- And it could well fail before ratification
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- MILES DAVIS SEXTET (the) / THELONIOUS MONK QUARTET (the) : LP Miles & Monk At Newport
In the first place, he's making a promise for himself and his band -- it would be strange and even rude for him to try to commit the listener to tuning in again. He could have promised that "we'll be sure to play for you again", but that would highlight the very thing he wants to overcome, the one-way, non-interactive nature of the medium. He's trying to make listeners feel that he's right there with them, taking in their requests and their reactions as if he were playing a live roadhouse gig rather than a canned radio show. Hank chose an image that emphasized the empathy he wanted to feel, and if he strayed a bit beyond the strict bounds of logic, surely an author of "one-breath poetry" can forgive him.
To me, by skewing the meaning of the words, instead of saying something factually true that invited the listener to come back, Hank -- and I'm a fan of his music -- is manipulating the feelings of the listener and making our language a bit less useful as a tool of communication. Surely, if Hank tried his "But, I've been here with you all night" baloney with a sweetheart, from out of town, she'd call his bluff.
And maybe sing "Your Cheatin' Heart. I'll take refuge in a quote from Nabokov:. Art is never simple. To return to my lecturing days: I automatically gave low marks when a student used the dreadful phrase "sincere and simple"-- "Flaubert writes with a style which is always simple and sincere"-- under the impression that this was the greatest compliment payable to prose or poetry.
When I struck the phrase out, which I did with such rage in my pencil that it ripped the paper, the student complained that this was what teachers had always taught him: "Art is simple, art is sincere. A schoolmarm in Ohio? A progressive ass in New York? Because, of course, art at its greatest is fantastically deceitful and complex.
But perhaps we're all over-analyzing. If French speakers end phone conversations with "au revoir", or German speakers with "auf wiedersehen", they're not being telling a lie, misusing their language, or even being especially artful. It's just an expression, as we can tell from the joke that's been repeated by generations of junior-high-school students:.
Another interesting example of nuanced language for which precise English equivalents do not exist except maybe "see you later," "talk to you later"?
Here's yet another complaint of apostrophe abuse in comic-strip form, this time from Steve Breen's Grand Avenue. For a historical perspective on the Kaavya Viswanathan case, consider the accusations leveled by Frater Thomas Walsingham against Galfridus Chaucer:. Callynge hymselfe a "huge fan" of Mayster Boccacce his poesie, Mayster Chaucere dide adde, "Aware ich was nat of how much the wordes of Boccacce dide stikke in myn imaginacioun. My defense of accused plagiarist Kaavya Viswanathan is definitely in the minority, but I have to say that I'm not impressed with the quality of most of what I've been reading in the press or on the blogs.
There's a great deal of vituperation but very little light shed on the situation. People seem to enjoy joining the lynch mob. Many if not most people writing on this topic allege that substantial parts of Opal Mehta are word-for-word copies, which is false. They evidently haven't taken the trouble to look at the problematic passages. The argument that the similar passages must be due to intentional plagiarism continues to be made exclusively by the technique of bald assertion. No one has yet taken up my challenge of providing a plausible scenario for the alleged plagiarism. This piece by Jack Shafer purports to explain "Why Plagiarists Do It", but the reasons he gives don't provide a rational explanation of the instant facts.
Some of the more interesting news is appearing at the Harvard Independent. Some people are making a lot of the fact that Kaavya's publisher, Little Brown, has withdrawn the book. I wouldn't assign that much evidential value. Publishers are scared of lawsuits, even if they aren't likely to lose. Defending a suit for copyright infringment can be very expensive. They may just be avoiding the cost of litigation. A lot of people, especially on the blogs, seem to give away ulterior motives for their sniping: they don't like chicklit; they think that the book isn't very original; they think that she is a spoiled rich girl; they resent the disproportionate academic and business success of Indians and are eager to take one down.
I tried a random story on the Al-Hayat web site. Cutting and pasting from the story worked pretty well: the first two paragraphs came out as. In a step considered a retreat in a Tehran crisis of the nuclear file, Mohamed Saidi, deputy head of the Iranian Atomic Energy Agency, his country's readiness to "answer all questions of the International Atomic Energy Agency, including a return to the application of the Additional Protocol to the sudden inspection of nuclear facilities in Iran ". This coincided with the Organization of the Islamic Conference "deep concern" developments in the Iranian nuclear file.
Since I hadn't read the news since the story came out about Iran's conditional offer of concession , I learned from reading this translation that something had happened, and could see roughly what the new development was. For some reason, however, submitting the URL for that page didn't work for me, producing garbled text. Among the remaining problems, I noted a tendency to fail to deal appropriately with some VSO sentences:.
He warned Richard Brook former official in the Clinton Administration, The expected nomination for the office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs if the Democrats win the presidency. At that time, Franz Ochs was working with Kevin Knight at ISI, who is featured in the second post; and I believe though I'm not certain that the MT system whose output was quoted in the second post was one that Franz played a key role in creating.
Today is negation day.
And it could well fail before ratification
The class works out how to say something wasn't, isn't, didn't or won't. Seven linguistics majors arrange themselves in a loose circle around native Kisii speaker Henry Gekonde, and press him for data. The subject is a language documentation course at the University of New Hampshire, taught by Naomi Nagy , and focusing this year on Kisii or Gusii , with MA student Henry Gekonde acting as language consultant.
There are many such courses around the world -- though not as many as there should be -- but Prof. Nagy's course has at least one uncommon characteristic: local radio and TV crews, and a media page. I've always thought that such "field methods" classes are not only interesting to linguists, but also inherently mediagenic. Even for people without much interest in other kinds of linguistics, it's fascinating to watch that kind of exploratory analysis unfold. But I never did anything to act on this belief, and I'm impressed that Naomi has involved local journalists in documenting her documentation course.
This particular course has a good personal-interest story line as well: Gekonde, who has a journalism degree from Indiana and worked as a copy editor on a paper near UNH, is getting a linguistics MA and plans to return to Kenya to create a dictionary for his native language, which is spoken by a million and a half people in Kenya but is not normally used in written forms.
At the end of the LiveScience article on the starling controversy, a perverse piece of reasoning is attributed to Chomsky:. Suppose someone has shown us "that other animals had the basic property of human language. Gerald has some ability that allows him to manifest behaviorally "the basic property of human language": indeed, he's commandingly erudite.
It seems clear though this is only implicated by the above quote, not asserted that Chomsky thinks the relevant ability would have "real selectional advantage," and that we should therefore expect that the ability is used in the wild. So now, what should we infer? Chomsky's addled conclusion: Gerald would show that standard biological theory is wrong, since sometimes complex abilities evolve without leading to performance of any action that would confer selectional advantage.
The correct conclusion: Whatever innate cognitive capabilities Gerald has which enable him to process human language, gorillas must use these capabilities to perform tasks in the wild, tasks which confer selectional advantage. Having observed gorillas in the wild, we take it that those tasks are non-linguistic. If I show you Gerald, you'll choose b every time, right? I mean, duh? Is the headline going to run: Gorillas supersmart: have been hiding it? So Gerald's impressive language abilities would comprise part of the general intelligence that, if in the wild, he would use for dealing with nuts, bananas, and his mother.
There would be no paradox for general biology, except to the extent that we would wonder about the conditions needing to obtain before cultural evolution of language might take place. Imagine you're the editor of the journal Language, and a paper reporting that an ape can converse freely in English and Greek comes in the door. The ape is apparently a co-author. Even though you believe every claim made in the paper, you reject it with the comment "Dear Professor Fielding and colleagues, unfortunately we cannot accept your submission to our journal, as the results are of no interest for linguistics.
Chomsky and his acolytes have long claimed that the ability to process language does not comprise part of the general cognitive abilities of a problem solving animal, but is an entirely disjoint ability dependent on special purpose neural structures. Some of the evidence for this position, e. But the hypothetical Gerald would blow all that evidence out of the water. This week we learned that Starlings have an ability that might loosely be described as linguistic, though you shouldn't expect one to be interviewed on the Tonight Show anytime soon.
Here, I must admit I have some sympathy for Chomsky's position. We now know a little more about bird brains, but not much more about human language. Where I disagree with him is in the general principle he invokes, which seems to imply that even animals producing and comprehending grammatically correct English would be of no consequence for linguistics. Such a conclusion would be ludicrous.
By the way, many of you will recognize my title, taken from the song "Talk to the Animals" by Leslie Bricusse. And the immortal answer: "Of courserous, can't you? Though I haven't been able to find any firm attributions of the quote to Ferguson during her own lifetime she died in , humorous variations on this know-nothing assertion are attested all the way back to The agent asked an old farmer in the congregation to contribute. Paul, and it's good enough for me. The Universalist Quarterly and General Review. Boston: Oct Schaff pertinently observes: There are many lineal descendants of those priests, who, in the reign of Henry VIII, preferred their old-fashioned Mumpsimus Domine to the new-fangled Sumpsimus; even in the enlightened State of Massachusetts, a pious deacon is reported to have opposed the Revision of with the conclusive argument, " If St.
James's Version was good enough for St. Paul, it is good enough for me! Paul, it was good enough for him! Adolphe Cohn of Columbia University recently, in discussing the teaching of French and German in public schools, said that the attitude of a good many people on that subject was explained to him very aptly by a remark he had once overheard in a street car. Two elderly Irish women were talking about their children, when one remarked: "I won't let my child be taught Frinch. Paul to write the Bible in it's good enough for me. He was a lay preacher of the old order, and was admitted without having read the prescribed "Wesley's Sermons," and the rest.
He boasted of his lack of "book learning," and scornfully told a student of the new school, who was learning Latin, that " English was good enough for St. Paul; ain't it good enough for you? So the saying was circulating widely with "St. Paul" rather than "Jesus" long before Ma Ferguson was elected governor of Texas in Though the Newspaperarchive database includes many Texas papers from the s, I have yet to find any attribution of the "Jesus" quote to Ferguson during her administration or afterwards, for that matter.
I did find it credited to "a man in Arkansas" in Chronicle Telegram Elyria, Ohio , April 27, An official of the Rockefeller Institute states that, among hundreds of letters of denunciation received by the institution during the past year, one was from a man in Arkansas who took the view that all this modern education is dangerous, and that the new-fangled practice of grounding preachers in Latin and Greek is especially pernicious.
They ought to be taught English, he said, adding in conclusion: " If English was good enough for Jesus, it's good enough for me. Considering how the quote in all its variants has been used primarily to ridicule the backwardness of unnamed Christians a farmer, a pious deacon, and so forth wary of new approaches to the Bible, I highly doubt Ma Ferguson ever said it — or if she did, she probably would have said it in self-effacing jest. My guess is that this was a free-floating bit of preacher humor that unfairly got attached to Ma Ferguson, much as Winston Churchill attracts various apocryphal witticisms.
Roger was of course referring to Corpus Christi which is actually Latin, but the similar principles apply , San Antonio, El Paso, and so on. Arnold is in Palo Alto waiting for his visitors from Florida. And Eric in San Diego, I think, which in English would be Saint Didacus , as Ambarish Sridharanarayanan pointed out by email is alluding to a quotation often attributed to Miriam Amanda "Ma" Ferguson , "[c]laimed to be said as she was holding a bible, about her reason for objecting to the teaching of Spanish in schools":. As the Wikipedia article on her explains,. She was an educated woman and fairly well-read, so it is somewhat unlikely that she actually ever uttered those words.
That quote has also been widely attributed to many others, both before and since the time of Mrs. Robertson being in favor of both, and Ferguson opposed. She trailed Robertson in the first round of the primary, but won a run-off, and then defeated the former dean of the University of Texas law school in the main election.
More on Miriam Ferguson here , here , here , here. Now that [Jimi] Hendrix's "Banner" has mellowed into classic rock, it's hard to imagine that once some considered it disrespectful. But musicologists cannot name another foreign-language version. I don't know which "musicologists" Montgomery consulted, but Wikipedians have had better luck finding other foreign-language versions of the anthem. Not only that, they discovered a number of other Spanish versions reproduced on the website of the U.
State Department. Will this page be removed now that President Bush has declared that the anthem "ought to be sung in English"? The first stanza of each rendering:.
- Sacred Prayers:Inspirational Words Of Healing and Awareness, Volume 1.
- Der arme Raimondin (German Edition)!
- Author Information?
- Project Gutenberg Canada / Projet Gutenberg Canada.
- AGATA MURIENDO (Spanish Edition);
- Eine Analyse zu Erich Kästners Buch Pünktchen und Anton (German Edition)?
- April 30, 2006?
The first stanza:. Di shtrayfn, di shtern -- in flaker fun shlakht Fun di shuts-vent mir hobn mit bang in blik bagleyt. Un der blits fun raket, un der knal fun kanon Durkh der nakht gerufn hobn zey: es lebt di fon. O zog! Here are the lyrics to a Samoan version, which the Samoa News reports has been proposed as the official anthem of American Samoa:. The Wikipedia article also notes a reference to a French version of the anthem translated by an Acadian Cajun organization in Louisiana, though no lyrics are given.
And finally, Christopher Brunelle has translated the third stanza into Latin found on the abovementioned German lieder page as well as the Classics-L mailing list :. In case you're wondering about the original lyrics for the anthem's rarely sung third stanza, here they are:. And where is that band Who so vauntingly swore That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion A home and a country Will leave us no more?
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution! No refuge can save The hireling and slave From the terror of death and the gloom of the grave, And the star-spangled banner In triumph shall wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. Dont les trois couleurs vives Pendant la dure bataille Au-dessus des remparts Inspiraient notre pays. Abraham Asen:. O'zog, kenstu sehn, wen bagin licht dervacht, Vos mir hoben bagrist in farnachtigen glihen?
Die shtreifen un shtern, durch shreklicher nacht, Oif festung zich hoiben galant un zich tsein? Yeder blitz fun rocket, yeder knal fun kanon, Hot bawizen durch nacht: az mir halten die Fohn! O, zog, tzi der "Star Spangled Banner" flatert in roim, Ueber land fun die freie, fun brave die heim!
And how about Polish? Those affected our correspondent a local grad student called could hardly understand apparently still speak fluently. The cause experts the LSA sent investigate remains elusive. Frighteningly, linguists linguists linguists sent examined are highly contagious. The disorder experts reporters SpecGram sent consulted investigated apparently is a case of pathological center embedding. Today on NPR's Day to Day , and later on All Things Considered , there were short segments about a new Spanish-language version of the national anthem, called Nuestro Himno "Our Anthem" , which "is getting huge airplay on Spanish-language radio stations across the nation ahead of pro-immigration rallies slated for Monday, May 1.
The Spanish lyrics also appear there, followed by English re-translations, but this Wikipedia article appears to be more accurate. I was struck by something toward the end of the Day to Day segment italicized emphasis reflects speaker emphasis on that word :. At a news conference this morning at the White House, the president was asked whether the anthem should be sung in Spanish; the president responded, "I think the national anthem ought to be sung in English.
In the original broadcast I heard, there was audio of President Bush saying these words; I'm curious as to why the audio was replaced in the online version by a quotation spoken by Day to Day co-host Madeleine Brand. The audio of President Bush saying these words begins at the one-minute mark in the online All Things Considered segment , followed by what he said immediately afterward: "I think people who want to be a citizen of this country ought to learn English.
And they ought to learn to sing the anthem in English. This latter bit is also quoted directly in this NYT story emphasis added :. President Bush said today that he thought the national anthem should be sung in English, not the Spanish language version released by a recording company recently. Bush said: "I think people who want to be a citizen of this country ought to learn English.
I was curious about what "the same value" refers to here, so I went to www. Q [from "Kelly"] Mr. President, a cultural question for you. There is a version of the National Anthem in Spanish now. Do you believe it will hold the same value if sung in Spanish as in English? And I think people who want to be a citizen of this country ought to learn English, and they ought to learn to sing the National Anthem in English.
Ask yourself: is that what "Kelly" asked? But I digress. So the reason Bush believes the anthem won't "hold the same value if sung in Spanish as in English" is because he thinks it "ought to be sung in English"? I've been unimpressed by Bush's reasoning skills before, but Luckily, there are folks out there who are more forthcoming about their reasons for believing that the anthem should only be sung in English.
I think that's a terrible thing, that is awful. My thoughts are they should go someplace else and sing it. George Key, great-great-grandson of yes, you guessed it Francis Scott Key, the man who wrote the original poem that eventually became the lyrics of The Star-Spangled Banner. George Key is half-Panamanian, but he cannot believe anyone singing the national anthem in Spanish could possibly understand the true meaning behind the song. There was a man standing out on a ship watching the city of Baltimore being bombarded by the British at the time.
It was the second revolutionary war. And so for somebody to come in here now, who doesn't understand the concept of why that was written and the hardships that were endured by these people -- they just don't understand what they're doing. You can read more about the story behind the national anthem here. Many of us with an American education may recall having learned some of this history, but would any of us have figured much of it out just from the lyrics -- especially given the fact that most if not all of us only learn and sing the first of the full four stanzas?
And if so, why would any of us English speakers need to learn the history in addition to the lyrics? Furthermore, on what basis does George Key believe that the Spanish lyrics don't tell the same story that the English lyrics tell? The translation of the first stanza is not perfect, of course; important factors such as fitting the lyrics to the same music, for example, accounts for some key differences. But here is the translation of the Spanish version back into English alongside the original English version. Can anyone honestly say that one version says more about the British bombing of Baltimore than the other?
Do you see arising, by the light of the dawn, That which we hailed so much when the night fell? Its stars, its stripes yesterday streamed In the fierce combat, as a sign of victory, The glory of battle, in step with freedom, Throughout the night they proclaimed: "It is defending itself! Is it still waving, beautiful, star-covered, Over the land of the free, the sacred flag? Its stars, its stripes, liberty, we are the same. We are brothers in our anthem. In the fierce combat, as a sign of victory, In the fierce combat My people, keep fighting!
Throughout the night they proclaimed: "It is defending itself! O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light, What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming! And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there: O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
I can only conclude from all this that learning and singing the Spanish version of the anthem, in and of itself, will not make anyone more ignorant of the history behind the anthem than those who learn the English lyrics. In fact, I daresay that encouraging folks to learn the Spanish version is likely to make many more of them curious about the history of the anthem and of the country. How in the world can that be a bad thing? But enough with the digressions. Instead of making this sort of point, though, Day to Day co-host Alex Chadwick turns the tables on "Americans":.
The bold italics on Americans above reflects Chadwick's emphasis on this word -- but was it meant to suggest that these were English-speaking Americans who were surveyed, or gulp legal Americans, or what? I don't think the survey said anything about this issue; see this ABC News piece on the Harris survey, from almost two years ago, which leads us to The National Anthem Project website of which "First lady Laura Bush has now become honorary chairwoman" , which has more information about the survey and a very abbreviated version of the history behind the anthem including links to the anthem code and sheet music for the service version , the mariachi version , and the steel drum ensemble version -- how cool is that?
In any event, if you just juxtapose this "result" from the Harris survey with George Key's pronouncement, all you get is that we all really just need to learn the English version of the anthem better. The only problem seems to be that it's in Spanish, and that bugs some people -- and I'll never understand why. With typical timeliness, the Wikipedia article on The Star-Spangled Banner that I have linked to several times above also includes the Spanish version of the first stanza click here and scroll down plus a little note under " Other " that says:.
A Spanish language translation called " Nuestro Himno " "Our Anthem" was created in as a show of support to Latino immigrants in the United States. Similar to the English version of the Canadian national anthem, which was set to the tune of the French version but is not related to the text thereof, this song or himno is merely inspired by and is only an approximate not a word by word translation of the stanzas selected from Key's poem. The lyrics are written above. As such no claim is made that it is the Spanish language version of the United States' national anthem which itself technically is only a part of Key's full poem.
This is where I found the link to the Nuestro Himno Wikipedia article, also linked a few times above. Most interesting and relevant, though, is that there's a Spanish-language Wikipedia article on The Star-Spangled Banner , which has a briefer version of the history behind it still, more comprehensive than the one at The National Anthem Project , with two full translations La bandera estrellada and La bandera de estrellas , the latter dated by Francis Haffkine Snow -- see this Library of Congress entry , where it says that "[t]his version of the song was prepared by the U.
Bureau of Education". The lyrics of Nuestro Himno appears to be derived from this translation; it's generally similar, though some lyrics appear to have been "altered to soften war references". The author of the ABC News article Jim Avila seems to be unaware of the translation, and uses an even worse re-translation than I've found of Nuestro Himno into English to compare with the "classic English version" which, oddly enough, also has errors here :.
The current version will likely spark debate, because it is not an exact translation. Some of the classic lyrics have been changed for rhyming reasons while other phrases were altered to soften war references. For example:. English version: And the rockets red glare, bombs bursting in air gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. Spanish version: In the fierce combat, the sign of victory, the flame of battle in step with liberty through the night it was said it was being defended.
There are several other small errors in Avila's article, two of which are worth noting here. One is the name "Jimi Hendrix" being spelled "Jimmy Hendrix"; Jimi's infamous solo Stratocaster rendition of the national anthem at Woodstock was also brought up in both NPR segments, by way of making the point somewhat weakly, in my view that there is at least some artistic merit to so-called "corruptions" of the anthem. The other is that "George Key" is identified as "Charles Key", who is quoted as saying:. That sure sounds like George to me. But just to be sure, I googled -- and found that indeed there is another descendant of Francis Scott Key named Charles.
But I doubt that Charles was quoted above, because the key search result, a January 30, Seattle Post Intelligencer article , says:. I don't think it does that any more," he told a reporter. By contrast, George's next most recent news-worthy activity appears to have been, in at the age of 71, a push to save the Pledge of Allegiance in Orange County schools. Note in particular the form of the answers. What the experiment shows is that language and animal cognition is a lot more complicated than scientists once thought and that there is no "single magic bullet" that separates man from beast, said Jeffrey Elman, a professor of cognitive science at UCSD, who was not part of the Gentner research team.
If I weren't generally so skeptical of the accuracy of journalists' quotes , I'd tease Jeff for producing a self-refuting mixed metaphor. Surely a pretty reliable way to differentiate between human and beast, in cross-species encounters, is to ask who's using a weapon to kill whom? At least, this is a criterion with high positive predictive value though much lower sensitivity But starlings may be more apt vocalizers and have a better grasp of language than non-human primates.
Monkeys may be trapped like Franz Kafka's Gregor Samsa, a man metamorphosized into a bug and unable to communicate with the outside world, Hauser suggested. Actually, I think I understand what Marc Hauser might be getting at, if he was quoted accurately. Perhaps he's staking out a position diametrically opposite to Wilhelm von Humboldt, who wrote that "The articulated sound, the foundation and essence of all speech, is extorted by man from his physical organs through an impulse of his soul; and the animal would be able to do likewise, if it were animated by the same urge.
Humboldt's idea was, I think, that the urge to communicate -- to act so as to affect others' knowledge and belief -- is the key thing, with the adaptations of the vocal organs and of the perceptual and motor-control systems being secondary consequences of the initially inexpert and faltering practice of communicative action.
Hauser seems to be suggesting that monkeys have the urge, but evolution has somehow played them false, so that differential effectiveness of communicative action has not been able to act as a selective force. There's been a lot of discussion recently in the popular press and in the blogosphere about Timothy Q.
Gentner, Kimberly M. Nusbaum, " Recursive syntactic pattern learning by songbirds ", Nature, 27 April What's said to be at issue here is whether "European starlings Sturnus vulgaris accurately recognize acoustic patterns defined by a recursive, self-embedding, context-free grammar.
Humans regularly produce new utterances that are understood by other members of the same language community. Linguistic theories account for this ability through the use of syntactic rules or generative grammars that describe the acceptable structure of utterances. Recent hypotheses make the central claim that the capacity for syntactic recursion forms the computational core of a uniquely human language faculty.
Specifically, Gentner et al. Fitch and Hauser claimed to show that humans are able to handle a kind of grammar called context-free, whereas cotton-top tamarins can't do this, but can only handle finite-state grammars. In previous posts, I've been highly skeptical of Fitch and Hauser's interpretation of their results:. Apparently not. So I'm not surprised to learn that Gentner et al. However, I don't think that Gentner's success tells us any more about grammatical abilities or the lack of them than Fitch and Hauser's failure did.
That's not because I think that these experiments were badly executed, or that their results are not interesting. There are two key problems, in my opinion. First, we're asked to evaluate the claim that a creature does or doesn't have the ability to process types of sequences conceptually requiring an unbounded number of states, on the basis of experiments that deal with a small number of short sequences. Any competent computer science undergraduate can set up a finite automaton that can process the sequences used in these papers; and if she's taken a machine learning course, she should be able to set up several sorts of models that can learn the distinctions in question, without being able to deal with general context-free or "embedding" languages at all.
See here and here for some discussions of one way to approach this. And second, if we make a serious attempt to investigate what it would be like to have the ability to process general context-free languages, even in the case of fairly short strings, we will quickly find that humans fail the test, at least if we approach the problem in the way that Fitch, Hauser, Genter et al. I'll try to explain and exemplify this in a minute, but first let me temper the generally skeptical tone of this and previous posts on the subject. I do believe that most? I also think that experiments like these are well worth doing, and are likely to lead to some real insights about biological pattern processing.
However, I remain skeptical that such experiments are telling us which animals can process what type of grammar. To see why, let's start with the most basic and simplest context-free language, the Dyck language. As the Wikipedia explains :. In the theory of formal languages of computer science, mathematics, and linguistics, the Dyck language Dyck being pronounced "deek" is the language consisting of those balanced strings of parentheses [ and ]. Sentences of this Dyck language include  ,  , [] , [] , and so on. Trivially, no strings starting with ] or ending with [ are in the Dyck language.
And slightly less trivially, the Dyck language excludes strings like ] and [ in which the number of [ and ] aren't equal. Finally, strings with equal numbers of opens and closes are excluded if as you scan from left to right through the string a ] ever occurs when there is no earlier unmatched [. Another way to think about this is that as you scan from left to right, you add 1 to a total whenever you see [ , and subtract 1 whenever you see ]. If the total is always non-negative as you scan through the string, and is zero at the end, then the string is in this Dyck language.
Otherwise it isn't. Kaye - Death in Kenya Death in. Some Day in the Summer Time Kaye - Death in Zanzibar Death in. Brewer - The Silla Project M. Cale Dixon - set in the San Franciso and S. Kaye - Death in the Andamans Death in. Sanuh set in Borneo and by a native author Amir Falique - B. Lovejoy - Flash Factor set on an oil rig offshore Brunei D.
Medina - White Crocodile Christopher G. II Laurie R. Kerry B. Mike O'Quin Jr. Kaye - Death in Kashmir Death in. Asia Robert E. Parker - Islands David F. Christopher G. Kelly - Death of a Friend T. Guam - U. A Island territory Mariana Islands: Micronesia Sherry Dixon - Natural Destiny fiction about war crimes is probably not technically crime fiction but I thought it was worth listing for historical relevance N. Jarrett series Tom Butler - John. Wallis and Futuna - France Polynesia?????? Boje Willow Rose - One, Two Staes - The Bruges Tapestry historical mystery set in present day California and 16th c.
Bruges P. Robert Janes - St. Grazzi - murder on the night train from Marseilles to Paris Martin R. Auguste Dupin trilogy E. Kaye - Death in Berlin Death in. Agatha Christie - The Mysterious Mr. Morris - Porfiry Petrovich series Thomas C. Paul E. Kaye - Death in Cyprus Death in. Bell Jr. Sicily James R. Turney - The Ottoman Cycle series set in the 15th c. Carpenter - Fires of Alexandria mystery surrounding the burning of the Library of Alexandria in the 1st c.
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This meant that these two key players could often fall into a power struggle, whether it be creative in nature or commercial. And I weep at the fact that those two never stayed together. He had provided writing assist in the first album, more so in the second, and then few on the third album. However, once Bjork left the group after Welcome to Sky Valley was released in , Garcia took on a more prominent role, out of his comfort zone. We see him shine as a prominent lyricist in …And the Circus Leaves Town, stepping up to the challenge of having to hold the weight of Kyuss, on their fourth record following two solid, well received albums , and with only two original members left.
Following their disbandment in , only three months after the last album was released, Garcia tried to funnel all his stoner rock energy into similar projects. Slo Burn and Unida. Without abandoning his already established Palm Desert roots, Garcia formed Slo Burn in together with Hale, Garisson, and Houghton, amidst a plethora of various other Californian stoner metal.
Other ex-members had moved on to different things; Homme with Desert Sessions and Queens of the Stone Age, Oliveri with the more aggressive sound of Mondo Generator, and Bjork into producing as well as drumming for hardcore punk band De-Con before also joining Desert Sessions. Slo Burn may be seen as a band which received unaccountable popularity compared to their actual releases. After a five track demo, Slo Burn released one EP, which they also co-produced, in that year of activity called Amusing the Amazing with only four tracks.
Later the other five demo tracks were unofficially released against this EP. The lenient approach is to say the Slo Burn have nine tracks, five of which are inferior in quality due to the demo version, and the more strict would be to say they only have 4. Tracks that are clearly of the same pace and level of complexity, adequately distinguishable and aggregately likable: if you liked one, you are inclined to like them all.
Essentially, it is something that perhaps Kyuss could have done, or could the proto stoner band have done it better? We will never know. In , Unida was the next step for Garcia. Scott Reader was thrown into the mix on bass in place of Dinsmore, giving Unida more pull by reinforcing its link to Kyuss, before also being replaced by Eddie Plascencia.
The band started out powerfully and promisingly, releasing a split EP with. This kind of move, inherently breeds comparison. In the same year, the band released their debut and only complete record Coping with the Urban Coyote. Officially, Unida disbanded in without any further material, except what has been leaked on to the internet. They re-grouped after a nine year hiatus, with new bassist Owen Seay, brother of guitarist Arthur. It makes one wonder, was Garcia caught up in a post-Kyuss curse?
Why was there no continuity? Enter the a side-project, Hermano. The band, not so bothered about making something innovative or commercially catchy, goes purely raw heavy rock, masculine stoner. They played honest heavy tunes, and received good reviews for their debut long EP Only A Suggestion in , leaving us with a taste for more. Two years later with Dare I Say Hermano returned for a second record, which came as a welcome surprise among rock music circles, especially at a time when on the Unida front, things were stalling tremendously. Hermano also released a live album in the interim to their third album of , Into the Exam Room which clearly sets the side-project-vs-band argument straight.
What you expect is what you get, Garcia playing the most popular songs of Kyuss. A blast from the past, which was quite welcomed considering the turn-out at his concerts to listen to music that ceased to play live for over 15 years. In October of that year after completing the tour, it was announced that in the spring of , Garcia would launch a new round of touring, this time joined by original Kyuss members, Oliveri on bass and Bjork on drums and changing the tour name to the provocative Kyuss Lives!
The tour did happen in that year without any worries. There has been much confusion about the legal battles and power struggles between Homme and Garcia, with financials and ethics at stake. It has been reported that Homme has no real beef with the touring under the name in question, but recording under the name would be out of the question. Do we blame him? In a nutshell, Garcia wanted. Again the criticism of this album is that there is nothing new or ground breaking to look for. Despite this, it is the most complete work that Garcia had accomplished in those last ten years.
Luckily I was able to see the Lives!
It seemed like they should play for another hour or so, such was the crowd thirst. Yet Homme reconsidered his stance regarding the group in after Kyuss Lives! Homme filed a law-suit to-. He resented that what he had left in his past was becoming a strong present and a money-making one at that. The lawsuit was ruled in favour of Homme, and Kyuss Lives! In the early part of , Garcia announced that he would headline a tour of live performances around Europe under the totally comprehensible.
Its formation was good news for all parties concerned. Homme stopped having a bee in his red-headed bonnet; Garcia cut any ties by ending his obsession to resurrect dinosaurs. He was finally at a stage where he needed to power through, be independently creative and prove to himself, above all, the change in his intention of trying to reinvent music under the Kyuss name, that potentially could damage overall reputation of the name Kyuss and seriously divide not only the fan-base, but also influence the new music coming from other bands to which Kyuss music is the skeleton.
Following a lawsuit against Kyuss Lives! It was essentially Kyuss Lives! Oliveri is no longer considered as an active member of the band, replaced by Mike Dean Corrosion of Conformity in early , although is considered part of the creative team for their debut album Peace Amidst all the fowl-mouthing, and generally tense atmosphere brought about by the Kyuss Lives!
There is no evidence to make this claim, of course, although Bjork has said of Homme even. It is deliberate and is specifically addressed to the one person who was not part of it ehm! Homme , hopefully burying the hatchet once and for all. It gives off strong atmosphere, and can be as sensual as tenacious and the composition influences go beyond the desert. Essentially, Garcia has founded a vocal school which he stands by with ardent valour. Currently, Vista Chino are on tour until the following spring, with live reports and set lists mentioning a heavy count of Kyuss cover songs.
So you can take Garcia out of Kyuss, but not Kyuss out of Garcia. I finally had in my hands, the first album of the Arctic Monkeys; you know, the one with the guy on the cover who looks just like a Greek actor, Papamichail from the Greek movie Diplopenies , who, I found out, is a friend of the band playing in The Violet May. It describes it all, sleeping late, the mornings I come home from clubbing, my wild youth. So, I hear that the album was quite a hit, it instantly sold more than any other in the history of British music.
Every Saturday, the young party in the company of a lot of drugs and live like there is no tomorrow; all is just a routine for them. That may be correct, you know, I feel them, this job is eating me up. I never and for no reason see the day, mine starts at the afternoon. How could it not,. A dirty but awesome sound, a rock-bottom rhythm and lyrics that speak of just about anything and everything.
For that happens in my nights - how could I not love them? They have started touring again, but it seems unlikely that they will make a stop in Greece. I have to admit I was really jealous and mad because of the fact that I am poor and cannot travel to Ibiza; there you and people would see them in a beach bar, that was THE rock event of the summer. The best part is that Alex is available again, so long Johanna.
The mentor and great frontman of the Queens of the Stone Age introduced them to the desert of his music and also did the production for this amazing album. Huge comeback, really, lot of music genres brougbt together, more dynamic, more imposing; all I expected and more. It is now, officially, the second band that has all their four albums in the No1 of the charts. How cool it was that they let us listen to their whole album through the internet until its official release! The curtains open, the sun reached the studio and the hearts of the Arctic Monkeys created an album so fresh, that got them out of the night for the first time.
Dear diary, I grow up and thankfully music follows. Teacher, thank you for still teaching me and for taking the darkness away from so many bands. What an album!!! Erotic, intoxicating, better than ever. Rapers like Lil Wayne and Drake have helped like they only know how.
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She also appears in the videoclip of the song, where Alex demonstrates us the tattoo he has in his left hand, a white Yorkshire rose with the name of his homeland on top, inspired by his homeland, Sheffield,. Real friends will always be there for you, when you need them and when you dont need them. For a real friend YOU are important, and not how many things you have achieved in your life.
Real friends are able to see your personality, not your wallet Real friends will show you that there is a rainbow after the storm. Fuck U might be a song that might be dedicated to the former president of the US, George Bush, or even a generic hate song towards a person or a conversation many had with themselves. He now makes quite clear that he is either speaking to a celebrity or to himself.
A few lines later, the artist is giving another hint to whom he is referring to. The way the lyrics are sung may be another hint in our quest of finding to whom this song is referring to, since if we find them, everything will become clearer. The emotion of the lyrics is huge, although the singer performs in a calm way.
Finally, and IMHO, the most clear lyric. How many people are killed this way? How many people commit suicide in this way? Oh, and of course this line to ensure my analysis so far. You might now re-listen to this song. And of course listening to our favorite artists performing live is a Burst Magazine is proud to present all those live musical diapriceless, unforgettable experience.
Are you ready for the trip? Brace yourselves and let us begin! Have you ever wondered how many beautiful live albums are out there? Special Thanks to George Kofinakis. Zappa in New York is a live double album by Frank Zappa. The edition reached 57 on the Billboard albums chart. A double live album by American hard rock band Aerosmith, released in The back of the album cover includes two coffee stains over the picture of Joe Perry playing before a live audience. Double Live Gonzo! The album has reached 3 times Platinum status in the United States. Burst www. Strangers in the Night peaked at No.
The title is a reference to the horror movie of the same name. The album was certified gold in Argentina in Live is a double live album released by Fleetwood Mac in It was the first live album from the then-current line-up of the band, and the next would be The Dance from Released on 27 June , it peaked at 1 on the UK album charts. It is considered as one of the best live metal albums of all time. Stage Left is a live album by Canadian progressive rock band Rush, released in A video release under the same name, with slightly different content, was released in on VHS and later on Laserdisc, and in on DVD.
The album reached critical acclaim and was voted 9th best live album of all time in a poll by Classic Rock Magazine in Songs in the Attic is the first live album by Billy Joel, released in see in music. At the time of its release, it was unique as being the first widely available appearance of music from his first album, Cold Spring Harbor, originally released in The Jacksons Live! The album was recorded during their North American tour in fall , known as the Triumph Tour, described by Rolling Stone magazine as one of the best 25 tours from to It was recorded in September at a free benefit concert in Central Park, New York City, where the duo performed in front of more than , people.
Proceeds went toward the redevelopment and maintenance of the run-down green space in the middle of Manhattan. This concert and album marked the start of a short-lived reunion for Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel. A multi-viewed Youtube video can be enough, even though you may be a nobody, as long as people watch it… Luckily for us all, there are a few kind of famous people out there, whom curiously nobody recognizes, yet their works are worldwide known!! I am talking about art and similar creations, like songs or paintings you have heard or seen, but never bothered to find out who the artist is, and other similar cases like that… I bet you rarely wonder who designed the cover art of an album, or the t-shirt you are wearing as you read this magazine!
Now, imagine how much harder it is to know about someone who chooses to linger in shadows…Well, I am about to reveal an unknown famous to you Bursters, the dark Mister Sam Shearon! The music industry is mostly his means of immortality. He keeps an excessive museum-like collection of peculiar artifacts, from biomechanical steampunk objects to vampire killer tools and stuffed bats if I may exaggerate a bit , as he is a great horror story and myth lover, inspired by monster creators like Lovecraft, to create his own monstrosities.
What caught my attention is the new thing with rock stars turning into superheroes. Time flies Since working on that final album, Angelina and Al Jourgensen contacted me, invited me out to stay at their compound in El Paso, Texas and asked whether I would be interested in creating the Ministry comic-book series. I jumped in with both feet and went out to stay with the Jourgensens on several occasions over the summer. Al is a great character - he has a wicked sense of humor, very dark and sarcastic Angelina is an amazing woman, a real powerhouse who runs the machine behind the scenes like a welloiled juggernaut of creation Great energy all around - very inspiring to be among such talented people!
How difficult is it to transform a rock idol to a comic hero? Are rockers and metallers up to it? Great question But there are certainly some villains in the music industry. So, to transfer the world of music into a comic book We have the fans of course To open the eyes of the masses is a dangerous thing in the eyes of the higher powers How do you feel about the comic world today? Are we going to see that happen ever again? The internet has of course changed the way we live now. More-so, since the advent of Facebook, the world has taken a tremendous leap, especially in the last three years.
People are interacting and sharing the things they love more than ever before Comic-Book super heroes have become a very, very successful motion picture industry conversion and I see this pulling a huge audience back into the comic-book industry itself We have seen a lot of movies centered on comic book heroes and graphic novels. Is this something that you look forward to? Or do you thing that it degenerates the artists? I do look forward to super hero movies I love to escape into the realm of motion pictures in general as often as I can. I think it pushes both sides forward to create more realistic and believable, Could I be Iron Man?
I think that will be one of the strong points with the Ministry series I have always been fascinated with the creation of. I have seen your grim and horrific figures, but only in static sketches. Would you like to give them life into a universe of their own? Still waiting for new stuff out of Samson Mansion!
I do have a world in mind that indeed is filled with monsters and characters I do have three books of my own in process Those will be following the Ministry comic-book series. As for Samson Mansion, that is being fully launched in the new year You worked with big names in the past and you still do. How do they treat you as an artist? Do they give you strict orders to follow or they just let you do your stuff?
A major part of your work is cover artworks. Tell us about it! I work with names big and small, famous and unknown I walk away quite happily from this kind of people. I do, of course, take into account what my clients are looking for in order to execute their wishes, but when. How often do your ideas contradict to those of the people who hire you? I would never tell a potential client their artwork sucks I would never try to convince a client either Each album contains twenty five original pieces of artwork Any big names behind running projects? I never felt that you were affected by politics but as the crisis around the world escalates and here in Greece even more , do you think the art world is affected by all that, in the best or the worst way?
We have to be very careful with what we put out in order to give a genuine and fresh account of what we believe in. I was always under the impression that artists are historians but with a twisted perspective, and sometimes can see the future. Does this apply in your case? Has it happened to you? THAT is a strange feeling and often annoyingly. Concepts and ideas on the same brain-wave perhaps How do you feel about the future, through the prism of art? The nuclear threat stigmatized the decades after the Great War. What do you think is in stock for our generation?
Perhaps the threat of an extra-terrestrial invasion will be soon announced One thing is for sure Whether as an act of war or via nature itself Do you consider death to be an inspiration? Has it been for you? So it does inspire me but along with all the other aspects that it relates to Death is more than a final act If you could choose a band to play in your funeral, which would that be and why? What can expect for ? What about the mystery behind the new-yet-empty Facebook store?
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My guess is merchandise with your creations? Any other changes on the cyber universe? Maybe a web-comic coming up to speak my mind out-loud? Any plans to visit the Mediterranean? We talked a bit about the financial crisis in Greece and Europe — to break the ice — and fortunately he had the time to answer to all of my questions so calmly and eagerly that I felt I was talking to a friend. How do you feel about it? I feel about 49 years old! We still got that. Have you always wanted to become a guitar player, playing in a band? Was it a lifetime dream or did it just happen?
Do you play the guitar? So, that what I wanted to do, I guess, when I was younger, I wanted to be a rockstar! Well, it happens with all the obvious ways but most of the times for me it all starts with being inspired with something. When Alex quit the band, it was premeditated. Metal was just like… everybody dropped everything and run over the Seattle thing! We still had the band but actually there was no more love.
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We tried to become a more commercial band. In Legacy and New Order we were heavy and then started. How much have these incidents affected you as a band and you as a person? But, at the same time, he never freaked out; not once. With all the spiritual guidance he had and Native American medicine, it passed quickly. The good thing that happened out of it was that it brought Greg and Alex and Louie back into Testament. We got together, we were in the room together and we had a really good time and everybody said that we could actually do something more.
About James Murphy now, it was a really weird condition. He was sick for such a long time and we all thought he was crazy. Too goofy, too stupid… He was like a South Park character. He participated in a record with us but he was still sane and could do stuff although he was acting a little weird, once more he was a bit crazy. But when we found out, wow, I felt bad for thinking that way about him. But this actually explains his behavior. He was a cartoon from South Park indeed! Everything was funny for him… just funny, no seriousness. Let me guess was it as stressful as it was exciting?
It was written over the last 5 years and the last 6 months, lots of old and new stuff. But yeah… stressful is the word. So, you have too many memories, right? I mean, it literally took me three days to clean the garage. Are these gigs your plans for celebration, or maybe have any other plans too? We have a new live DVD coming out. The way I look. Do you feel satisfied with your career at this point?
Well, for Testament, yes, it was the highest position. Yes, pretty satisfied for this extreme music. Do you keep your promises? Well, practice what you preach!!! The plan is to start working on new material in winter. The last time you were in Athens, Greece, was. Dio passed away the very next year. Did you play another gig with him later that year or was it the last? Dio or another festival, I have to look at my itinerary. Any memories from that amazing metal god? He had a great memory and if you had learnt anything on how to treat people, he was the guy.
He made me feel like a million dollar guy and if there are people who can do that, then the world is a better place. Last question, do you have any plans for us, your fanatics, in Greece? Are you coming back anytime soon? As soon as… next spring or maybe summer, sometime in You, know time flies… Thank you very much for your time! Take care!
Yes, thank you, you too! Dave Wyndorf Before I dialed this number, I took a deep breath. Dave fucking Wyndorf would be at the end of the line! Despite my nervousness I finally dialed up the number, just to find out that Dave is so cool that even hell could freeze over! Thank you, man! Your new album is about to be released, so how do you feel about it? I feel good! Releasing a new album is like delivering a baby! The album was produced by Phil Caivano and you. Mixing, mastering? Mixing was done by Joe Barresit, an amazing mix engineer in California.
He did some great things. He did some desert rock back then, he did early Kyuss. He did a fantastic job. We went to California and it was very important to me that the album would go to the right hands, the right people. You said that the songs are a kind of Space-Noir. I liked that term and I think it perfectly describes the feeling of new album. Would you like to be more specific to our readers? Space Noir term came up by me and has to do a lot with what happened in my head. It has to do with alienation, some bad romances too, some weird tricks in romance, lies, of course, the kind of stuff that make life interesting.
So I use the vernacular science fiction to describe this normal and very, very human point in my life. I have to ask now, which are your favorite noir films? Oh boy! One of my favorite is Kiss Me Deadly, such an amazing film. A is a great film, too. What a strange and weird piece of film history that was, right? Noir, you know, is like look at these crazy little movies. They are always creepy. And stories from the underworld. Did you do that on purpose or did it just happen?
Very much on purpose. Phil and I worked on that. It was impossible. So when we decided to write Last Patrol, we went down so that each and every instrument has its character and its personality. Seems ok. I had an idea for the cover. That was the vibe I wanted. I found John, who was willing to work and we did a lot back and forth phone calls on the internet.
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I said that we need the bull-guy in space but feel free to put your thing in it! We worked really well back and forth. I wanted it to be a painting, to be more vintage! I wanted it to look old and he did it. He was the right man for the job I guess! He totally delivered. He is a very talented man.
Who is responsible for the amazing Last Patrol cover? That cover was painted by a man named John Sumrow. He did an excel-. Even from the 4-way Diablo album you made a music turn as the albums were closer musically speaking to what we call. Am I right? Yeah, Absolutely! Psych rock, I love it! I found a sound continuity through the albums that I really enjoyed as a listener.
Very cool! Thanks dude, I appreciate that. This is the first Monster Magnet album without Ed Mundell on guitars since You were in the same band for almost 20 years. How are you dealing with his absence? He was living in California and he kind of started his own solo project, you know. I am prepared to work with anyone who wants to be on a Monster Magnet record. You know, I write all the guitar parts alone. Monster Magnet has been my baby for a long time. You are about to release Last Patrol in several vinyl versions.
Oh I love it, I totally love it. The cover of Last Patrol, for which we talked before, was designed only with vinyl in mind. No matter how convenient computerized digital music gets, I hope we would never forget this fantastic celebration of the project, you know. We are living in strange times, where our music has to be updated to online social media. Which are your thoughts as an artist and as a musician on the internet era? I think that promises much more than it actually delivers. Still the only true way I can see is to gather many people in the same room and play for them.
So, yeah, the internet is cool, it is great but, at some point, you have to understand that the true music way is to play in front of people who like your music. Any additional tour plans? I know.