- Kauchak & Eggen, Learning and Teaching: Research-Based Methods | Pearson
- See a Problem?
- Ideas from the Field
- Learning and Teaching: Research-Based Methods, 6th Edition
- ISBN 13: 9780132179348
One of the learning strategies that can drive the achievement of learning outcomes in this course is Research-Based Learning. Research-Based Learning principles are considered in accordance with learning outcomes in Biology Seminar courses and generally in accordance with the purpose of higher education.
On this basis, this article which is derived from a qualitative research aims at describing Research-based Learning on Biology Seminar course. Based on a case study research, it was known that Research-Based Learning on Biology Seminar courses is applied through: designing learning activities around contemporary research issues; teaching research methods, techniques and skills explicitly within program; drawing on personal research in designing and teaching courses; building small-scale research activities into undergraduate assignment; and infusing teaching with the values of researchers.
Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author s and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
Google Scholar. Each code and category is described in more details below. Teachers participating in this study believed that teaching and learning in higher education is a shared process, with responsibilities on both student and teacher to contribute to their success. Within this shared process, higher education must engage the students in questioning their preconceived ideas and their models of how the world works, so that they can reach a higher level of understanding.
But students are not always equipped with this challenge, nor are all of them driven by a desire to understand and apply knowledge, but all too often aspire merely to survive the course, or to learn only procedurally in order to get the highest possible marks before rapidly moving on to the next subject. The best teaching helps the students to question their preconceptions, and motivates them to learn, by putting them in a situation in which their existing model does not work and in which they come to see themselves as authors of answers, as agents of responsibility for change.
That means, the students need to be faced with problems which they think are important. Also, they believed that most of the developed countries are attempting to use new teaching methods, such as student-centered active methods, problem-based and project-based approaches in education. For example, the faculty number 3 said:. It is a very interesting technique to arouse interest, motivate students, and enhance their skills Faculty member No.
In recent years, this project was used to empower the students.
Kauchak & Eggen, Learning and Teaching: Research-Based Methods | Pearson
They will be allowed to accept the roles in a project and, therefore, deeply engage in the process of software development. In Iran, many studies have been conducted about new teaching methods. For example, studies by Momeni Danaie 10 , Noroozi 11 , and Zarshenas 12 , have shown various required methods of teaching. They have also concluded that pure lecture, regardless of any feedback ensuring the students learning, have lost their effectiveness.
The problem-oriented approach in addition to improving communication skills among students not only increased development of critical thinking but also promoted study skills and an interest in their learning In this study, the professors noted that there are some barriers to effective teaching that are mentioned below:.
The requirements defined curriculum and resources in the teaching, the large number of students in classes, and High volume theoretical principles. As to the use of new methods of training such as problem-based methods or project-based approach, faculty members No. Do not take a problem-based learning and student-centered learning in their evaluation as a bonus for teachers. The faculty members No. Having a successful and effective teaching that creates long-term learning on the part of the students will require certain feelings and attitudes of the teachers.
These attitudes and emotions strongly influence their behavior and teaching. In this section, the attitudes of successful teachers are discussed.
Coordination with the overall organizational strategies will allow the educational system to move toward special opportunities for innovation based on the guidelines The participants, 4, 3, 5 and 8 know that teaching effectively makes sense if the efforts of the professors are aligned with the goals of university. Thus, they will try as much as possible to attain this goal" Faculty member No. When a person begins to learn, according to the value of hope theory, he must feel this is an important learning and believe that he will succeed.
Since the feeling of being successful will encourage individuals to learn, you should know that teachers have an important role in this sense Masters 7 and 8 signified that a master had a holistic and systematic view, determined the position of the teaching subject in a field or in the entire course, know general application of issues and determines them for students, and try to teach interdisciplinary topics.
Interviewee No. Participants No. Teachers have to focus on mental differences, interest, and sense of belonging, emotional stability, practical experience and scientific level of students in training.
Class curriculum planning includes preparation, effective transition of content, and the use of learning and evaluating teaching According to Choi and Pucker, the most important role of teachers is planning and controlling the educational process for students to be able to achieve a comprehensive learning Metacognition training and self-assessment of students during teaching. Every five faculty members who were interviewed cited the need to explain the lessons in plain language, give feedback to students, and explain the causes and reasons of issues.
Improving the quality of learning through the promotion of education, using pre-organizers and conceptual map, emphasizing the student-centered learning and developing the skills needed for employment are the strategies outlined in lifelong learning, particularly in higher education The belief that creative talent is universal and it will be strengthened with appropriate programs is a piece of evidence to prove that innovative features of the programs should be attended to continually Certainly, in addition to the enumerated powers, appropriate fields should be provided to design new ideas with confidence and purposeful orientation.
Otherwise, in the absence of favorable conditions and lack of proper motivations, it will be difficult to apply new ideas Explaining and developing knowledge on how to resolve the issues in future career through class discussion. Senior instructors try to engage in self-management and consultation, tracking their usage of classroom management skills and developing action plans to modify their practices based on data.
Skills in documenting the results of the process of teaching-learning cannot only facilitate management in terms of studying the records, but also provides easier access to up to date information Faculty members No. Then, I write down every successful strategy that was highly regarded by students that day" Faculty member No.
To connect with students and impact their lives personally and professionally, teachers must be student-centered and demonstrate respect for their background, ideologies, beliefs, and learning styles. The limitation in this research was little access to other nationally recognized university faculty members; also their tight schedule was among other limitations in this study that kept us several times from interviewing such faculties. To overcome such a problem, they were briefed about the importance of this study and then some appointments were set with them.
This study revealed the effective teaching methods, requirements and barriers in Iranian Higher Education. They believed that to grow successful people to deal with the challenges in evolving the society, most developed countries are attempting to use new teaching methods in higher education. All these methods are student-centered and are the result of pivotal projects. Research conducted by Momeni Danaei and colleagues also showed that using a combination of various teaching methods together will lead to more effective learning while implementing just one teaching model cannot effectively promote learning In this study, barriers according to codes were divided two major categories: professor-related barriers and regulation-related ones; for these reasons, the complete use of these methods is not possible.
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However, teachers who are aware of the necessity of engaging the student for a better understanding of their content try to use this method as a combination that is class speech presentation and involving students in teaching and learning. This result is consistent with the research findings of Momeni Danaei and colleagues 10 , Zarshenas et al. Using student-centered methods in higher education needs some requirements that according to faculty members who were interviewed, and according to the codes, such requirements for effective teaching can be divided into two categories: First, things to exist in the outlook of faculties about the students and faculties' responsibility towards them, to guide them towards effective teaching methods, the most important of which are adaptation to the organizational strategies, interest in the students and trust in their abilities, systemic approach in higher education, and interest in their discipline.
This category emerged from some codes, including having lesson plan; using appropriate educational strategies and metacognition training and self-assessment of students during teaching; using concept and pre-organizer maps in training, knowledge; and explaining how to resolve problems in professional career through teaching discussion, documenting of experience and having satisfactory interaction with the students.
This result is consistent with the findings of Klug et al. In addition and according to the results, we can conclude that a major challenge for universities, especially at a time of resource constraints, is to organize teaching so as to maximize learning effectiveness.
Ideas from the Field
As mentioned earlier, a major barrier to change is the fact that most faculty members are not trained for their teaching role and are largely ignorant of the research literature on effective pedagogy. In the present study, it was illustrated that a good teaching method helps the students to question their preconceptions, and motivates them to learn, by putting them in a situation in which they come to see themselves as the authors of answers and the agents of responsibility for change.
But whenever the teachers can teach by this method, they are faced with some barriers and requirements. Therefore, to have an effective teaching, the faculty members of universities should be aware of these barriers and requirements as a way to improve the teaching quality.
Learning and Teaching: Research-Based Methods, 6th Edition
Effective teaching also requires structural changes that can only be brought about by academic leaders. These changes include hiring practices reward structures that recognize the importance of teaching expertise, quality assurance approaches that measure learning processes, outcomes in a much more sophisticated way than routine methods, and changing the way of attaining university accreditation.
This will help other university teachers to be familiar with effective teaching and learning procedures. Therefore, curriculum planners and faculty members can improve their teaching methods. The authors would like to thank all research participants of Isfahan University of Technology faculties who contributed to this study and spent their time to share their experiences through interviews.
ISBN 13: 9780132179348
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Adv Med Educ Prof. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. E-mail : moc. Received Nov 6; Accepted Jul This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.
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