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Here a powerful glacial river cascades down 32 meters on two levels and into a narrow canyon with a thunderous roar. Age limit: No age limit Bring with you: Dress according to weather. In Iceland it is always wise to dress in warm, waterproof clothes. Weather changes can be sudden so expect the unexpected. Bring a waterproof jacket and pants, headwear and gloves. Good outdoor shoes are recommended.

In-Bus-Audio-Guide: We recommend that you bring your own headphones, simply because they will fit you best. It is also great for the environment. Duration: Approx. Total distance covered during tour: km. This tour is 7. You spend at least 45 minutes at the major stops giving you plenty of time to enjoy the nature and to take some pictures. The starting point for Reykjavik Sightseeing Tours. The first stop along the Gold Circle features a stunning views over the rift valley. It is, for one, a key location in Icelandic history as the oldest existing parliament in the world first assembled there in AD.

As the first stop along the tour, you will have an opportunity to walk through the park and use the restroom if needed. The most iconic Iceland natural site, the Geysir hot springs are home to the original erupting geyser. Hey, Surfer Dudes! Big waves coming in! Let's ride those Big Ones! Don't even think of it. If a 5-incher comes in, you will be greatly disappointed. If a footer comes in, you might be dead. It's near impossible to forecast the actual heights of waves warned for.

Think Big and hope for small. You might not think that any of this applies to you, but we live in a mobile society. Those currently residing in a mountainous area might find themselves eventually living along a coast. Awareness can be a life saver. Should some of the mentioned events turn out to be non-tsunami, they shall remain in place to remind the readers of what has happened along the shore in the past. Should some turn out to be tsunami, they will be added to the Tsunami Data Base.

The Long Island Express Hurricane's remarkable tremendous wave event along the NJ coast had been hiding for too long, now known using easily accessible sources; an event that what most people would call a Classic Tidal Wave in every sense of the word. Now it is known that 3 waves moved in, the largest estimated at 50'! The series of waves might have been the catalyst for the collapse of the Atlantic City-Brigantine bridge, and people had to be rescued on shore in Cape May County. Articles from county newspapers not yet checked might reveal even more.

Did the waves reach the Ocean County mainland on the west side of Barnegat Bay? Did they reach the Delaware beaches? Did they affect the coastal communities in the Delaware Bay? The preliminary damage given was over 1 million dollars. This was to municipal property only. The total damage when private property is considered would more than likely be double or triple this figure.

What would the equivalent value be today? Conversion can be made, but that would miss the point. The point is, what damage would occur today in the now developed shore communities? There was no loss of life from the waves. Today, should a Hurricane Watch for the shore be issued by the Tropical Prediction Center, then followed by a Warning, organizations responsible for the safety of the shore residents gear up, with the option of calling for evacuations.

Would this decision be made, with a rapidly northward moving large hurricane, forecast to remain well offshore? Knowledge of the event, occurring 2 hours after the hurricane had already moved into New England, might prove useful in any evacuation debate, especially for a pre-Labor Day storm. The search for tsunami will continue by the NWS at Mt Holly, as searching is being continued by many others. Sharing discovered events along the coasts of North America will increase awareness that events do indeed happen along these shores and allow research to be conducted to determine which ones are tsunami.

Enough has been discovered, with hints that many more event have indeed occurred, to dispel the myth that "nothing ever happens here. Back to top. September, The following section relays some of the experiences that residents have given with the hurricane. These experiences are invaluable in helping to understand the nature of the storm, and to prove or disprove some of the theories as to what actually did happen.

Marshall Sewell, of Whiting, NJ. The hurricane was his first major news story. He and his boss, Mr. Suspecting now that a big storm was underway, Mr. The obviously upset crewman who answered the phone practically shouted at Mr. Sewell, "You won't believe this! I just saw a big piece of the boardwalk across the inlet swept inland by a huge wave, and a guy was standing on it! Sewell, accompanied by his mother, an inveterate storm chaser, took off to Point Pleasant Beach for the Big Story.

It took them almost an hour to drive the 9 miles, dodging tree limbs and downed wires all the way. Along the beach, unprotected by dunes at that time, many of the bungalows between Arnold Ave. Further south at Risden's Pavilion, large picture windows facing the ocean had been smashed by the wave, or waves.

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The bartender told Mr. Sewell that he and a patron had been looking at the surf when suddenly "out of nowhere", this huge wave higher than he had ever seen rose out of the sea and came right in the pavilion. It carried the patron out the back door, still clinging to his barstool, "all the way downtown. Sewell suggests this is probably what everyone had expected him to say.

After a ride like that, the patron was probably too terrified to say much of anything! Sewell and his boss were also correspondents "stringers" for several other papers and news services, and called as many news outlets as they could about the hurricane's effects on Ocean County.

Aber decided that the public should be better educated concerning hurricanes. He sent Mr. Sewell to Lakehurst Naval Air Station and interviewed a meteorologist, one of the few forecasters who followed the hurricane from its earliest stages. Interestingly, Annaliese Heinen, a daughter of an airship officer at Lakehurst, was trapped on a stalled train along the CT shoreline between Stonington, CT, and Westerly, RI, for hours during the storm.

Suddenly, a huge wave knocked the cars off the tracks. Many drowned, but she survived. Sewell was a fellow editor with Mr. Everett S. Allen on the Middlebury College student newspaper in the s. After graduation, Mr. His first major news story was also the hurricane. He eventually progressed to editor of the paper. The book focused on the human stories of primarily Long Island and New England. Thank you very much, Mr. Sewell, for sharing your experiences with us! Penrose, of Port Monmouth, NJ. There was not one structure between his house, Barnegat Bay, nor the ocean, but for one house on the ocean front.

The bay and some of the ocean was visible from his house. All the other houses on the street sat near the front of their lots. On the morning of the hurricane, it was raining so hard that the schools were closed. They were probably also closed because Barnegat Bay had risen and was covering the roads. The wind was from the west, and blowing so hard that, not only was the bay water being pushed into the streets, most of the boats in the bay had dragged their moorings and were blown up onto the shore, or onto Bay Avenue. By noon time, the bay was all the way up to the railroad tracks, which went down the middle of the peninsula from Seaside to Point Pleasant.

During the afternoon, Mr. Penrose and his brother Jim noticed that spray from the ocean waves were visible over the 3 story house that partially blocked their view of the ocean. Amazed at this sight, they asked their mother if they could go to the ocean and watch the waves. She wasn't thrilled about this, since the ongoing storm had knocked out the electricity during the morning.

That meant no radio, and no way to listen to the Philadelphia stations, the only ones available at that time, for information about the ongoing storm. Off they went, walking only on the sidewalk per mother's orders, "walking" in a sense, since they had to lean backwards in the strong wind to keep from being blown into a run. Finally reaching the boardwalk, the brothers saw a sight never seen before.

The west wind was blowing so strongly that it actually blew the ocean out to the first fish pound pole. At this time, fishermen jetted long-piling into the ocean bed perpendicular to the beach and strung nets on them to catch the fish. The waves were the largest they ever saw, and the wind was indeed blowing the spray off the crests at least as high as a 3-story building. They were tempted to walk out to the first fish pound pole, but stayed on the boardwalk per mother's orders.

Sitting on the bench only a few minutes, the wind shifted from the west to the east, and then what a sight they saw! It was a wave so large that it scared them, as it was coming straight for the bench where they were sitting. All the water that had been pushed out to sea by the west wind now came roaring in toward the brothers.

The wave hit the boardwalk, breaking off the section where they were standing off its pilings, and turning it into a raft. As the wave began to recede toward the ocean, the raft with the 2 brothers on it was now heading for the ocean! Luckily, the shattered boardwalk section caught on the pilings from which they were recently bolted. A nearby sand dune was higher than where they currently were, so off they scrambled to the safety at the top of the dune, or so they thought.

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Looking east, they saw a second and even larger wave coming toward them. Somehow, they managed to hold on as this giant wave passed completely over the dune. When this wave receded back into the ocean, they headed to the ocean front house just west of the dune. Steps led to a front porch with a good view of the entire ocean. Taking these steps 2 or 3 at a time, they reached the safety of the porch, or so they thought. With this good view of the ocean, the brothers now saw the biggest wave of the 3 coming at them!

It rolled over the dune and smashed into their safe porch, taking the steps with it. When this wave receded into the ocean, as quickly as it started, it was all over. The waves in the ocean were still as big as the waves were when the brothers first arrived at the ocean, but none washed over the destroyed boardwalk line. The wind was still from the east, but it didn't blow them away, as the west wind had tried. In almost the flash of an eye , those 3 waves washed out 2 miles of boardwalk in Seaside Park, and about a mile in Seaside Heights.

It almost took the Penrose brothers to a watery grave. Penrose, for sharing your experiences with us! Many readers interested in tsunami are also interested in other natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornadoes, floods and earthquakes, and what steps can be taken to lessen the effects of such events. This organization was founded to strengthen communications among researchers and the individuals and organizations concerned with natural disaster mitigation.

Geological Survey, U.

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Army Corps of Engineers, U. Environmental Protection Agency, U. The publication is loaded with useful links to other Web sites. The Tsunami Risks Project, based in the U. The project is examining subjects ranging from how tsunamis are generated and how they propagate across the oceans; to the mechanisms by which they cause damage when they make landfall; to the means by which disaster planning can reduce the economic losses that result; and to the sources of post disaster information and mapping that can be consulted to validate tsunami-related insurance claims.

The project's web site provides details about this initiative, as well as an interactive map with accompanying articles about historic tsunami disasters of the world; a "Risk Atlas" - another interactive map showing tsunami risks around the world; a case study of the Alaska earthquake and tsunami; an extensive report by A. Dawson entitled, "Tsunami Risk in the North Atlantic Region"; a bibliography; and an index or related web sites.

There have been many television programs recently on tsunami, tsunami chasers, hurricanes, tornadoes, and various weather phenomena. One program that might be overlooked was on Discovery on August 28, A large segment consists of an excellent explanation of methane hydrates, and the threat they present to coastal regions for tsunami.

This threat is discussed in the next section. One of the topics discussed was the possibility of a tsunami along the east coast of the U. Four days later, the first of many similar studies hit the press, making the evening national news programs, as well as the local news stations. The different authors discussed a variety of causes which could send land offshore tumbling down to the deep abyss, and pushing those waves ashore. It would be remiss not to briefly discuss the subject matter of these various researchers.

They will be discussed in order of publication, to show the public evolution of the east coast tsunami threat possibility. The article stated that a group of scientists were to leave shortly to try to determine the age of the cracks. Should the cracks be capable of initiating any landslides, the resultant waves could range anywhere from 2' to over 20' high. This article discusses in general the problems that were pointed out in the initial installment on the Mt Holly web site. Any tsunami generated in conjunction with the ocean cracks would be a local tsunami, which gives little, if any, time to prepare for it.

Should there be some time to prepare, there is still no way of knowing the height of the waves to come. The cartoon showed a bartender and his customer watching TV wide-eyed, as a bulletin was being announced. Should these two cartoon gentlemen happened to have been in a tavern on the Point Pleasant Beach, NJ, boardwalk on September 21, , with a large picture window in back of them, giving a great view of the ocean, as in the cartoon, readers have already read what could have happened to them in one of the sections on the "Hurricane Experiences".

Chandler, Globe Staff, and entitled, "East Coast tsunami watch is premature". The article discusses the results of the research cruise taken to investigate the newly discovered ocean floor cracks. The researchers discovered "sea-floor formations that appear to have been formed by blowouts of surprisingly large quantities of natural gas trapped in the sediments off the VA coast.

NJ coastal residents are well aware of the effects of the occasional releases of this gas called hydrates. Some of the releases produce loud, explosive, booming noises, occasionally accompanied by localized small earthquakes. Mistpouffers are also relatively common in the North Sea region. Scientists believe a series of large releases was responsible for a huge Mid Atlantic offshore landslide, called the Albemarle-Currituck Slide, about , years ago.

In this slide, about 33 cubic miles of sediments moved down the slope, creating an east coast tsunami anywhere from 6' to 36' high. Another slide, possibly caused by a large hydrate release, is called the Baltimore-Accomac Slide. A future Update will contain a more detailed examination of these and other offshore landslides. There is one more cause being postulated for a possible future tsunami event along the Mid Atlantic coast. In a paper published in the July 14, , journal "Science", geologist Peter Flemings of Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and graduate student Brandon Dugan, announced the discovery of a layer of highly pressurized water under the land offshore NJ.

This just adds one more player to the game! The various researchers and other scientists interviewed in the preceding articles mentioned that shore residents probably should be more concerned in the near future about waves associated with hurricanes and nor'easters. Indeed, the tremendous wave assault on the NJ coast associated with the hurricane, shows this concern to be real. What makes this concern even greater is the fact that the offshore passage of the Great Atlantic Hurricane produced an identical series of monstrous, tsunami-like waves, as occurred in the storm!

Additionally, the September 3, , hurricane brings in another tsunami associated occurrence, usually never considered as part of an advancing hurricane. It took what it took. A single wave. Just one big wave. I think as the crest of the wave passed by our house, it was probably eight or nine feet high. You could see it coming from way out, and it came at one shot. The beach at that time was relatively steep and wide, and to come across the beach and pass by our house at eight or nine feet - that was a hell of a wave.

I think people at that time said that the return of the wave did more damage. It just sucked everything out. The boats from the bay were now on the beach. Is this quotation from an eyewitness to a tsunami impacting Hawaii or Japan? Could this witness be describing the Newfoundland tsunami? Perhaps this is an additional observation from the Jersey shore during the hurricane? This is indeed an observation from the Jersey shore, but an observation from the hurricane.

This event was witnessed by a Mr. She then sent an article on the hurricane, mentioning that the description of the wave event that accompanied this hurricane sounded remarkably similar to the storm. Upon further research, indeed, a series of monstrous waves accompanied this hurricane as with the hurricane! Estimated wave crest heights were given by witnesses along the entire NJ shore. Since the estimates of the crest heights are remarkable, as in , observations showing that the estimates are not far fetched will be highlighted here.

North Jersey resorts declared this storm as its "worst storm in history" for 25 miles, from Deal to Bay Head. A series of 3 tidal waves near 50' high swept over the beachfront, carrying everything in front of them. On the southern end of LBI, the wave height was estimated at 30'.

Cape May witnesses estimated the height at 40'. The time of occurrence varied, with the waves striking around 5 pm in the extreme south, to a time given as between 9 and 10 pm in the north. From north to south along the shore, the boardwalks were taken away for a ride as in A car driven by Frank H. Rowland, Civil Defense Coordinator, was caught in the backwash of the biggest wave on Fifth Avenue and carried 75'. Unlike , these waves caused fatalities. On LBI, the bodies of 2 women were recovered from the surf, and 3 island residents reported missing were never recovered.

In Sea Isle City, a nurse running for aid was washed away. She was found buried beneath more than a foot of sand and debris. In , it is a wonder that people were not killed by the huge waves. In , it is a wonder that more people were not killed. To illustrate this, as well as the power of these tsunami-like waves, the examples-by-county damage format, as used with , will again be used, especially since in-print coverage of this "recent" storm was more complete.

The damage will be mentioned only if it can be attributed to the tsunami-like waves, with any damage possibly attributed to the wind or any storm surge not mentioned. Damage on land was similar to , with the land being saturated by periods of heavy rain in the days previous to the passage of the hurricane, with inches of additional rain accompanying the storm. The wind was stronger on land with this storm, being sustained at hurricane force for a brief period of time at the closest passage of the hurricane. For more detailed information, with excellent damage pictures, STORMS should be consulted, a book shore dwellers are probably well familiar with.

Except for details, the pictures very well illustrate the almost identical damage that occurred with the tsunami-like waves that accompanied the hurricane. The wooden floor of the roller skating rink buckled and rose 3'. Because of the damage, the Casino was closed for nearly 10 years. The municipal fishing pier, extending out hundreds of feet on 24" - thick pilings, was swept away, including a restaurant, shooting gallery and gift shop.

Parts of the floor of Convention Hall buckled. The Hall and the Paramont Theater were swamped by water. The waves swept into the sewage treatment plant, knocking it out of service for more than 2 weeks. Logs and wreckage were all over Ocean Avenue, and toilets, stoves and other fixtures that had washed out of boardwalk shops covered Kingsley Street. The South End Pavilion was uprooted and destroyed.

The Barnegat Bay Seafood Restaurant opposite the hotel was wrecked. Ocean Avenue was undermined in many places, with the pavement and sidewalks disappearing. Chelsea Baths on Ocean Avenue was destroyed. Much sand from the beach was washed onto Ocean Avenue. Water rushing across Ocean Avenue entered the Avon Inn. The ocean went as far west as A Street in spots. Piers at 8th and 16th Streets were heavily damaged. The fishing pier lost ' of its ' long span. The boardwalk was severely damaged, with bath houses totally wrecked.

Tons of sand scoured out around the Stockton Hotel. Garages smashed, with furniture stored for the winter floating everywhere. A small house at the foot of Dower Avenue was deposited on Rt Ocean front homes badly damaged. Many homes directly on the oceanfront were damaged, and porches and bulkheads washed away. Throughout the area, many intact pleasure boats were found miles away from their anchorages, often high and dry some distance from the water.

Some houses floated whole, hitting other buildings and jamming up, forming islands of debris. The wind lifted a house off its foundation, but it sank back down. Then, the gigantic wave took the house into the Bay. The house broke up when it was washed back. The Heinz Pier was split in two. The Atlantic City to Brigantine bridge, damaged in the hurricane, then rebuilt, was destroyed. Between Sea Isle City and Strathmere, more than bungalows vanished into the channel, as the wave passed over the land on its way to Ludlam's Bay.

The shoreline of NJ has had at least 2 bouts with monstrous waves, causing considerable and nearly instantaneous damage. These were the hurricanes of September and Both hurricanes passed offshore, with the NJ waters being on what mariners call the "navigable", or, safe side. The wind is weaker, and the storm surge lower, on the left side than around the center and to the right of the storm. Both storms had been much stronger in their life times, but were only a CAT 1 at the most when passing offshore.

A "standard" CAT 1 storm surge is estimated to be '. If the tide caused by the hurricane was ' above normal, the total tide height would be ' above normal. The tide at Atlantic City peaked at 9. The hurricane might have given similar readings, if the gage had been working. The normal waves riding this elevated ocean would be large and impressive, and capable of producing damage. Yet, both hurricanes produced a distinctive series of devastating waves, with descriptions of them using words usually associated with a great tsunami.

If not a tsunami, is there a phenomena associated with hurricanes that could produce such giant and destructive waves? It is a "very important though rare sea effect which may occasionally be superimposed upon the usual hurricane tide - usually with disastrous results. This is the hurricane wave, sometimes called a 'tidal wave', although it has nothing to do with tides. It is nearly always described as a 'wall of water' advancing with great rapidity upon the coast line". Doesn't this sound familiar! This definition reflects the witness reports for the and hurricanes.

It also defines the effects of a tsunami. Recent correspondence shows this continues to be true to the present. Neither book, published after , mentions the Jersey shore and events. However, could these waves of and still be actual tsunamis? Was there any earthquake activity along the east coast previous to the passage of the hurricane, as there was with ?

On September 5th, a 5.

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This quake occurred just 9 days before the passage of the hurricane, and does present the possibility that the effects from the hurricane could have been the final trigger in the creation of an offshore landslide and resultant tsunami. Now, about that hurricane. A tsunami, being a wave, has a trough and a crest. When the trough arrives first, the ocean recedes, followed by the crest coming ashore.

This appears to have happened along the lower Delmarva's Eastern Shore region at least? The article was an interview of "old-timers" who had gone through the hurricane. Many traditions of the island are handed down from mouth to mouth by the natives, but few of them being able to read or write. It is thus we receive a full account of the great storm and accompanying tidal wave of the year ; telling how the black wrack gathered all one dreadful day to the southeast; how all night the breathless air, inky black, was full of strange sounds, and pine needles quivered at the forecasting hurricane that lay in wait in the southward offing; how sea-mews and gulls hurtled screaming through the midnight air; how in the early morning the terrified inhabitants, looking from their windows facing the ocean, saw an awful sight: the waters had receded toward the southward, and where the Atlantic had rolled the night before, miles of sand bars lay bare to the gloomy light, as the bottom of the Red Sea to the Israelites; then how a dull roar came near and nearer, and suddenly a solid mass of wind and rain and salt spray leaped upon the devoted island with a scream.

Great pines bent for a moment, and then, groaning and shrieking, were torn from their centuried growth like wisps of straw and hurled one against the other; houses were cut from their foundations and thrown headlong; and then a deeper roar swelled the noise of the tempest, and a monstrous wall of inky waters rushed with the speed of lightning toward the island.

It struck Assateague, and in a moment half the land was a waste of seething foam and tossing pine trunks; the next instant it struck Chincoteague, and in an unbroken mass swept across the low south marsh flats, carrying away men and ponies like insects; rushing up the island, tearing its way through the stricken pine woods. Many a time by the side of his bright crackling fire, the aged Chincoteaguer, removing his pipe from the toothless gums where he had been sucking its bitter sweetness, will tell, as the winter wind roars up from the ocean, how Hickman, with his little grandson clinging to his neck, was swept by the great wave to King's Bush marsh, far up on the main-land 6 miles away, and caught in the tough branches of its bushes; or how Andrews, with wife and family swept away in his sight, was borne up the island on the waters, and the next morning was discovered hanging in a pine-tree, by his waistband 20' from the ground.

Scribner's Monthly, Vol. This aged resident, perhaps himself unable to read or write, relayed through time extremely important information, perhaps forever lost but for the interview. Thank you, Sir!! A series of extreme waves, tsunamic in nature, attended the passage of both the September hurricanes of and Most of the shore damage occurred with these waves, which witnesses estimated the crests to range from 25' to near 50'.

To the south of Monmouth, the waves passed over the barrier island and crashed onto the western shores of Barnegat Bay.


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  5. The backwash of the waves on their return to the ocean did as much, if not more, damage as when the waves came in. However, is this rare wave an integral part of some hurricanes, or is this rare wave an actual tsunami, with the hurricane being only the trigger which induced offshore slumps or landslides in the canyons or continental shelf. For both storms, earthquake activity affected the region before their passage. Additional new discoveries have been released on the existence of pressurized hydrates and pressurized water layers throughout the continental shelf, with speculation on possible triggers that could cause sudden and perhaps violent releases of this compressed material, along with the resultant landslide and tsunami.

    One suggestion by some scientists as a trigger for the sudden release of hydrates would be a quick warming of the waters. Perhaps the sudden lowering of pressure with the passage of a hurricane is enough to cause a release as well. Should a hurricane passage be the trigger for an offshore landslide, the Hurricane Wave in this case would be a tsunami by current definition. Further research will continue, and a better idea of the nature of this Hurricane Wave should begin to emerge, whether it is an integral nature of some hurricanes, an actual tsunami, or a combination of the two.

    Whatever is proved or disproved, the , and hurricanes show, unfortunately, that the shore lines of the Mid Atlantic region are susceptible to sudden, monstrous wave attacks with certain hurricanes, described by witnesses as tidal waves, distinct from the storm surge, and causing near instantaneous damage and possible fatalities. An amateur weather prophet had recently predicted that NYC would be swept by a tidal wave during the night to come. The prophecy, originally published in a monthly magazine, was copied by several Italian and Hebrew papers.

    Many families hustled their household effects to the roofs, in the hope of getting them above the water's reach. Others were leaving the city, and a few even tried to drag small boats through the streets to places where they would be convenient in the event of the expected inundation. Heavy rains during the past few days increased the feeling of alarm.

    The panic caused the police considerable inconvenience. There was no tsunami; but, if the predicted giant waves did move in, these people were prepared!!! The cause of the November 17, , ME tsunami, previously discussed, is unknown, with disturbances in the Atlantic suspected. The ME waters were disturbed between midnight and 6 am. Ever vigilant Megan Sprignate, who connected the similarity of the tsunami-like hurricane wave event with those of the hurricane, sent an article on a "Marine Disaster. The crew made it to shore.

    Coincidence, Megan asks?? The initial research has been successful. It is probable that local tsunamis were created with four of the earthquakes that have currently been investigated.

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    The earthquakes were powerful for this region, with the quake registering 5. Since the MMI registers felt effects of a quake, ranging from the amount of damage, to the peoples' reaction, quakes with the largest MMI were initially investigated, as these would have the greatest potential for local tsunami creation. When possible tsunami reveal themselves in newspaper reports, some caution is still required, as it is possible that the excitement of the quake could be responsible for inaccurate information to be printed, with further in-print retractions and corrections almost impossible to be easily obtained.

    However, with our subject matter, this possibility should be lower than with other topics of the time, because of the basic nature of these unusual, rare occurrences.


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    Some of the wording used in the reports might be described differently in articles printed today. How the waters in our region respond to earthquakes has never been investigated in detail, because "such things don't happen here.

    One difficulty in determining the response type is the lack of exact times of the wave occurrences in the differing locations. Usually, only the fairly accurate time of the earthquake itself is given, with the response on the waters described as "instantaneous", or similar wording. Uncovering events is the necessary first step before detailed investigations of their nature can begin.

    Uncovering them will also help to dispel the fiction that "tsunami does not happen here. The earthquake struck about 6 am. Summer vacationers, as the locals, were either sleeping or had just gotten up. The timing of this quake during the early morning hours more than likely precluded many observations that might have been reported if people had been up and about. The shock lasted from one-half minute up to 3 minutes, and was severest along the southern shores of Long Island, especially the Far Rockaway region of western LI. Our one report comes from this area, Arverne-By-The-Sea, and states that "for a minute or so the surf subsided and the waters became smooth.

    A few seconds later they were gathered up in a monstrous wave which swept ocean-ward. This expression alone should be enough reason to eliminate the "probable" in probable tsunami for this event. Should we take the rest of the witness's account as gospel, or can we "tsunamisize" it, knowing the basic nature of tsunami? Then the wave action stopped, with the ocean becoming smooth.

    Webster's Dictionary defines subside as 1 to sink or fall to the bottom, settle, and 2 to tend downward, descend, to flatten out so as to form a depression. A synonym of subside is ebb, which suggests the receding of something as to the tide that commonly comes and goes. This makes the monstrous wave part of the report more logical. Not having an ocean recession, the report gives the impression that the monstrous wave rose up at the shore line then went ocean-ward.

    With recession the trough of the wave arriving first , the monstrous wave was the crest of the tsunami coming in, and then receding. The report does not state the height of the wave. However, the use of the word monstrous implies something extraordinary. A major tsunami is consider to be one that is 3' or higher. Monstrous might indicate a tsunami that is at least eye level with the witness, with perhaps a minimum height of at least 5'.

    It would appear that just one wave came in, no substantial damage occurred, and there was no loss of life. Perhaps it was fortunate that the quake struck about 6 am, while the vacationers, as the locals, were sleeping or just getting up! The earthquake struck about pm and was a strong one for this area, registering 5. It occurred during the afternoon when most people were up and about, and one of the effects on the waters occurred in Philadelphia.

    Several large steamers were thrown strongly against the wharves in the lower section of the city, and the crews thrown out of their bunks. In several instances where persons were watching the river from the docks, they found themselves suddenly overtaken by waves, and were thoroughly soaked. Deeply laden steamers in the Delaware trembled without apparent injury during the existence of the shock. At Gloucester City, the water in the Delaware suddenly arose, and waves 5 to 6' high dashed over the banks immediately after the vibrations were felt.

    Several boats in the stream at this place were upset, the occupants having no warning; and, when they found themselves floundering in the water, they were unable to account for it. This location is on the border of Gloucester and Camden counties. A report was received further north from Burlington County. Also in this area, the waters of the Stop-the-Jade Creek were visibly affected; and, a number of dead fish were found in the Pensaukin Creek, which fishermen thought were killed by the shock.

    The last and furthest north report was from the Delaware and Raritan Canal and the Feeder, where a small tidal wave was observed. The canal from Bordentown, NJ, to Trenton, had 7 locks, because of the difference in elevation of 57' between the two cities. Perhaps this small tidal wave was independent of the river events, or possibly not. One possible scenario for all these reports is that they all occurred independently of each other.

    Another possible scenario connects them all. The shape of the Delaware Bay is conducive for a tsunami to be funneled into the Delaware River. The Bay has a wide mouth gently narrowing to the river. A tsunami traveling up the bay would convert into a bore, which allows the tsunami to travel further inland than it ordinarily would be able to do. The received river reports suggest this to be a strong possibility, with this bore benefitting from a rising tide.

    The very strong river response at Port Philadelphia was at the confluence of the Schuylkill and Delaware rivers. A bore traveling upstream would tend to become partially diverted here, moving directly toward the docks on the Schuylkill and creating the reported havoc. Average Review. Write a Review.

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