- Deutsche Tribüne
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- Die 1830er Revolution als europäisches Medienereignis
Niemann, Ed S.
Numsen, N. G 18 Light St.
Plack, Jacob S. Frederick St. Plitt, George Central and Eastern Aves. Iladdatz, Prof. F Baltimore City College. Fred German Correspondent. Reinhard, Dr. Ferd W. Madison St. Requardt, J. Fred St. Paul St. Ruhstrat, Carl E. Sadtler, Rev. Huntingdon Ave. Sattler, Geo. W S. Scheer, Valentine E.
Monument St. Scheib, Rev. Henry N. Carrollton Ave. Schmeisser, Ernst ". Schmucker, Samuel D 10 E. Schneidereith, L. C S. Sharp St. Schroeder, Henry A Hoen Building. Schultze, Wm. Theo Maltby House. Schulz, A. H German Bank. Schwab, S. Smyser, James A 4 Light St. Spieker, Prof. Staib, Adolph W. Thomas, Col. John L Hoen Building. Volck, Dr. Albert J N. Von Lingen, Geo. A German Consulate. Walpert, Fred N. Wellington, Geo. Assistant Treasurer.
Wood, Prof. By Louis P. In the following year! These were the first German immigrants to this country. We find them next among the Dutch in New Xetherland,. Holland was then still considered as one of the States belonging to the German empire ; the political ties with the empire were at no time of a firm nature and at the peace of Westphalia in they were formally severed.
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They spoke the same dialect in Holland as in the adjoining Ger- man provinces, the Frisian being the most prevalent, and it was easier for a Low-German to understand a Hollander than to understand one of the High-German dialects. Low- German was then the official, pulpit and literary language of North Germany.
The Dutch idiom developed as the literary language of the people of Holland in the six- teenth century, and the modern High-German has slowly ad- vanced its victorious progress to the North. The Hollanders dwelling in the Delta of the river Rhine were in close com- mercial and social intercourse with the people living on the 14 upptT banks of tliat river ami its tributaries.
From them they rtveivtnl the timber for llie building of their ships, and to them thev sohl the colonial and tropical products brought home by daring adventurers from distant countries beyond the ocean. Another important factor, which in those days was a stronger bond than race and nationality, was the Protestant religion and church, which united Holland and Protestant Germany in sympathy and common action.
The reader will by the foregoing relations of these countries understand, how it came that the Germans were largely repre- sented in the colonisation of New Netherland. He anchored in the bay of New York and went up the river in a boat as far as where Tarry town is now situated.
In a letter dated July 8th, , he gives a glowing description of the bay, river and country to his king. Nothing, however, was done by France in this discovery, and it was forgotten. In the year lf 19 Hendrick Hudson, an F]nglishmau in the Dutch service, seeking a Northwest passage to India, re-discovered the bay of New York and sailed up the river to where Albany is now situated. By virtue of this discovery, Holland, according to the curious maxim of international law then and even now prevailing, laid claim of ownership to all the territory of present New York and as far South as the South river now Delaware.
In they established a small factory on Man- hattan Island, erected a small fort, called Fort Orange, on the present site of Albany, and a small fort, called F'ort Nassau, on the South river, near where Philadelphia is now situated, and also several trading posts with the Indians. In Wilhelm Usselinx organized in Holland the Dutch West India Comjmny, consisting of a number of rich capitalists and merch- ants. The Dutch government granted to this company a charter L'-ivini'- it the exclusive ] rivilege of trade, the power to appoint 15 governors and officers, make laws, administer justice, and private ownership of land in all the Dutch possessions of North America.
The company had also the right to conclude treaties and in many respects exercise the functions of a sovereign government. In the year the first ship sent by the company landed on the Hudson thirty immigrant families. Most of these were Walloons, some from Luxemburg and other provinces. The great honor, the emoluments and almost absolute power of his office as a Governor of a territory now comprising four States of the Union, had no charm for him and he left the next year for home again. His successor in office, Wilhelm Verhulst, who came in , merely looked at his new immense domains and immediately set sail again for Holland.
The company had learned, that it took a man of a different stamp than the merchants and capitalists. May and Verhulst, to be the Governor of an infant colony in the wilderness of North America, and they selected Peter Minnewit, a native and citizen of the City of Wesel on the Rhine in Germany. He arrived at New Amsterdam on the fourth of May Of the earliest Governors of the colonies he appears to have been the most capable. He was full of energy but with all the moderation and circumspection required to deal with the aboriginal Indians on the one side and the poor immi- grant settlers and intruders on the other.
It was well that he was invested with the most extensive authority. One of his first acts was to acquire a legal title to Manhattan Is- land by purchase from the Indians. This was an act of justice, which could not fail to make a good impression on them. Heretofore in the English colonies the Indians had been ousted by rude force and no regard whatever had been paid to their prior rights of possession.
This concentration of the ] opulation gave the colony strength and tsecuritv and removed from the Indians the irritation as well as the lawlessness which are fostered by isolated habitations. In his dealing with the Indians he was just and iirni, he gained their confidence and thereby extended the trade with them in furs. In consequence the export of furs, which in amounted to only 25, florins in value, increased to 56, tlorins in S, and in 1 New Amsterdam recorded an im]iort of It was named "New Amsterdam'' and variously estimated at to tons burthen.
Every year ships with immigrants arrived and among them a large number of Germans. This church was first opened by Hev. Michaelis in lf A change in the policy of the West India Company, by granting to its influential members large tracts of land, manors with fendal rights, was the cause of misunderstanding between tovernor Minnewit and the company and in he was re- called.
He considered hirtiself dealt with wrongly and sailed for Ibdlaiid seeking redress. He remained there for some years expecting his re-instalment in office. Keeling sore and disappointed, he left his native country in and went to Sweden with the intention and object to form an opposition company under the auspices of the Swedish lovernment, to invade the lands of the Dutch West India Company.
Sweden was at that time under the reign of its glorious King Gustavus. The King and his Chancellor were ambitious to found an empire and readily entered into the schemes of Usselin. Its term was limited to twelve years from the first of May , and the subscription was to be open to everybody until the first of May The King pledged four hundred thousand dol- lars from the royal treasury to the enterprise.
The wealth and population of Sweden was however deemed insufficient for the gigantic and far reaching programme of this company and it was resolved to solicit the German people to join in the en- terprise. The new doctrines of the Eeformation had extended from Germany to Sweden, and Sweden had established the Lutheran church as the exclusive religion of the State. There- by Protestant Germany had entered into close relation with Sweden and looked to it for support in its mighty and desperate struggle with the Catholic imperial power.
In the first circular in the German language was pr in ted-by Christopher Rausner in Stockholm, inviting the German people to take part in the new enterprise.
Other circulars were published and circulated in Protestant Germany, but the venture took no practical shape. In the King of Sweden, with his army, was invited by the Protestant princes of Germany to assist them. He was placed at the head of the Protestant armies and began his victorious career. A few lays thereafter he fell in tlie Inittle of I.
His Chaneellor, Oxenstiern, eontinned to earry out the policy of hi. It was however impossible in the midst of a war of such a horril le and destructive nature to carry out coloni- sation schemes. Germany, which, including the German pro- vinces of Austria, now supports a population of more than sixty millions of people, was at the end of the thirty years Avar computed to have left no more than 5 to 6 millions of in- habitants.
Germany had been the great battlefielcl of Europe. Troops of every nation had trampled on its soil and lived off its fruit; how could it take an active part in the colonisation of distant countries, which then en- gaged the attention of the AVestern European States. When tlierefore Peter Minnewit, the late Governor of New Netherland, proposed to him to fit out an expedition to seize a part of New Nether- land and establish a Swedish colony he found willing ears. He represented the fertility and salubrity of the country on the Delaware Bay, and the weakness and inefficiency of the Dutch company.
Campari us, the earliest Swedish historian of New Sweden, informs us that Germans took part in this expedition. The treasurer of Virginia the Governor being absent demanded a copy of the commission given by Queen Christina to the ships. This was refused unless the Governor would grant free trade in tobacco to the Swedes. The ships remained ten days, taking in fresh water and provisions.
The com- mander told the Virginians that they intended to sail to the South River to lay off plantations for the raising of tobacco, beyond the boundaries of Virginia, like the Dutch had done on the Hudson River. The first act of Governor Minnewit on their arrival on the South River, was, as he had done on Maiir hattan Island, to purchase from the Indians a tract of land in exchange for goods and trinkets. The deed for this land was written in the Low- German, and was burned in the fire which destroyed the royal palace at Stockholm in He erected on this land, which is now a part of the city of Wilmington, Del.
He gave them an evasive answer. As soon as he was fortified he established his authority as Governor of a new colony under the protection of the government of 20 SweiU'U. Jo- hannes Printz, a native of Holstein, was appointed his successor; he was a Jerman nobleman, whose full name was ''Edler von Buchau. He was of large stature, weighing more than pounds, of brusque manner and jovial disposition. Printz arrived with two vessels, the ,,Fama" and ,, Storch," and fifty-four German families, mostly from Pomerania.
The Dutch commissioner Hudde had bought land from the Indians at the site where the city of Philadelphia is now built, and raised the coat of arms of Holland on a post planted on the land. A Swedish officer tore it down and Governor 21 Printz sustained him. Stuyvesant in the year had the small "P'ort Nassau" demolished and erected a larger and stronger fort, named "Casimir," five miles from Fort Christina, where New Castle, Del. By this the Dutch regained most of the trade with the Indians, which they had lost to the Swedes under Minnewit.
Printz protested in vain. A change had taken place in Europe, the peace of Westphalia had been con- cluded. Sweden had retained the German province of Pomer- ania and Bremen, but it was utterly exhausted in money and men, and Holland had nothing to fear from it. There being no further reason for its continued subserviency to Sweden, the West India Company instructed its Governor of New Netherland to assert their right of authority over the Swedish settlements on the Delaware.
Printz, finding his resources too limited to successfully cope with the populous New Nether- land, and the Swedish government feeling its inability to maintain the distant colony, having transferred its affairs to the Board of Trade of Stockholm, he sent in his resignation. He was in such haste to return to Europe that he did not wait for the acceptance of his resignation, but sailed in a Dutch vessel, leaving the government of New Sweden in the hands of his son-in-law, a Mr. The Board of Trade of Stockholm determined to make an effort to save the colony and appointed its secretary, Johann Risingh, a native of the city of Elbing in Pomerania, as the successor of Printz.
There was a rumor that Risingh had been an officer in the Swedish army and at the siege of Chemnitz in Saxony had been cashiered for misconduct. He brought with him about immigrants. His instructions were to preserve the peace and keep on the best of terms with the Netherlanders, as well as with the English, bordering on the South of the colony. No sooner however had he arrived in his colony, Avhen he wantonly commenced hostilities, and in by stratagem and superior numbers overpoAvered the garrison of "Fort Casimir.
He reported the matter to the com] auy in Holland, who sent him two ships with troops and ordered him to subdue the Swedish colony. In the meantime a Swedish ship had come to New Amster- dam: it was seized by the authorities and Stuyvesant invited Governor Kisingh to come to New Amsterdam with a view to adjust the difficulties Risingh discreetly declined the invitation. The temerity of Governor Ixisingh in his dealings with New Netherland had probably its origin in an overween- ing contempt which he must have felt for the supiness of the West India Company heretofore shown to the Swedish intruder.
The time for action however was near. The troops from Holland arrived and Governor Stuyvesant prepared for war. All the able bodied men of New Amsterdam were pressed in the military service for the campaign. Only the Jews Avere exempt on the payment of a monthly Avar tax of sixty-five ''Stiver" in commutation of military service. The Dutch ships in the harbor available for the purpose were seized for the expedition.
On Sunday, the first of September , after attending divine service with his army, he embarked on seven ships carrying from 6 to men and sailed for "New Sweden. The expedition then proceeded for Fort Christina. Governor Risingh was requested either to leave the country or acknowledge the sovereignty of New Netherland.
He refused to do either. The Dutch then commenced hostilities by plundering the poor settlers. On the next day Risingh capitulated. The terms of surrender were humane and honorable to both parties, private property was respected, the settlers where not to be molested except that they were required to take the oath of allegiance to Holland, religious liberty was guaranteed, the Swedish garrison to leave with flying colors and to be transported by Dutch ships to an English or Fi-ench harbor.
After the surrender. Governor Stuyvesant in pursuance of instruction from his company, offered to. Risingh preferred 23 to be sent to Europe. On tlie 0th of October he arrived with his small garrison in New Amsterdam, and there being a delay in the shipment of the party, he charged Stuyvesant with a breach of the terms of Ihe surrender. Stuyvesant answered in an open letter in which he stated that IJisingh and his soldiers were so dissolute and disorderly, that the captains of the ships declined to have them as passengers.
Risingh answered in an open letter, written in the High-German language, wherein he charges the Dutch soldiers of having pillaged the settlers and stores at Fort Christina after the surrender. All these letters are preserved in the archives in Albany. The number of inhabitants at the Swedish settlement at the time of surrender is given as seven hundred. I believe that this only included the settlers near Fort Christina and not those who lived at some distance from it.
The settlers were not much grieved by a change of govern- ment, which could afford them better protection and did not in- terfere iu their private affairs. Their connection with the Swed- ish Lutheran Church continued until the war of independence. The consistory at Upsala exercised the spiritual authority and continued to send learned ministers of the gospel to the colony to take charge of the Lutheran congregations. Most all of of these ministers appear to have had full command of the German language; they not only assisted and preached to the Germans, but we frequently find them in charge of German congregations in the colonies.
One of their early ministers, Rev. Another German-Swedish minister was Rev. Justus Falkner at the same church. How many Germans were among the Swedish settlers cannot be stated. The Swedes being at the time in 24 possession of a part of Gerniany, and lookcnl upon as the fhampions of tlie Lntlioran Church, the difference in na- tionalitv was not so groat, as it is at the present time.
The Swedes erected the first Lutheran Church, which is still standing in the city of Wilmington, Dol. The Swede Rev. The ministers, TaV riel Nasman, Acrelius, Unander, Parlin, Sandin, Wrangel, Lidenus and Nyberg, all sent here by the consistory of Sweden during the colonial times, were learned men of high christian character. They assisted the German immigrants, who were arriving in large numbers, in a true christian spirit. For a time efforts were made to unite the Swedish and German Lutheran churches in America, and it came very near of being consummated. The English Episcopalians also made efforts to unite with the Swedish church, claiming greater affinity to it in its organization of bishoprics, than other churches, and when Rev.
Charles Lute of the English Episcopal church as his assistant, the Swedish church soon thereafter united with, or rather was absorbed by the English Episcopalians. A Rev. He endured long fasts, had visions and claimed direct inspira- tion from the Almighty. He wandered through the colony for a number of years and was well known among the Indians. Some elieved him to be a saint and others doubted his sanity.
He returned to Finland, where he was locked up as a lunatic in the fortress of Gefle, where he died. The authority of the Swedes in this country lasted but seventeen years ; the Hollanders, who succeeded them, were 25 ousted by the Kiiglisli in October , and the English in turn were ousted in by the only lawful authority, the people of this country.
About the year a number of Mennonites came fronj Holland and settled at the Iloorn Kill, on the Delaware, a short distance below Philadelf hia. The colony existed but about two years, for when the English had taken possession of New York, Robert Carr, the new Governor, sent a military expedition to the settlement, which destroyed it, as he says, "even to a nail.
But in , blind and destitute, he came with his wife to Germantown, where they raised a subscription for him, and built him a house, where he peacefully died after a few years. Von Rev. Vesler's Leben ist ein sehr bewegtes gewesen. In letzterer Stadt blieb Yesler von bis Doch getiel es ihm dort auch nicht.
Es fuhren eben die ersten Schiffe von Portland nach dem neuen Victoria. Denn die Kchniierigen, zeTlurnpten Zdte der Shiwa-Indianer, welche s ;hon mehr an Efjquiineaiix erin- nern, waren aufgeschlagen? Im Herbst '52 war Yesler angelangt. Baker- Gebirgsstocks, des amerikanischen Mt. Nichtsdestoweniger waren es ernste, harte Zeiten. Louis Ferdinand Fix. Loijiis Kerciinanci Kix:. Vortrag den Ilerrii I.
August Diis war I'lui' gewaltige und grosse Zeit. Die obengenannte National-Versaninilung in Frankfurt a. Im Januar traf Bromme in Frankfurt a. Noch lebt in Washington ein anderer damaliger Seejunker, der "Weinhiindler Hr. Juni datirt. Am Noch zwei Mal hat er seinen alten Chef in St.
Magnus, unterhalb Bremen, besucht, wo derselbe im Alter von 56 Jahren, , starb. Mai IS,"! Italien war nach der zweiten Besiegung Napoleons L zu keinem einheitlichen Staate umgebildet worden. Ausser diesen neigte sich auch der Papst Pius IX. Beide waren bald innige Freunde geworden. Ober-Commandant des Ingenieurcorps. Januar in Washington von Wm. Gezeichnet: Wm. J:inucir Jetzt kommt seine Abfahrt nach den Vereinigten Staaten. Ich erinnere mich noch sehr genau, dass zu jener Zeit mi'ine selige Mutter ihm in einem langen Briefe vorstellte, wie th.
In ehrenvollster AVeise erhielt er den geforderten Abschied aus dem italienischen Armeeverbande und schon am Der Staat Ohio hatte ihm eine Compagnie unterstellt. Nach seiner "Wiederherstellung wurde er am Er ruht auf dem Soldaten- Friedhofe in Arlington. It was a period of independent original thought, of high intellectual activity, of aggressive propaganda, and of great suffering. The older German immigration had quietly adopted the political opinions of their American fellow citizens and according to inclination fell into the ranks of the existing Whig or De- mocratic parties.
The political life of the German people before the memorable year of had been for a long time dormant. The attempt of to start a revolution in Germany Avas con- fined to the academic youth and a few literary men and never had a hold on the masses. In the idea of a liberal par- lamentary government for the German empire, or the formation of a republic, had taken hold of and stirred up the entire Ger- man nation.
AVantof experience in political party life, lack of organization and excesses of the radical faction, which fright- ened the conservative element, enabled the governments, who still had the control of the army, to regain the ascendency, to crush armed resistance and, a short time thereafter, to inaugurate the so-called reactionary period in Germany which lasted until about the year The prisons and dungeons were filled with the best men of Germany.
Even men of liberal, moderate views were placed on the list of suspected persons. Some of tlh'si' men had held high positions under their governments, some of them had been officers of rank in the army, many j rofessors and teachers in public institutions, lawyers of great ability, journalists and authors; most all were persons, who by their social standing, their popular influence and liberal views had become obnoxious to the reactionary governments. What great sacrifices these men made to enjoy political freedom I They all yielded their material welfare and social positions to commence the struggle of life again in a foreign country, but under ;i free republican government.
A fraction of these- men came to our good City of Haiti- more, and 80on gave direction to the political thoughts and I 55 feelings of many of our OGiniuTi- American citizens and n:ore so to the incoming- innnigi'ation, wlio were to some extent accustomed to look upon them as leaders. They were all zealous republicans of the more ideal character. Tln-y liad suffered for their political views in the old country and now would not change or bring their political views in accord with the existing economic condition of Maryland, a slave state. They were all abolitionists to the very core and could not be otherwise.
They hated slavery and immediately com- menced to attack it by word and pen. It was their good fortune that their attacks were made in the German language and their agitation among the German- Americans, who held no slaves, although most of them were content with the existing order of things.
If their writing and speaking had been under- stood by the English speaking community in the then existing temper on the slavery question, their stay in this State would, have been of a short duration. The Turner society, which then rose to a numerically flourishing condition, was in full accord with the political, socialistic and religious views of the aboli- tionists. From the platform in the Turner hall on Pratt street they delivered their lectures on scientific, political and religious subjects.
In Ave find on the members' list of the Turner society on Pratt street the names of the poet and journalist Karl Heinrich Schnauffer, the learned Dr. Wiess and Dr. Among the public speakers, lecturers and leading men from other parts of the country who visited the Turner hall in those years, I may name Gottfried Kinkel, Gen. Willig, Gen. Frederick Hecker, Gen. Schimmelpfennig, Gen. Joseph Gerhardt, Dr.
Doviat, Eeventlow and Thielmann. There were literary and debating societies and in the reading room a mass of literature, that treated of natural science and physical development, but more often on political, socialistic and religious subjects of liberal and frequently radical tendencies'. They were the only anti-slavery 56 papers piiblisluHl in Marvlaml, as the "Turners" were the only auti-slavcrv society in "Maryland. In 1S48 he entered with great enthusiasm the tight for a republican form of goyernment and being driven into exile, he turned to the adjoining Switzerland, where he became one of the editors of "The Volksfreund," a republican paper published by his compatriot Fred'k Hecker, who afterwards was one of the generals in the Union army in our war between the States.
His inspiring songs of freedom, and other poetical works, his noble courage and patriotism aroused the enthusiasm and love of his fellow countrymen of our city. They enabled him to publish the ,, Wecker," a daily paper, wherein he poured forth all his exquisite poetic ideals of free- dom and love for mankind.
He published here a volume of poems entitled "Todtenkninze" wreaths for the dead wherein he sang the praise of the patriotism and bewailed the death of the fallen heroes of the revolution in Germany. Shortly before his death he published his drama "Cromwell" and left unfinished his drama of "Washington. Some of his songs were set to music in popular melodies by Prof. Schnauffer died on the 5th of November 1H54, his widow and two infant children surviving him.
His widow continued the publication of the paper and later married William Schnauffer, a brother of her 57 deceased husband. August Becker, an able journalist and political writer, also one of the patriots of , now became the editor of the "Wecker. John C.
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Fremont, the candidate of the Republican party. Becker was succeeded by William liapp, who is now the chief editor of the "Illinois Staatszeitung;" the paper vigorously supported Abraham Lincoln in and on the memorable 19th day of April a mob attacked the "Wecker" office, completely riddled the windows, and would have destroyed the building, but for the heroic conduct of Mrs. Schnauffer, who appeared in the door with her infant on her arms and speaking to the howling mob, appealed to their better sentiments.
The editor and publisher however were compelled to flee for their lives and sought refuge in York, Pennsylvania. Samuel Ludvigh. It was a so-called periodical, published monthly, and devoted solely to make propaganda for the peculiar views of its publisher, which were radically extreme on most every subject.
He had studied jurisprudence at a university, had travelled several years in the Orient, had been secretary to Prince Frederick of Schwarzenberg at Constantinopel in and had returned to Austria. He published several novels and also a book on Hungary in which he criticised the Austrian government. He was summarily requested by the government to sign a pledge that he would not publish any more political criticisms on Austria.
This disgusted him so, that he emigrated to America in On his arrival here he received the appointment as editor of "Die alte und neue Welt" the old and new Avorld published in Philadelphia. He commenced with a violent attack on the church, and most existing conditions of social life. As a matter of course only fifteen numbers of the paper appeared when the funds gave out. William Uaine, the father of Col. Frederick Raine, publisher of the "Correspondent," bought the material. His soul was however filled with the idea that he was sent to enlighten mankind, and he resolvetl to devote his life to spread among his fellow men, w hat he conceived to be the truth.
He therefore commenced the publication of a periodical, called "Die Fackel" The Torch. All his erudite learning, his great literary ability, his time and energy was employed in writing, publishing and circulating this paper. He became therefore known as ''Fackel-Ludvigh. On all social juestions it was radical to the core. Under great hardship, often poverty, he continued to publish his pai er in our city until , when he removed it to Cincinnati, where he died in ISO'J greatly respected by those who knew him per- sonally.
General August Willig delivered his funeral oration. Ludvigh was a man of refined appearance, polished manners, and great learning, of stern integrity of character, austere life and of kind heart. Al- though the readers of his paper were few in number, they were men of sonn? It was removed to Baltimore af ont tiic middle of the decade under the editorshij; of that bold and able journalist William Kapp. Although principally devoted to physical culture, it was outspoken in its fight against slavery, as well as against the church.
We must not forget that by the Germans of H the church was considered in league with the government against which they had fought, and was thought to have per- formed, to some extent, the duties of a police force against the liberal element; that as a servant of the State it was inimical to the best interests of the j eople and was looked upon as a part of the rude despotic power which had crushed them, and driven them from their homes and firesides. The intensly independent, ,literary, political and religious activity caused among the German Americans by these men of the revolution of started a deplorable movement among a part of the American people, who, not comprehending its nature nor its scope, formed the American or so called Know- Nothing party.
The word Dutch which was almost universally used for German, denoted something hated and detested. This prejudice based on gross ignorance and the infirmities of national vanity often called patriotism, was engendered, cul- tivated and at last inflamed to an insane passion by designing politicans to further their own selfish ends. The German- Americans of Baltimore suffered terribly under this fanatical spirit of persecution during the decade of to It is often named among the Germans wdio lived through it, as the reign of terror, and by the Americans as the mob rule.
Geschichte der Deutschen in Amerika. Gesclnictite der Uetjitschien in AmeriUia. Von Dr. Denn es kommt, wie der Blitz aus flera Gewtilke kommt. Aus Gedanken die That. Denn in diese Zeit erst f;illt die eigentliche, weil jetzt erst recht nutzbar, gemachte Entdeckung Anierika's. Bancroft, vol. VT, p. Das sollte sich auf diesem freien Boden niemals erneuern. Allen das Heil der Freiheit zu geben, fasste hier allgemein tiefe Wurzeln. Wie der 4. Soviel aber wissen wir bestimmt, dass die. Die Herrnhuter z. In seinem Jahre trat er in die Buchhandlung seines Onkels, F.
Die Ehe blieb leider kinderlos. In demselben Jahre vertrat er die neunte Ward im zweiten Stadtrathszweige und war Vorsitzen- der des Stadtraths-Comites bei der Ankunft des ersten deut- schen Dampfers. An seinem Geburtstage, den Resolutions submitted by C. Resolved that the sorrow felt by the citizens of Baltimore at the sudden demise of one of our most useful and best known German- American citizens, Col.
Frederick Raine, is profoundly shared by every member of this Society. Resolved that in the death of Col. Raine this Society mourns the loss of one of its oldest and most influential members, who through frequent and timely discussions in the columns of his Journal con- cerning our object, has aided much in keeping alive an interest in this Society among the German-American citizens; and further- more that we pay our unqualified tribute of respect to the late Col.
Raine as the Editor and Publisher of the "German Correspondent. Ernest Hoen 1R2S— The elder Hoehn as the name was formerly spelt, and there seems to be no authentic reason for changing it advanced certain moneys to the King of Holland, whence the family originally came: which moneys have never been repaid. Early tradition points to the characteristic strength, for- titude, and broad comprehension of the various branches of this family.
Even the women were not lacking in these traits, and it is a part of the history, that on one occasion, it fell to the lot of one of them to be granted an interview with the great Najjoieon. She desired, for a nuanber of her family some concession or favor, which, through her convincing arguments, was readily obtained from the dreaded Cieneral. These orphans. I 75 being possessed of considerable money, were apportioned out, as was then the custom, one to each of the parishes or boroughs that formed the district in which they lived.
The borough assumed their guardianship, and directed their education, the expenses being paid out of their inheritance. Notwithstanding this family divisiou, and the hardships which they endured, some of them not falling into the kindest hands, the forcible strength of character evinced itself, and they all became an honor to the name which they bore. The remarkable sequence to this beginning of the family in Germany, is that each of the four sons became the burgomaster of the village in which he was raised. The four brothers were Johannes, Gerhard, Henry and Martin.
The two sisters were Elizabeth, who married a Mr. Haas, and Mary, who married Mr. Martin Hoen, the father of the subject of this sketch, was born in Kitz hausen in , and after his marriage to Elizabeth Schmidt, settled at Westerwald in Hoehn, where all his children were born. This medal is still one of the cherished possessions of the family.
Hin, in jene Klagekammer, Folgt mein langes Leiden nach ; Einsam such' ich meinem Jammer Lind' rung, die so lang' gebrach. Liebe war dein erstes Thun. Ihm, der mir die Liebe gab. Shortly after landing here, two of the younger cliildrm, Ilei'mine and Jennie, died; the others, August, Bert- hold, Dtjra, Ernest and Guida, were raised and educated in Baltimore. He was kind, gentle, ulfcctionatc and a favorite with his relatives.
He attended Zion'ft church school, and it was this early training under Mr. Henry Scheib, that laid the foundation for his de[ th of thought and nobility of character. In 1H40, when Imt twelve years old, he entered the eniyloy of Kdward Weber, a maternal cousin, with whom his brother, the late August Hoen, was already connected. Weber had 7? Young Ernest began as an office boy, and at opportune times devoted himself to acquiring a technical knowledge of the business. He was energetic, ambitious and industrious, and soon mastered the various ramifications of the art of Lithography, though at that time, it had not the broad scope of the present day.
Early in life he evinced special qualifications for office work, and when scarcely more than a youth, the business management of the firm devolved upon him. In this he was so successful, that he continued through life in this capacity; while his brother August devoted atten- tion to original research, and to his various and improved methods, which have so materially advanced the art of Litho- graphy to its present comprehensive basis. This combination of business and artistic qualities in the two brothers, always working hand in hand, brought the firm to a high standard.
Weber died in Shortly after this, August and Ernest Hoen succeeded to the business under the firm name of A. Henry Hoen, a cousin, also became a member of this firm, which has continued under the same name and style up to the present day. As a member of the firm of A. Ernest Hoen always had the esteem and best efforts of all the em- ployees. He had a loving heart and a gentle though firm hand, and had the happy faculty of always bringing out the best qualities of those with whom he was associated. The respect and regard of the many who have grown up in the business, amounted in some instances, almost to veneration.
With his great sense of justice, he never lost an opportunity to extend the praise and encouragement that meritorious work deserved. To his appreciation of merit, all were ready to strive, that the best results might be obtained, and it is to this unity of purpose that much of the success of the firm is due. As a business man he was quick of comprehension, and able at all times to suggest to customers such ideas as would best meet their wants. He was affable and courteous, prompt and 78 ihorouirli. Tho sanio lioiir found him each day at his desk.
He was a good judge of character, and while always lenient to the deserving, he was juick to apprehend and dis- countenance deception. At a critical period in its history, he, in conjunction with his friend, Mr. He was President for a number of years and was a director up to the time of his decease. He was Pre- sident of the old Domicile Society.
He always i;ook an interest in municipal alifairs, and even during his last illness, wrote a letter to his honor, Mayor Latrobe, setting forth the merits of Clifton as a City Park. Most of his married life was spent at Waverly, and he did much to advance the welfare of that village, being espe- cially interested in its recent annexation to Baltimore.
He was a member and for several years treasurer of the Order of the Oriole. He was also treasurer of the Maryland Horticultural Society. He was for a number of years one of the board of Gov- ernors of the Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the Mechanical Arts.
Through his knowledge of the various branches of art, particularly in portraiture perspective and color, he was able to criticise and encourage the work of the students, many of whom he employed in his business. Iloen had collcctod many rare and beautiful plants, and had an especially large assort- ment of Orchids, iloxinias and Amarylli. Even the humblest wild flower often received his care and attention.
He raised many seedling plants and imported extensively. As late as January , he imported from England some of the best known Amarylli for hybridizing purposes.
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- Kirchenpauer, Gustav Heinrich.
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Hoen was ever on the alert for knowledge; it was his greatest pleasure to follow the advancement of the sciences, and though he left few writings evidencing his research, his advice and criticism were often sought, and he was considered an authority on many subjects.
He was progressive and always kept abreast of the times, a great lover of nature and art, a patron of music, a successful horticulturist; a seeker of knowledge, and a man of artistic tastes and appreciation. His admiration for truth, genius, science and study, as well as his general intelligence, won for him many warm friends, and his gentle nature and helpful spirit were especially noticeable in his home life. Among his beloved books and flowers, a'ld surrounded by an affectionate family, in the enjoyment of a perfect manhood, illness overtook him, and though he suffered for five months, he never lost courage, but was cheerful and uncomplaining to the end.
Ernest Hoen was an active member of this society Avhen it Avas first organized and he remained so until his death. He was endeared to us all by his unceasing courtesy and earnest desire to promote the usefulness of this Society. Hoen's death occurring after the close of the regular meetings, suitable resolutions expressive of the members' respect for their deceased friend and their deep sympathy with the great loss the family has sustained, will be presented at tlie November meeting. As the gentlemen who became members of the "Society for the History of the Germans in Maryland" since may not be aware that this Society was duly incorporated on the 10th of April according to the laws of the State, we piint the instrument in full.
Morris, Louis P. Hennighausen, Lewis H. Steiner, Charles F. Raddatz, Edward F. We do further certify, that the said corporation will be manasred by a board of officers and that John G. Hennighausen, Charles Weber, Robert M. Rother, Dr. Lewis H. Edward F. Leyh, C'harles F. Raddatz, Ernest Hoen, are the names of the nine officers who will manaije the concerns of the said corporation for the tirst year. In Witness Whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals this twenty-nintli day of March one thousand eight hundi-ed and eighty nine.
Nkix N. John i. Mii F. Leyh, Frederick Ph. Hennighausen, and Cieorge William Gail, and did severally acknowledge the forcigoing certificate to be their act and deed. Nelson, J. I, Henky D. Harlan, one of the Judges of the Supreme Bench of Baltimore City, do hereby certify, that the foregoing certificate has been submitted to me for examination and I do further certify, that the said certificate is in conformity with the provisions of the law, authorizing the formation of the said corporation Henry D.
Recorded Api'il 10th, ISSi , at 2. Vns] ruch macht. President : HAVE the honor herewith to submit a brief review of the affairs of the Society during the year just closing. Eegular monthly meetings were held throughout the year, excepting the months July, August and September, and were fairly well attended. The Papers Read at some of these meetings comprised: 1. Yesler, the founder of Seattle, Washington," by Rev. Morn's, D. Learned, Ph. The first tbroo papers liavo alioady appeared in print in our Seventh Annual Keport, a stately document of eighty-three pages, published under the able editorship of Prof.
The Society, to my mind, has reason to look with great satisfaction upon the publications issued by them during the comparative brief ]ieriod of its existence. Ilistorv is not to be made, but simply to be recorded. And this applies with special force to the endeavor of rescuing from oblivion the history of our German forefathers in this our adopted country. During the year the following Documents of a Historic Value have been added to our library: 1. U-amhrall, D.
Th, Scharf. Bibliographical Contributions from the "Harvard Uni- versity. Tiie lirst Conturv of Jeriiian Printing in America, — is;ii. Teber die Zukunft unseres Volkes in Amerika," von. Hu] er. Guiidina who also donated a Swiss Medal of 1S Fiank N. A Committee of Representation on the ] art of this Society to the Historical Congress in session at Chicago during the month of September, had, upon rerpiest been appointed, but circumstances beyond their control had j revented all of the members from being ] resenl on that oc ;asion. Constitution Pe vised.
The Society found it desirable to submit the Constitution of this body to a revision and for this j urpose ai ] ointed a committee during the year, wlio made ilioii" final iv-] ort in llx- April meeting. The Society deplores by death the loss of three activt- members, viz: Col. John L Thomas, who died October 15th, Oswald Seidensticker of Philadelphia, Pa.
Three were added to these during the year, making a total of 79 active members. During the year the Society lost of active members: by death 3, by resignation 1, by removal from the city 2, by declining to pay fee 3; making a total loss of nine, und leaving at the close of the ] resent year on our list of active member- ship the names of seventy gentlemen. The name of Mr J. Rosengarten of Philadelphia, Pa. Respectfully, F. Received dues from 73 members Examined and found correct, M.
G, Morri. In the cities of Mexico and South America there are more German merchants, physicians, artists and mechanics of all sorts than there are North Americans. The sea ports of West and South Africa, of India and China and Australia — indeed in all places of trade and progressive business and enterprise all the world over — you will find the German industriously and success- fully prosecuting his various pursuits. He seems to be the world's merchant abroad as his country men are the world's teachers at home. One would almost think that Shakespeare Taming of the Shrew, Act 1, Scene 1 had the German prophetically in view Avhen he spoke of another man as being "A merchant of great traffic through the world.
In 1S! It is well known that New York and Chicago figure highest in the number of their Teutonic residents. The former, with its , lo4 Germans, ranks as the third greatest "German" community in the world, since it is only surpassed in this respect by BerHn and Vienna. Milwaukee H bolv ;u I uv! From good and competent authority added to my own research, 1 lind that the following 24 languages and dialects are spoken in families and in trade in this city: English.
I will not enter upon the early history of this people here — I mean that of their immigration and settlement, but proceed at once to consider the German of the present day in our city — his character, pursuits, thrift, industry, influence, success in every department of human activity, as far as is necessary for illustration. Between — '48 some German emigrants settled in what was then the village of Baltimore but they did not come immediately from Germany but from York, Pa.
Two of these, Leonard and Samuel Barnitz, established the first brewery here which was located at the jdace so familiar to us, the S. In this connection it may be as well to state that the first glass blowing factory established in Maryland was l y a Ger- man named Amelung in Frederick Co. When the revolution broke out there were Germans enough in Baltimore and the surrounding counties to make a full regiment besides an artillery company who served with distinc- tion under Gen.
But let me come to definite subjects. German tongue is tuned to melody and the German language beautifully accords with song. The rich storehouses of these incomparable harmonies have been conveyed by the German beyond the borders of his fatherland and they are heard and admired in every quarter of the civilized world. Not only in the German but in the English language the full toned originally German notes ring out harmoniously. The cultivation of music, vocal and instrumental, which has been so wonderfully developed in the United States during the past 50 years is incontestibly the result of German science, taste and masterly instruction.
The Germans now lift the banner of music higher than any other people. German song and singers are important factors in the development of the beautiful art and in the cultivation and ennobling of the lofty sentiments inspired by soul enrapturing music. Nearly all our great performers in concerts, in orchestras, our music professors in Institutes and Academies, and wherever else the art is taught or practised are Germans.
In Baltimore alone there are 15 distinct Singing Associa- tions of high scientific and artistic character, and we can easily conceive what an influence this combination of talent has upon a community of which nearly every child is taught music from its earliest youth and hears the sound of it in the family and school everv dav. Pedagogy or the science of teaching has been cultivated to a greater extent by the Germans than by any other people, and that nation that claims without dispute to be the school- master of Europe should know how to impart knowledge.
Wherever the Germans settle the first public buildings however humble, are a church and a school house, and so it was in Baltimore. The first German school house established in Baltimore was in at the S. The Public schools have of course superseded many private establishments, but does it not show a public infiuence of com- manding force that our authorities were compelled to establish English-German schools at the public expense. No other people could now secure such privileges, but the benefit was not intended to ensure to German children only in being taught English, but to American children being taught iernian.
Ford wus on the Committee. We all remember when French was the fashionable and of course the predominant foreign tongue taught in the schools and in private, and while French is very properly pursued by those who have taste for language or who desire to acquire enoiigh of travellers' French to enable them to get their baggage through a French custom house, German is the language studied by all who see the business advantage of it here at home or who intend to prosecute studies of the highest order, for it is an accepted fact among men of advanced education that the ability to read the German writers in their own prolific language is an incalculable advantage.
I do not mean that a man cannot be proficient in history art, science, linguistics, philosophy or theology, or in any other branch of human knowledge without the German language, far from it, but there must be some advantage gained from the lectures of eminent professors in more than a dozen famous universities, and it is the desire to sit at the feet and learn from those mighty German Gamaliels, which leads so many young American and even English students to frequent the German universities. The various benevolent and reformatory institutions founded and supported by these people show their laudable public spirit and their generous efforts towards alleviating the sufferings of humanity.
The Orphan House in Aisquith street has secured the sympathy of the whole German community of the city and is a monument of charity of the loftiest character. The Home for the Aged, in W. Baltimore street is an iiistitution of the highest rank in that sphere of benevolence in which a large number of aged destitute people are kindly protected until their last day. Eayner and wife, but IS was hunu'il down in and rebuilt by tlie liberality of the Israelitisli ] eople. It is located in ilie Western suburbs on what was called the old Alms House lot.
The German Society of Maryland is one of the oldest institutions of that character in the city. It was founded in ISIT and among its original supporters and tirst oflllcers are the names of nearly all the most substantial German citizens of those days. I cannot specify the names of other Societies and Unions which contemi late the relief of sutfering humanity, but must be satisfied with simply stating that besides those mentioned there are fifteen other German Societies in Baltimore which aim at the relief of the poor, the sick and the aged.
But there is one other on which I must dwell for a moment because its purposes and pursuits are so analogous to those of our own Association. It has published a volume of transactions consisting of articles in both languages on subjects intimately connected Avith the history of the Germans in this state aiul it has abundant material on hand for another volume.
It has published some interesting facts in relation to the active and patriotic i art which the Germans of Maryhmd took in the war of Revolution, and how they distinguished themselves in many a hard fought battle. It was through the efforts of this Society that a long unknown muster roll of a regiment known as the "German Rifles" was unearthed in the State House at Annai olis and afterwards printed, and from this and some other facts it was tirst made generally known that the Germans shared largely in the revolutionary war. The proceedings of this Society are bilingual.
A paper read io English may be criticized in German or vice versa. The Society has a fair library and has received some donations from some German princes and other men of rank and inHnence. It also exchanges its publications with similar institutions who seem to be very anxious to obtain them. There are thirty-two places of worship in Baltimore in which all the pulpit instruction is imparted in the German language.
In every department of human activity, in every profession, in commerce, trade, invention, education, legislation, in the courts and in the church, in the professor's chair or at the author's desk, in philosophy, theology, scholarship, music, paint- ing, sculpture and sterling citizenship, in a word, in every pursuit which ennobles human nature, the German maintains an equal rank with the most exalted of all other nations.
Wherever German people have been settled long, their influence as a thrifty, enterprising, educational race is univer- sally felt, although every body may not be conscious of it and that people who at home have done the thinking of the educated world, as is claimed by men who understand this subject, must wield a silent influence that is irresistible. Von Pastor Ed. N dem hochinteressanten Buche des Gonv. Staaten von — findet gerade der Theil des Elementes, der am zjlhesten an deutscher Sprache und Sitte festgehalten und. Joseph Rieger wurde am Nach iiusserst beschwerlicher Heise gelangten die beiden nach St.
Der arme Anitsgenosse 25 lind seine ganze Familie lagen krank am Fieber. Da Alton wie Beardstown in fruchtbaren, aber sumpfigen Fluss-Niederungen liegen, so hatte Rieger viel von den dort herrschenden Fiebern zu leiden. In Alton wohnte er bei Elijah P. Von den Namen der Anwesenden sind mir nur noch die beiden Lovejoys, ein Beecher und Rieger erinnerlich.
Als Lovejoy im November ermordet wurde von dem Prosklaverei-Mob, war Rieger gerade abwesend auf einer seiner Predigtreisen. Der geplante Bahnbau machte ein Expropriationsgesetz nothwendig. Vom Senat erhielt K. December erschien. Mai stattfinden sollte, auf bessere Tage verschoben. Nach dem Brande traten neue Forderungen an die Stadt heran. Bei allen diesen Einrichtungen war K. Eine darauf abzielende Supplik an den Senat wurde von K. Im November wurde K. Als Sieveking sehr bald zum Bundestagsgesandten in Frankfurt ernannt worden war, trat K.
Erst im J. Zur Erwiderung auf diesen Entwurf wurde in Hamburg eine viergliedrige Senatscommission eingesetzt, in der K. Sollten sie als Ausland betrachtet werden? Nur die Staatsgewalt kann der Marine ihre Bedeutung geben. Juli die Zolleinheit ganz Deutschlands ins Leben zu rufen. Aus Hamburg trafen hierzu K. Anfang August wurde K. Von Heinrich v. Nachdem er am August nach vielen vergeblichen Versuchen sich durch Minister v. Auch bei dem Aufstand am Man darf aber den Muth nicht verlieren.
Uebrigens war auch Hamburg am An Stelle des damaligen hamburgischen Bundestagsgesandten Syndikus Banks s. Er blieb bis ins Jahr dort als Bundestagsgesandter. Obgleich K. Nach verschiedenen Berichten im Hamb. Staatsarchiv bei Wohlwill S. Ueber diese Untersuchungen schrieb K. Ich meinestheils kann sie kaum entbehren. Manche neue Entdeckung verdankt ihm die Naturwissenschaft. Am letzten August schied K.
An ihre Stelle sind fortan Amtsverwalter getreten. Der Senat willfahrte seinem Wunsche, und Senator Versmann reiste schon am April als Kirchenpauer's Nachfolger nach Berlin. Fortan widmete K. Ihr unterstanden die wissenschaftlichen Anstalten und die Volksschulen. Seinen eigenen Studien entsprechend, wandte K.
In gleicher Weise widmete K. Im Dienst des Staates endete sein Leben in der Nacht vom 3. Melle, s. Entgegenkommende Verbindlichkeit und leichte Conversation waren nicht seine Sache. Schriftstellerlexikon Th. III, S. Kirchenpauer, Hamburg u. Leipzig , XV u. New Ser. Vereins zu Hamb. XXI, p. Museum Godeffroy, S. II, S. Berlin , S. VI, S. VII, S. VIII, S. Melle's schon genanntes Werk, dem Ref. Mohlwill, Die Hamb. VIII u. Kirchenpauer, Reval Aus diesen Briefschaften weist v. Sillem, W. Toggle navigation Deutsche Biographie. Kirchenpauer, Gust.
Kirchenpauer, Gustav H. Circhenpauer, Gustav Heinrich Circhenpauer, G.
Die 1830er Revolution als europäisches Medienereignis
Circhenpauer, Gust. Circhenpauer, Gustav H. Symbole auf der Karte Geburtsort. Kircheiss, Carl Kircher, Athanasius.