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He was a poet and a graphic artist famed for his woodcuts and engravings. As for Giono, it is worth noticing that his Journal contains only a few lines about his work as a translator. It is as if his translation work did not belong to the diary, dedicated to literary creation. However, Lucien Jacques could not read English and had to wait for a French translation to appear:. Thus a very unlikely team of co-translators was created with Lucien Jacques supposedly helping Jean Giono to translate although he himself had no English whatsoever.

Giono suggested adding a third person to the team, Joan Smith. She was an English friend of theirs who worked in Provence as an antique dealer. He would listen to Lucien Jacques reading his translation aloud while following the original text in the book. Difficulties soon arose. Notwithstanding, Lucien Jacques did not give up. In spite of the many difficulties, he managed to have the translation published in four instalments in the last four issues of the Cahiers du Contadour : 1 23 May pp. These instalments indeed represent the original version of the translation, and not the Gallimard version published in as commonly assumed.

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In letter 10 June , Giono, , p. The main co-translators were in fact Joan Smith who read the original and provided a crib, and Lucien Jacques who re-wrote it. Our comparison of the various versions of Moby-Dick [16] with the Random House edition on which the team based their translation is confined to chapter 1 for the purpose of this article. From this study it is clear that Joan Smith did indeed give a word-for-word translation.

She did not interpret the text. Instead, she left its meaning for the other two co-translators to uncover. The following segment is just one example of many passages that remain very obscure in her word-for-word version:. Her French is error-ridden, seeming to indicate poor linguistic skills. At times, a disorientating effect is produced when technical terms are appropriately included in a sentence where the syntax and the translation of the general vocabulary are themselves inadequate.

From time to time, Smith made a few comments to help Jacques and Giono find the best words. It is as if she felt her duty was to prepare the translation by carefully translating all the words. Nevertheless, her reading was sometimes faulty as she refrained from interpreting what she was reading—that is making sense of the way the words interact—and was content with giving a word-for-word translation whose meaning had still to be constructed by the other co-translators.

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She was sometimes taken aback by the original, which she did not always understand. It would be very interesting to gather more information about the circumstances of the translation of specific segments. Did Jacques ask Smith for more information? The fact that doting was probably not looked up in a dictionary and that river horse is not to be found in most dictionaries may point to the second option. XII , through which the original work can be followed.

As a result Smith introduced none of the major omissions, simplifications or reorganisations to be found in the final version of the translation. The following example illustrates the various stages of the process in a typical sentence. The whole typescript is composed of three bulky volumes with elements that do not match. For some chapters in volume two, the typescript includes passages with handwritten corrections in the margin and excerpts from a previous draft.

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There are also differences between the Contadour first edition and the Gallimard edition of The reservations as to who made the changes apply to this second revision too. A letter written by Gaston Gallimard on 12 June unpublished confirms that Jacques contacted Gallimard about the publication of Moby-Dick. The remaining corrections are minor lexical changes and instances of capitalization. The syntactic reorganisation, simplification and clarification have been left unchanged. On the contrary, he published Pour saluer Melville in Lead: Request for contact.

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Arthur Young’s Travels in France during the Years , , - Online Library of Liberty

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