. The firing on the part of Captain Adams was kept up irregularly for a short time, and till about dark.

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    About midnight Captain Adams quietly withdrew his men from the brick building, with the intention of getting out of town and escaping. He succeeded in getting his men out of the building, and a part of them out of town, but part of them scattered off and hid themselves in various places in and about their houses. The escape from the brick building of Captain Adams's men was soon discovered by General Butler, and then a vigorous search was made for them, and for colored men generally.

    Some one or two were killed as they were found, but most that were captured were brought in and put under a strong guard. About two o'clock in the morning some twenty-five or thirty colored men, some of whom were members of the militia company and some not, had been found and brought in, and so placed under guard.

    The search being over, now came the slaughter.

    "Willa's Pix"

    One by one they were taken out and deliberately shot to death. First, A. Attaway, lieutenant in Captain Adams's company, was so taken out and murdered. Then Dave Phillips was taken out and murdered. Next followed Pompey Curry, who, on being let loose, precipitately fled, was fired upon, and badly wounded, but escaped with his life. Next Hamp Stevens was taken out and murdered; and, following him, Alfred Minyard, or Minyon was killed. No more were killed out of these prisoners, though some were badly wounded. During the night two others were killed, namely, James Cook, town-marshal, and Moses Parkes.

    These brutal and causeless murders were clearly committed, as the testimony shows, to effect political ends, and as a part of the plan of the political campaign adopted by the democrats. The relation which General M. Butler, one of the most distinguished political leaders of the democratic party, sustained to these was made the subject of much evidence, and a reference to that is all that is deemed necessary now. Comment is unnecessary.

    Silverton, in which is Ellenton, is a township in Aiken County, South Carolina, being about twenty-five miles from Hamburgh and about twenty-four miles from Aiken Court-House, and near the Savannah River. It is a fertile region and quite densely populated, the colored population being largely in the majority. During the spring and summer of nearly all the white democrats in the county were thoroughly armed and organized into bodies known commonly as "rifle-clubs. The policy of intimidation, force, and violence to control the political action of republicans was announced by the white democrats in all this section in June, July, and August, and in substantially the same manner as was done prior to theHamburgh massacre.

    About the middle of September " the rifle-clubs'' from different portions of the county of Aiken, and also from the adjoining counties ofEdgefield and Barnwell, suddenly and evidently by concerted action, began to march toward and assemble at Silverton. The number of white democrats armed and mounted thus assembled during September 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20 was probably about eight or nine hundred.

    Colonel A. Butler, ofHamburgh , S. C, appears to have been in general command. Under him, and commanding "rifle-clubs'' and irregular bodies, were Angus P. Brown, Geo. Butler of Augusta, Ga. The absurd pretext for this assemblage of armed men, as put forth by parties interested, was the reported assault on Mrs. Harley by one or two colored men, who are said to have entered the house of Alonzo Harley for the purpose of stealing.

    It was charged by Mrs. Harley that she was knocked down by one of these men, who fled on her rising and seizing a gun. The two colored men charged with this assault and attempt to steal were not recognized by Mrs. Harley or any one else at the time, although it occurred in broad daylight, in the forenoon of Friday, September 15, Suspicion fell upon a young colored man by the name of Peter Williams and another man named Frederick Pope. Three white men immediately started in search of Williams, found him in the house of Addison Hollywonger , colored, where he had been confined by sickness for several days with chills and fever, and, although so informed, they arrested him without warrant, and started for Alonzo Harley's house.

    On the way, and near there, they were met by Alonzo Harley, who commenced to curse and beat Williams, who, finding himself free and unprotected by his captors, started to run. Thereupon he was fired upon and badly wounded, from which wound he subsequently died. While yet alive he was taken in a cart to Harley's house to ascertain whether Mrs. Harley identified him as the man who had assaulted her. She, on seeing him, at once said he was not the man. The shooting of Peter Williams occurred about noon, or a little before, on Friday, September 15, On the evening of the same day a warrant was sworn out ''on information and belief by one Taville, before Trial-Justice Griffin, for the arrest of the said Peter Williams and Pope for the said assault on Mrs.

    Toward evening of Saturday, three of the companies of "rifle-clubs," thoroughly armed and mounted, moved down to Chevis's store, some three-fourths of a mile distant, where a republican colored club had, as usual on that day of the week, assembled, and for the purpose of breaking it up.

    The members of this club, hearing of the purpose of the rifle-clubs to attack and break them up, hastily adjourned before their arrival, though a few of them were still at Chevis's store when the rifle-clubs arrived. Those that still remained there were, with curses, notified to meet no more by Captain Angus Brown, who commanded the rifle-club in the advance. There was much cursing, and many threats of violence were made on the part of members of the "rifle-clubs " toward the republicans in case they should meet again, and it was promised on the part of the members present that they would not meet again.

    Some effort was made by members of the rifle-club to then and there attack the few colored men found, but it was finally said by the whites. There were not enough of them for a riot. These three companies passed down the road by the store, and during the evening returned and went into camp at Matlock Church. On the following Sunday morning the rifle-clubs, under the command of A.

    Butler, marched to Rouse's Bridge, a point some four miles distant from Matlock Church. Here they found a considerable number of colored people assembled, some to attend church, and others for mutual consultation on account of the rumored purpose of the "rifle-clubs" to attack them.

    The "rifle-clubs'' halted on the high ground, about half a mile from the bridge, and sent messengers to the colored people at the bridge, under the pretense of desiring a "compromise" with them. While the parley was being held several members of the rifle-clubs fired upon colored men who happened near them, mortally wounding one, Henry Campbell, and severely wounding several others.

    The colored men thus shot were all republicans. After much delay there, and upon the repeated assurance of the colored people that they desired no disturbance, and that they were seeking only safety in the swamp near the bridge, the "rifle-clubs," toward evening, fell back and marched toward Union Bridge, a point some six miles distant.

    Here a detachment of some twenty or twenty-five men, under the command of Capt. Robert Dunbar, fired upon a small party of colored men, killing one, Basil Bryant, alias Basil Bush, and wounding several others. On the following morning, one of those wounded, Wilkins Hamilton, was found in his cabin and deliberately shot to death by some of the members of the rifle-clubs.

    Kit Finnissee was shot in the morning and killed by a company or detachment under Capt. Angelo P. Brown, near the Station, on the Port Royal Railroad. Butler was at the time present with this detachment, and ordered him shot. The colored men were there fired upon but escaped. Another detachment came upon five colored men in the cabin of Judah Kelsey, who had come in out of the swamp for their dinners, and murdered three of them, and tried to kill all of them, but the other two escaped by running. Another detachment, numbering several hundred, with which at the time, near evening, was Col.

    Many other colored men were here seen and fired upon, but escaped with their lives, also several colored men were taken prisoners and threatened with death, but were not murdered on their promising not to vote the republican ticket. During Monday night, September 18, Col. Butler with a large portion of his command, about five hundred men, suddenly turned back from Ellenton Station upon Rouse's Bridge, some seven miles distant, and was there ready to attack the republicans on the morning of Tuesday, September 19, In consequence of the movement of the rifle-clubs, about seventy-five or one hundred colored republicans had been driven into this part of the swamp, where they were practically surrounded.

    In the councils of the rifle-clubs it had been determined that all these colored men in the swamp should be killed. For this purpose Colonel Butler's forces were put in line of battle, with a skirmish-line thrown out, and the order to advance into the swamp had been given, and his command was in motion, and firing by the skirmishers on the republicans had commenced, when a detachment of United States troops, under command of Captain Lloyd and Lieutenant Hinton, arrived on the scene from Aiken Court-House and prevented the massacre.

    These colored men in the swamp and thus surrounded were nearly all without any weapons of defense at all, though a few, fifteen or twenty, had shotguns, but were without ammunition, and hence were wholly at the mercy of the rifle-clubs. The members of the rifle-clubs openly declared in the presence of the United States troops that it was their intention to have killed the last one of them, and they expressed the greatest disgust at the interference of the United States troops.

    There is no doubt that a fearful slaughter would have taken place but for the timely interference of the troops. Upon a parley held between Captain Lloyd and Col. Butler and his officers it was agreed that the rifle-clubs should disperse and return quietly to their homes, and that the colored men would go peaceably to theirs. This arrangement was most thankfully received by the colored people, who were wild with joy at their unexpected deliverance.

    Pursuant to the arrangement made by Captain Lloyd, the rifle-clubs began to disperse, but continued their murderous work upon the colored men on their way home. One party, after it left House's Bridge, shot and killed Abram Hammond, alias Abram Blake, an old colored man past eighty years of age, who was quietly and innocently standing near the road when they passed. His body was riddled with bullets.

    Another party, consisting of two or three hundred, at Ellenton Station, having captured Simon Coker, a leading republican and member of the State legislature, deliberately took him out and shot him to death.