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Elementary school teachers often use construction paper for class craft projects. This type of cardboard usually has two thin outer layers of paper, with a fluted sheet of paper in the middle. Cardboard boxes are made from corrugated cardboard because it is an incredibly robust and durable type of paper. Because corrugated cardboard is stiff, it can be difficult to cut. Use a sharp craft knife and ruler for the best cutting results.

Cardboard boxes can be made into toy houses, cars, spaceships, and even furniture! You are only limited by your imagination! The fluted middle can be used in scrapbooking and card making. Crepe paper is a type of thinly coated tissue paper. It is gathered to produce a crinkled surface which stretches easily. It comes in many colors and is sold in rolls or sheets. Crepe paper is often used for paper flower making with stunning results. Crepe paper streamers are used as party decorations.

Many kids crafts are also made out of crepe paper. Make sure to use a higher grade of crepe paper, such as Italian crepe paper when making paper flowers. Paper flowers made from Italian crepe paper are quite striking. They can be surprisingly realistic and quite stunning.

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Kraft paper is a coarse brown paper that is used for wrapping packages. Paper bags are also made from this type of material. It can be bleached to various lighter shades varying from brown to white. Kraft paper is available in sheets or paper rolls.

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Mulberry paper is a handmade paper that originated in China. It is made from the fibers of the mulberry plant and produces an exceptionally lightweight but durable paper. It has a coarse texture and an organic look. It is often used for scrapbooking and collage work. Newsprint is the paper used for printing newspapers. It is a cheap paper that is thick enough to be printed on both sides. Newsprint is often used for paper mache projects. It tears easily and holds paper mache paste well. Origami paper crafts can be made out of any paper that folds well.

Craft stores sell prepackaged paper that is explicitly used for origami. They usually have Washi paper designs on one side and a white background on the other. The paper is square and folds well, but often may be quite thin and not suitable for crafts other than origami. Scrapbook paper is available for sale at craft stores. This paper comes in thousands of patterns and designs. The choices can be overwhelming. Some papers are thicker than others, and some are printed on both sides.

Standard scrapbook paper sizes are inch x 12 inches or 8. Although scrapbook paper is sold primarily for scrapbooking, it is suitable for use with other types of paper crafts. Tissue paper is a fragile paper that comes in a variety of colors. White tissue paper is used to wrap items in stores. But the Manx clergy had their fingers in the pie at a quite early period, though it was not the Manxmen's fish they pulled out then, nor did they long retain their perquisite ; for Bishop Thomas, who died in , " was the first who exacted all strangers' tithes respecting the herring fishery from the rectors of the Island.

The first of the Manx Spiritual Laws, at the beginning of the 17th century, provided that the Bishop should have a fishing-boat working for his benefit, as the Abbot and Prior had before the Dissolution. The rocks called Creg y Jaghee were reserved for the tithes of the parish minister, and there should therefore be a place of the kind-not necessarily a rock-in every parish except Marown.

It is still believed by some fishermen that they ought to pay a halfpenny to fish at these rocks. So late as the Lobster Tithe, then apparently in dispute, was ordered to be paid. Gob ny Sharray Ordnance map. Sharray sharragh is to be understood, in the many place-names in which it occurs, as meaning a cairn or boulder, not literally " foal," in the same way as cabbyl, literally " horse," is applied to innumerable rocks on the Southern coast. Thistle Rock and Thistle Head Ordnance map suggest a verbal kinship with the rocky islet in the Sound with the obscure name which is pronounced Thusla and Tushla.

Several sea-caves about here are the subjects of anecdotes and scraps of topographical lore. One under Peel Hill is or was believed to communicate by an underground passage with the neighbourhood of the Cloven Stones near Laxey. Another on the Knockaloe shore penetrated in a South-Easterly direction as far as Castletown.

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Of the former a story has gained currency of two men who entered it from a boat at low tide with the intention of loading her up with the timber which had been washed in from a wreck, but an enormous hand reached out from the mouth of the cave and would have dragged one of the men inside if he had not been able to shake himself free in the nick of time.

It is now abandoned to horses, geese and visitors, but boasts the vestige of a structure which has been called a fort and attributed to General Fairfax, Governor under the Parliament from to Thwaites in his account of the Island says page that " a fort was begun in on the Horse Hill, opposite the Castle. The inland places in this parish which I have to mention may conveniently be divided into those belonging to the Glen Rushen region, those which are not classifiable geographically, and those lying on the Western border.

Glen Rushen. This long valley extending from Cronk yn Irree Lhaa to the sea at Glen May has various names in its different reaches. A popular etymology for the latter name is Glion Mooie , " Outer Glen " which does certainly approximate to the older pronunciation but has little else to recommend it , the part above the fall being in contrast, on this theory, Glion Sthie , " Inner Glen " ; but the last name has no other existence. The next is Glion ny Brack, " Glen of the Trout " ; this is mapped, perhaps correctly, as a small branch of the main glen.

It would be hard to explain why they should thus be celebrated in a once-popular triad when so many other glens and other features of the landscape bear names in common without having passed into proverbs. Only one Glen Rushen is now known ; did the saying refer to three different glens, or does it merely characterize the single valley now marked on the map as Glen Rushen, Glen Mooar and Glen May in its three natural sections?

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My own belief is rather that Glion Reeagh Rushen , famous in the legend of the Fenoderree, was the higher portion of Silverdale Glen above Ballasalla, which village, or the place where it now stands, was called Russin in the 12th century. Edward Callow Legends of the Isle of Man writing about 50 years ago, says it was in " the Southern part of the Island, near Ballasalla," and his illustrator follows him by placing the Abbey in the background, perhaps not with topographical exactitude. Kennish, the inventor and poet, a man of intelligence and familiar with his native land, states in a note to his " Old May Eve " that it was in Kirk Christ Rushen, i.

There is, certainly, a spot in the South side of Glen Mooar called "the Fenoderree's Hole," but whether this appellation is not due to the accepted legend may be doubted. Cronk Fedjag O. There is another hill of the same name in German. A man digging turf on this one happened to look up from his work and saw in the distance a great grey cloud moving swiftly towards him. As it came near it solidified into the shape of a hag caillagh with teeth as long as his forearm. Miss E. Watson, relating items of Highland folk-lore in vol. Glion Maarliagh O. It is the " Robber's Glen," where, according to local testimony, " they used to skin the stolen sheep and hide the remains.

There are mounds, reputed to be burial mounds, just above this rock, and at least one lintel grave has been discovered there. In the second field up from the river in this direction, not near the keeill, is " the Churchyard," believed locally to be an ancient burial-ground. Phil Moore's Glen is the only name now obtainable for the valley descending from Raby Mooar to the main glen. The herb lubber-lub or bogbean grows plentifully at the top of it, and was gathered to make a decoction for the blood, and perhaps for other purposes.

Between here and Glen May lie Gob y Lhingan , " Point of the Little Pool," where the ground dips and the rocks overhang; Booilley Hoghtey , a roadside field above the first houses, evidently the intack called Boallne Houghty in the Compositions of , and to be translated accordingly " Place of the Hill-slope," ughtagh ; and Cron y Lheeaney , " Hill of the Water-meadow," which is skirted by the footpath above the plank bridge across the Glen Rushen river. Glion Chaltun O. The Glen Coulter of the Composition Book, , is probably the same place, with more definite reference to a holding. In a small meadow enclosed by trees there is still a vestige of a dwelling-house.

The lower part of the valley is now called " The Sound. To his pottery the women came long distances leading horses, ponies and donkeys with straw mullans fish-creels hanging on either side of them, which were to be loaded up with the coarse-textured crocks and mugs, for immediate use or to sell again to neighbours. Hence this track up the East side of the valley got the name of Bayr yn Pashedey , " Road of the Potter.

It must be fifty or sixty years since the manufacture ceased, and it is not likely that any specimen of it survives. Lower down the valley, at the junction of the two streams, are the remains of the old Sound house, which, after its last agricultural tenants had quitted it, was used for a brief period as a school; an out-of-the-way corner for such an establishment, even when the surrounding hills were inhabited.

The reason for the name is not clear ; there is of course the Sound farm near the Sound in Rushen parish, and there is a nook of the same name in the upper part of Peel. The narrow ravine which comes in here is Glion Darragh , " Oakwood Glen " ; under its trees, which include a line of planted firs, runs Awin Jim Billy , " Jim-Billy's River," presumably some bygone tenant of the Sound farm; but the presence of the old Manx word awin suggests the possibility that the latter part of the name may be corrupt Manx. Near the Sound end of the wood the water has cut a deep and narrow channel which is called Dubbar y Bunt " Double-y-Bunt Pool of the Butt-end," a name also given to the field adjoining it on the East side.

The hill above the West side of the river is known to a few as Slieu Darragh , " Oakwood Fell," a sheep-pasture, now pronounced " Slidherry. In the same way land on the hill of Arrosey, a little to the North, is called by the name of another Glen May farm, Ballakerka. Subjoined are some of the field-names on Doarlish Cashen and adjoining farms per the owner and others spelt as nearly as possible according to their sounds, which are much corrupted. The first seven are on Doarlish Cashen. Shen Thalloo , " Old Land," near the mountaingate.

A house once stood here, which fact may explain the name. Thalloo Noa , "New Land. The latter term seems to be used sometimes for a steep track ; the former is the English " pound. Tur Veg. Tur may mean anything standing up conspicuously, such as a small mound, a clump of bushes, or a heap of stones. Willya Wooar , Ballelby gill. Probably Booilley Wooar, " Big Fold," a dropped article having caused aspiration of the initial, as in the same name in North Lonan. The Byaggan. There are two fields of this name on the Ballaquane side of Ballelby gill-" the Steep Place " or something approximate, as in the similarlynamed places in Lonan and Port Erin.

Some men digging here many years ago unearthed a flat stone covering a funerary urn which contained black ashes. They buried it in the hedge-bank. A long time afterwards, and not extremely long ago, a young man hunting rabbits with his dog " Paddy," whose name, in the interests of historic accuracy, shall be placed on record , thought he saw a rabbit bolt into the hedge.

He began pulling away. When this happened a second time a sudden fear took him and he ran down the hill-side till he reached his home. A white stone in the hedge still marks the spot where the urn was buried. Unrelated to Glen Rushen and its tributary valleys a few places, mapped and unmapped, deserve notice. Skulls are said to have been dug out of the mound. Slieu Whallian O. A tradition of a form of capital punishment which consisted of rolling down the side of this hill in a spiked barrel, and the consequent haunted state of the locality, has clothed itself in various and discrepant details.

The more hackneyed versions may be omitted. A Guide-book to the Island printed in Warwick in , and now a rarity, gives it in the following form. Before Molly was placed in the barrel she said she was innocent of the crime, but most willing to suffer. Her last words were, if she were innocent her voice should be heard for evermore, and true to this day the moans of Molly McNana are heard every night, at a distance of three miles from the Mountain of Torture. William Harrison's account of the matter in Mona Miscellany gives the role of the executed person to a young man, and the old woman's moans are consequently increased to yells which are heard as far as Dalby.

To be rolled down a hill in an internally-spiked barrel was an old Norse form of punishment, and such stories as these may be a survival of a feature of the Norse rule which would impress itself deeply on the minds of the Manxmen. In the version commonly current, which is to be found in most Guide-books, the journey in the barrel is dovetailed into the once-usual test for witch- craft by ducking, and the culprit, having presumably survived the descent, sinks or floats in the Curragh Glass at the foot of the mountain.

Mount Sinai " is the name of a hill opposite Ballachrink, St. John's," according to The Denham Tracts. It is also referred to in Harrison's account of the spiked-barrel business and elsewhere as Mount Sion, and seems to be at the North end of Slieu Whallian. Is this an attempt at rendering a Manx name? Sithean , fairy mound, sometimes becomes " Sion " in Ireland see Power.

Other points at this extremity of the mountain are Gob ny Beinnee , " Beak of the Mountains," used as a fishing-mark, and Gob ny Cleigh , " Beak of the Hedge. California is on Ballafaragher quarterland beside the Foxdale river near St. I do not know whether this is a Manx word corrupted, but its owner, now deceased, told me half a dozen years back that " an old woman who died at the age of 80 twenty years ago said her father always called it by that name.

I have also heard it stated locally that the name is " over years old," which is a way of saying that it has not been bestowed during the speaker's lifetime. There is another California in the Braddan Abbeylands, of which I know nothing. Mwyllin y Cleigh O. The old house here, with the outside staircase leading to the upper chamber in Cumbrian fashion, was once a Courthouse.

This is fairly well-known, but the popular account of it adds that courts were held here before they were held on the Tynwald Hill across the valley. The courtyard or farm-yard formerly contained a " round," i. By this stood a great tree, usually said to have been an elm ; when this fell or was felled it knocked the stone over and broke it. Parts of the whole structure were eventually built into neighbouring walls. There were also a number of smaller stones, white ones, in the round, and in front of the big stone and the tree was a sort of flower-bed. These particulars seem trivial enough, but as they were related of a place of some importance in bygone days by a man who had them from " the grandfather of a man now dead ; it may all have been a hundred years ago," they are inserted on the chance that they may have some significance.

Another local informant, then aged about 76, recollected having seen the stones when he was a boy.

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His account differed and was fuller in its details. There were three chief stones in a row facing the entrance of the farm-yard, all about five feet high, or one a trifle higher than the others. They were of grey granite, such as is quarried at the Granite Mountain, and were surrounded by a circle of slate slabs fixed in the ground, all from two to three feet high. He spoke vaguely of the spot having been called a Giant's Grave. The house, he said, was about years old ; the Court used to be held in the upstairs room.

He agreed that the stones as he described them could not have been used for mounting horses. It may be added that there is a well in the middle of the yard where the tree and the upright stones stood ; also that the previous farm-house stood between the Courthouse and the present comparatively new farm-house ; its flooring-stones are still visible like a fragment of paving in the soil. The Courts held here were, Moore says, the old Vicar-General's Courts ; but the house, with its commodious upper chamber, was put sometimes to more genial uses.

In August, , after the holding of a special Tynwald Court at St. John's, " his Excellency and suite retired to Mullen-e-clee, attended by the Officers of State, etc. Shuinagh , " Rushy-place," is rough land lying on the hill behind Ballaspet house. In the Bishop's Book, circa , is an entry relating to the sale of part of the estate of " Ballaspick, commonly known by the name of Shoanar and the Broagh situated above the high-road.

Trowley-Pot or Trowl-Pot is a miniature gorge in the hills where the river between Eairy Bane and Ballamooar has cut through rock for about 80 yards of its course. The greatest depth from the brink to the top of the water in summer is about 14 feet, the width from bank to bank averaging four or five feet. The name is applied particularly to the deep rounded holes in the river-channel, and generally to the locality, where a small collection of houses once stood.

In Trollaby, Marown, the latter is the more probable, but here, and perhaps in Trelja, Patrick, the supernatural being may have had a home. Trowley-pot , with its rumbling torrent deeply sunk in the gloom of a narrow cleft shadowed by bushes and small trees, must have generated beliefs in lurking demons and other malign influences, but the stories of their doings have been erased from the memories of the people, perhaps by the aforesaid settlement of which only the vestiges now remain.

Returning now to the Southern extremity of Patrick, the remainder of the places I wish to speak of at present are ranged alongside the Bayr Mooar and Bayr Noa , which do not widely diverge after their first conjunction at Dalby. The course of the former has been described in the chapter on " Roads," and the Bayr Noa or New Road which superseded it from Dalby Northwards is marked on the maps. As they belong, under those names, wholly to the parish of Patrick, this is a convenient opportunity to run a lens over them from their separate incomings between Barrule and the Cronk down to their joint exit into the parish of German at Glenfaba Bridge.

The Round Table, which stands at the boundary-line, has been dealt with under " Malew. The name illustrates the extensive application of the word " Dalby. Narruy , or possibly Yn Errooid , in reference to tillage, is the name of a couple of cottages, now in the last stage of ruin, above Droghad Ruy and on the East side of the road. Droghad Ruy , " Red Bridge "-but " ruy " is perhaps related to the foregoing name-makes a sharp and dangerous turn, gloomy with fir-trees. The bridge formerly consisted only of a couple of " dales " deal planks over the gully.

A woman told me she was gathering blackberries near here one afternoon, now about ten years ago, when a sudden mist came on, and she saw a shape like a man running down the upper part of the ravine towards the road who " looked as if he was coming loose, all falling to pieces. This may have been a misconception of some quite natural human figure, and due to sudden alarm; but the course of the Bayr Noa from the mountains down to Ballacallin is undeniably shadowed by uncanny influences.


Of these the following story is a comprehensive example. A man was going home one night from Ballacallin village now called Dalby up the Bayr Noa, and when he got past where the postman's but is or was until a few years ago, and where an ale-house once stood he began to feel something near him which kept pressing him into the hedge all the way up the hill. At last he got middling frightened, and turned into a house below the Mountain Gate now only a pair of massive pillars, the scene of a vision of the Death Coach which I have described on page ; the house would be the Narruy , where Jimmy Clery then lived ; he was thinking that if he stopped there awhile " it " would have gone away.

But when he set out again a couple of hours later it was still there, and when he got beyond the Gate he began to make out faces and forms in the darkness. One was that of a man he knew who had died not long before ; but it was not so much him he was afraid of as of those that were with him. They had come from no good place, and the man himself whose shape he recognized had not led a good life. He was so frightened that he stopped, and drew a circle on the roadway with the point of his knife and stood in it till morning. The shapes were going round and round him, but they couldn't get at him because of the circle.

The Bayr Mooar , remarkable in its upper portion for its spaciousness, is now devoid of habitations until it it reaches the Cregganmooar on the Lag river. In the lower part of its course here it falls steeply over naked rock ; but when it was in a better state one of the Gawnes of Kentraugh, Rushen the same who afterwards haunted that neighbourhood , used to send down it, drawn by horses or mules, barrels of beer from his brewery at the Smelt to the numerous public-houses which then enlivened Dalby.

This same Gawne kept a " pack of dogs " which he brought over to the Dalby side once a year or so to give the farmers " a bit of hunting. Since I acquired this philological information, I notice that a Cronk illoo is included in Dr. Clague's list of the haunts of the Glashtyn more probably the Fenoderree among his folk-song manuscripts published in the Folk-song Journal , No.

In Stanford's map the name is attached to a hill on the other side of the Lag. There is said to have been " an old church " on the West side of the Lag, opposite to the Borrane farm and close to a disused fold, but I have not found any trace of it. But there is certainly a curative spring in that locality, the water of which was highly prized by sick people who did not expect to recover. I have gathered the impression, without attaining positiveness, that to drink it was believed to facilitate the passage of the soul to heaven.

In Stanford's map of the Island a tumulus is marked at a point approximate to the situation of the alleged church or keeill, which may account for the statement, for there is a tendency to call a field containing such remains " the church-field " or " the chapel-field. Lag y Macheayn , " Hollow of the Sea-field," magher-cheayn , on the Borrane farm ; not actually adjoining the shore, but on the way down to it. Eelya Phooyl Mooar , across the road on the Cregganmooar. As I do not know what the first word is, I have spelt it as nearly as possible according to its sound.

The Rowlands , steep ferny ground, formerly cultivated, on the Borrane farm. At this unlikelylooking spot was once a shop kept by a Mrs. Kneale from the North, who used to travel to Peel with her little donkey-cart to purchase stock.

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The ass is now so despised that " a person would take shame to be seen using one " ; yet they can be observed trotting briskly through Piccadilly. By so much is the Isle of Man in advance of London. Garey Phundail stressed on last syllable , " Pinfold Garden," is a small enclosure on the North side of the ford over the Lag river on the Bayr Mooar. Of the bridge here which was washed away only a pier remains.

Though there are three hillocks thus named in the Dalby district, two of them at least with walled summits, nothing of the kind seems discoverable on the farm called Borrane. The Kellya as pronounced Ordnance map " Killey " " The Wood," whence the Kellya river and the Kellya house which formerly stood on a little wooded bluff above the meeting of the two streams. The other Kellya house, at the top of the Lag, became a fire-claim a few years ago.

The cause of the manifestations was a Scaa Olk or spirit of a living man literally " malevolent shadow " which haunted the place to get possession of a chest or bag of money. The occupant nailed two pieces of iron crossways on the door, but this device was not powerful enough to keep out the intruder.

Use was then made of steel in some way which was not clearly explained to me, perhaps because it was not clearly remembered or comprehended; but seemingly it was placed about the door, the windows and the fire-place while the disturbances were going on. This made matters worse, for it prevented the Scaa Olk from getting out again. All night it was rushing about the house " like a great blast of wind, upsetting and smashing everything," but invisible.

At daybreakor cockcrow-it went away. The man, who I think lived there alone, was advised by a wise person whom he consulted to thrust out behind him thrice, the next time he was bothered, with some sharp-pointed steel instrument, being careful while doing so not to turn his head. The next visitation happened when he was in bed, but he had a knife ready and carried out the instructions. Silence followed. On the morrow news came of the death of a man living not far away, who had been suspected as the author of the disturbances, and there was no more trouble thenceforth.

All this occurred well over half a century ago, but part of a grotesque song in Manx among Moore's Manx Ballads which describes the same kind of manifestation must date to a considerably earlier period The potstick and the round tables, Lamp and noggin, dish and plate, Struggling and scuffling tumultuously, Till they would have thee struck to the floor," etc.

The song, which is entitled " Arrane ny Ferrishyn ," the Song of the Fairies, continues with threats of the spotted Water-Bull, the Glashtin, the shambling Fenoderree, and other non-human islanders, as though these were connected with the rebelliousness of the furniture; but the trouble at the Kellya was not ascribed to fairy influence. It is believed that the spirit of a living man can be externalized unconsciously by a strong desire or passion, so that it is seen at a distance from its owner ; it becomes what the gypsies call the " living mullo.

Here we approach the belief in witchhares and other animal forms assumed for unhallowed purposes. Examples of such hauntings in human shape are common to all ages and countries, from the nocturnal visit-whether voluntary or the contrary is not statedof the anxious Curoi to his Kerry or Wexford stronghold while actually far away from Ireland, down to the appearances at their homes of Manx seafarers in moments of severe stress.

If they are dripping wet, so as to leave a pool of water where they have been standing, news will follow of their death by drowning; if dry, they are in danger but will escape. Such an apparition was seen by a relative of the man in question, leaning on his garden-gate in the upper part of the Bayr Cronk yn Yemmel. The original of the wraith was at the time in peril during rough weather off the North Irish coast, and no doubt wishing he were safe at home. Similar apparitions have been seen in other parts of the Island, and may be classed as one of the commonest of its visions ; also as one which is so deeply rooted in time and in human psychology as to be independent of the classifications " Celtic " and " Scandinavian.

During the areel, or inheritance feast, they walked into the hall, all wet. Roeder, in his Manx Notes and Queries , pages 35 and 36 , relates several stories of spirit-visitations, voluntary and involuntary. Tom Kellya Cain , whose house was the scene of the disturbances, lived so simple and remote a life that he kept his calendar by the Crusoe-like method which one hears of in other tales of old times, namely, by cutting daily notches on a stick. The same way of counting was practised till recently by Manx fishermen in keeping the herring-tally, and by a few among the elder generation of Downland shepherds in the South of England.

Dalby , " Dale Farm," named the two treens of Dalby and Alia Dalby in the Roll of , at which date each treen contained four quarterlands. In the printed version of the Lord's Composition Book, , a Ballelby is included in Dalby treen, but this appears to be due to a misconception of the fact that the owner of that quarterland Thomas Querk , which lies in the Abbeylands, owned some intack land in the treen. Through the granting of rights to the- Irish abbeys of Bangor and Saul the name of the treen extending from Ballacallin to Glen May has been lost, but it seems probable that land equivalent to the present four quarterlands of Ballahutchin, Ballelby, Ballaquane and Balnylhergy belonged to an integral Dalby treen, assuming that a treen-division existed here prior to the grants to the Abbeys ; the bounds of a Dalby territory may even have reached as far as Glen May, and have included the six quarterlands seven in view of the sub-division of Ballachrink belonging formerly to the two monasteries.

Exactly how far it extends in modern usage towards Glen May is uncertain, but probably the farms as far North as Balnylhergy inclusive would be thought of as in "the Dalby district," rather than in that of Glen May. The word " alia " points to the partition of an original treen in the early days of the Stanleys. Why Ballelby, which is presumably Balla-ghelby, "Dalby farm," should, though situated at some distance from the Lag, be the only estate to exhibit the treenname, is a question to which the answer is probably lost.

There may have been a transference of the name for reasons connected with inheritance ; that is to say, there may at one time have been two Ballelbys, in the same way that other Manx farm-names are duplicated in each other's neighbourhood. A tradition exists that some of the men of the Loyal Manx Fencibles who were sent to Ireland in to assist in quelling the rebellion there, brought back Irish wives to Dalby. It is safe to say that the belief rests on a very slender basis of fact, if indeed it has any foundation at all. On the other hand, there are among the land-owners, tenants and cottagers in the Dalby and Glen May districts, people whose surnames correspond with the names of land-holders under the Stanleys over four hundred years ago ; the modern forms of McKae, McGell, McWater and McKerron are still familiar in the South-Western part of the parish.

If we come down a hundred years, we may add to these the names Quirk, Kermeen, Quane, Radcliffe and Hutchin or Hudgeon, representatives of which were then living on the farms between Ballahutchin and Ballachrink. Besides the principal tenants, small crofters and squatters formed a considerable subsidiary element of the population, as in other parts of the Island.

Some of these paid rent direct to the Lord, others to the chief tenant either in money or labour, or in a combination of the two ; some were freeholders. Local memory, or a tradition not more than one generation old, reports " over seventy people living on Ballelby "-nearly a dozen households, that isand forty or so on Ballaquane. The last representative of the class on these two adjoining farms died four or five years ago, but the names of some of the subdivisions are not quite forgotten, and are used to identify the fields which were thus occupied.

An example of which the history can be traced to some extent is. Thalloo Culshlan , " Cosnahan's Land," the former name of a piece of ground near the shore which is now a part of Ballacooill ; " a name seldom heard to-day " is the local comment. A tract of the same name was compounded for as a separate holding in , and appears among intacks as " Tallow Quishlin , a parcell of quarterland in the treen of Alia Dalby " in the Lord's Rents for , where it is stated that it " fell in the Lord's hands, Liber Vastarum, , afterwards sett to John Cown a Scotchman abandoning it, it fell to the Lord again in and has lain waste ever since.

Now let to Mr. Seddon and Deemster Moore. In regard of the barrenness of the land, no fine was ever paid. It is certainly the latter tract which is alluded to in the Lord's Rent Books circa in an entry regarding a parcel of intack " lying between Tallow Question and Lagna Killey. Ballaphurt , " Port Farm," was in the same way a croft on Ballacooil, I am told.

Balla should imply a quarterland, but it occasionally represents other topographical terms corrupted , in this case perhaps beeal, approach. Knock Kishtey , " Hill of the Chest," later Knock Usgey, now Ballacooill, may perhaps have taken its name from the great block of stone with a smaller one facing it which borders the Bayr Mooar near the farm-house. Squarish boulders are often thus called, and are sometimes distinguished with a story of magical treasure ; Coan ny Kishtey in Lonan is an eminent example.

The only unusual property of the Bayr Mooar specimen, so far as I have heard, is its ability to turn round three times when it hears the cock crow. Apart from the sly joke which depends upon the word " when," a sufficient number of turning stones could be found in the British Isles alone to compose a revolving mountain such as the one in Anglesey mentioned in the Irish Nennius. I do not, however, recall another in the Isle of Man. One in South-West Somerset which performs the same feat every New Year morning and is therefore called " the Cock-crow Stone " has the reputation of hiding beneath it a great crock of gold.

A team of horses, it is said, has been unable to shift it, and the opinion is that it is rooted in the bottom of the hill and that the crock of gold is in safe keeping. Ballahutchin has the distinction of harbouring in its barn a moddhey dhoo , which has been seen more than once in recent years, and is still regarded with respect.

Ballelby , in addition to the fine cross standing in its farm-yard, had for many years a holed stone lying in the granary, which, like the cross, had been found on the farm, but it seems to have been lost or mislaid. The threshing-mill by the stream was in use up to about thirty years ago, but with others of its kind has been superseded by the travelling steam-mills. At the South end of Ballelby Bridge which is hardly more than a culvert stood-though there is no trace of it now-a smithy on the bank of the stream. The site of the former Ballelby house, now marked only by a rectangle of trees, was " a fairy place," like many other abandoned scenes of human activity.

Also it was haunted by a humming sound resembling that of a big wheel, the queeyl mooar which was worked by treadles for weaving, and for twisting the jeebyn of the nets, a much bigger machine than the ordinary domestic spinning-wheel. Such a wheel was used in the old house by the family which owned the farm for many generations until quite recently. The recollection of this implement reminded my informant-who must be held responsible for the digression-of a sound she heard one Sunday morning in a Laxey house where she was visiting about forty years ago.

She thought it was a spinning-wheel in action, and when she came downstairs to breakfast she asked with surprise whether they had been spinning on a Sunday; but what she had heard was a kind of bellows which her hosts said was worked by turning a handle. They promised to show it to her, but it got forgotten.

Buttons for Scrapbooking

The description fits a bellows with a revolving crank at the side which I have seen in a house at Scravorley, Patrick, though that seemed to be a copy in miniature of the old type of bole-shidey rather than a practicable utensil, and was kept as a curiosity. These old Manx bellows were made by the local smiths, but they have given place to the ordinary shop-article. A Dalby fisherman has described to me something of the same kind which he saw in his youth at Kinsale or Berehaven, but that, he said, blew air through a long pipe into the grate sideways.

The persistence of a name for which there is now no necessity suggests that it formerly belonged to the roadside houses of which the foundations remain. The field-names on the part of the farm which lies below the road are not of interest, nor are many of them Manx. The only high ground inland from the cliffs is called Cronk Ree ; the latter word, as pronounced by those who have no Manx, cannot be rendered into English with any certainty. In this case, " smooth " would suit the nature of the ground.

Up the Doarlish Cashen road and overlooking the top of Glion Chaltun is "the Church Field" containing a low mound with a few large stones grouped on it. Local people call the spot a " church," but it appears to have been a cairn or similar memorial of interment, judging by the plentiful fragments of white spar visible around it after ploughing.

It is only in the last half dozen years that it has been touched by the plough. This mound seems to have been attributed hitherto by archaeologists to the adjoining farm of Ballelby, if I do not mistake their references. At the farm-gates lies what has been called a hut-circle. Modern road-making has almost covered it up, but when the surface becomes sufficiently worn away the top of a section of what might be a circle of small stones appears to view. A woman living not far away, my informant, was when a child shown by her elder sister a stone here, nearly in the middle of the road but a little towards the upper hedge, and told that people used to worship it.

The road was then less frequently macadamized, if it ever was. Vestiges of the dwellings of the old type of cottars are numerous in this vicinity. In one which faced the road a couple of hundred yards South of the " circle " lived old Chalse y Creen and Jinny Pherick his wife. When the weather was fine enough Chalse used to sit in his garden in his home-made chair with its seat of interwoven straw and briar, making straw thatches for the bee-skeps which he sold for half-a-crown the pair.

His old-fashioned, very tall hat rose above the hedge-top like a landmark and irresistibly tempted the boys to throw stones and sods at it, as is wellremembered by the local historians. Here also dwelt, I believe, the actual Illiam Kodhere of testamentary fame in the drama of the Island. Manx field-names have a natural tendency to repeat themselves, but there is one on the upper part of Ballaquane which I do not recall having met with elsewhere in the Island ; written according to sound it is Cronk Eurin , and is locally given its literal meaning, " Hell Hill. The lower part of the hill, adjoining the Doarlish Cashen road, contains old foundations, a well, a cup-marked boulder, and other large stones which may have belonged to buildings.

Kay's Bridge crosses the high road at the upper Balnylhergey farm-entrance. It is, or was, haunted by a white fairy or ghost a little smaller than human size, who followed people along the road, as I have mentioned in a previous chapter. The next rise in the road, " Caesar Gill's Top," is similarly named from some bygone owner or tenant. Crosh Pharlane or Vallane, " Parlane's or Mary Magdalen's Cross "-Parlane is said to be equivalent to Bartholomew, and is at any rate the Irish Partholan -is a name now belonging to two contiguous fields on Ballachrink and Cronk Mooar.

The foundation of the keeill from which the name originated was rooted up many years ago and the stones placed in a wall. Claghyn Baney , " White Stones," is an overshadowed bend at Ballachrink ; the stones, whatever they may have been, are no longer visible. In one of the ruined cottages under the trees the children here had the good fortune four or five years ago to see fairies climbing in and out of the windows, " little men in tail-coats and little hats " which seemed to be of the cocked or three-cornered variety.

The spot is also haunted by a moddey dhoo of the usual description, which opinion connects with something of the same kind " taking " in the sunless chamber below, into which the river falls from a height of many feet. The moddey dhoo is far from extinct in the rural districts ; in fact, I saw one myself at the Claghyn Baney on a dark night by the light of a bicycle lamp. I have no doubt he was purely canine ; but it is such accidental coincidences that help to maintain the reputations of haunted spots.

It is said that the Insular Lunatic Asylum at the Strang owes its foundation to the confinement of a mad person in an outhouse of which the wall at least remains at the side of the road nearly opposite here. A man possessing a good deal of public influence as well as public spirit happened in passing the spot to hear the outcries of the unfortunate prisoner, and was stirred into removing the evil of private confinement of such patients. On the lower part of Ballachrink farm close by, as in many other places in the Island, flax was formerly grown for weaving linen, and was steeped in a pool near the farm-house.

The Fairy Broo --its Manx name has been forgotten, if it ever had one--is a steep, narrow field, wet like most fairy haunts, which slopes to the river from the Glen Rushen road at Glen May. Glen May , in the 15th century and till recently Glen Moy, has, as a name, provoked a good deal of speculation, but there does not seem to be any reason for looking further than the obvious magh, cultivable land, not necessarily level or plain -like, a word extremely common in a secondary form as magher, a field.

Though many maghers have lapsed into pasture or waste, their name shows that at one period they have been ploughland. In this example the reason for the name is clear to anyone coming down, or looking down, from the heights which border Glen Rushen, barren on the South side and grassland on the Northern or Arrosey side.

On the South bank of the river begins the land formerly belonging to the great monastic foundation of the Ards on the opposite coast. To what extent the Abbey of Sabal shared it with Bangor is not clear in the absence of records, but the Sabal influence was probably the lesser of the two. Their territory, whether held jointly-as the two abbacies were occasionally united in one man-or whether consisting of two separate portions, began with Ballachrink and included what are now the quarterlands of Cronk Mooar, Balnylhergy, Ballaquane, Ballelby and Ballahutchin, the first-named farm being divided into Ballachrink East and West; but all these would probably not exist as quarterlands at the time the grant was made to the abbeys, nor would the names of those existing, if any, correspond with their present names.

The headquarters of the monastic representative or representatives were probably at Glen May. Comparatively little is recorded of Bangor's foreign missions from its foundation by St. Comgall between and , probably for the use of a Pictish community. It suffered the inevitable ravages by Vikings, began to decline in the 11th century, and in the 12th lay for a long time waste. At a Tynwald Court of the Abbot was summoned, together with the Abbot of Sabal, to appear and justify their title to the Barony within forty days.

There is no record of their having complied, but the Abbot of Bangor may have acknowledged the supremacy of the Stanleys in person or otherwise, for a document in the English Record Office, endorsed " Spiritual lande in the Ards and Clandeboye," and dated , details " the some off the religious houses in the ards.

Fyrste the abay of Bangor hath belonginge to yt temporally and spiritually lxx plowelands item lxx granges belonging to the same. The townland in question, if the term is to be taken in its literal and restricted sense, must have been what is now Ballachrink ; to this may be added perhaps the chief mill of Glen May, since we find mention of " the Baron[y] Mill-race. Lanigan, Ecclesiastical History of Ireland , 2nd edn.

Augustine after it was erected and repaired by St. Malachy was Abbot of Bangor also ; there are other instances of a tendency towards unification, and as the two foundations appear to have been closely associated in Ireland they may have held their Manx property in common. Though Glen May has forgotten the days when half of her belonged to Ireland, she has a rich fund of memories of a less historical nature.

Some of these have found their way into other chapters of this miscellany, but my mention of the mill called Cringle's Mill or the Big Mill-" the Great Mill in Glenmoy " in reminds me that the ruined house just above it, once an inn or ale-house, was the scene of a murder early in the 19th century, so nearly as the date can be fixed.

Owing to the steepness of the river-bank the offices at the rear of the house were situated underneath the floor of the front part. Just outside them a man living in the village was struck or knifed and pushed over the brink on the rocks or the water below, by a stranger from the North who had come into the neighbourhood to trade.