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  1. Osborne Russell's Journal of a Trapper: Edited from the Original… Summary & Study Guide
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A Note on Scoring Osteoarthritis This study and many others rely on osteoarthritis data to examine issues of mobility, occupation, mechanical demand, and gender-based work activities, among others. However, in nearly every case different. Table 2. Articular Joint. Kelly and Hemphill This process involved deciding how the scoring methods used in this study could best reflect those used by these other researchers.

In the end, it was decided to use values at 1. Perhaps the proliferation of cases will enable standards for scoring and interpreting osteoarthritis to be developed and used in future studies. Such standards will likely make data from different studies more comparable and reduce researcher bias. Pitting is the second most common form of osteoarthritis,with Eburnation is rare in the Great Salt Lake series, affecting only one older male, or 3.

On the other hand, Schmorl's nodes are quite common, affecting Eight bilateral joint complexes e. Table 3. Lake series. With the exception of one individual, a 45 year-old male with ebumation and severe lipping on his right elbow and only moderate joint modification on his left elbow, there is no evidence of asymmetry in osteoarthritis severity in the Great Salt Lake sample.

Because there were few disparities between bilateral joints, scores for right and left sides were combined for this study. While osteoarthritis is widespread in the Great Salt Lake series, its severity varies greatly between joints. The second lowest score for males is at the hip Among females, osteoarthritis severity scores range from 1. The distribution of osteoarthritis in the Great Salt Lake skeletal series is provided in Table 3. In eight of the twelvejoint complexes, males exhibit more severe osteoarthritis than females Figure 2.

This trend is especially apparent in the vertebral column and lower limb joints, specifically the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, the knees and the feet. In relation to the Stillwater and Malheur series, the Great Salt Lake group shows slightly lower osteoarthritis prevalence in most of the joints. The similarity in osteoarthritis prevalence is more readily observed among the males, where Greater differences exist between the Great Salt Lake females, where only Instead of relying completely on one method of subsistence, most, if not all individuals would have engaged in a combination of strategies, depending on.

Table 4. Great Salt Lake Joint. Figure 3. Each of these strategies in turn would involve different levels of mobility, varying from highly mobile to highly sedentary. When viewed over the lifetimes of individuals however, the effects of these different activities would accumulate, causing a general pattern of mobility-representative of variability, not the lack of it-to exist for the population.

Osteoarthritis evidence from the Great Salt Lake wetlands supports such a pattern of mobility in this region. The presence and severity of osteoarthritissuggest that males were more mobile than females, similar to the findings of Ruff in his biomechanical study of long bones from the same sample Ruff Based on ethnographic Kelly ;Fowler and archaeological evidence Kelly ; Madsen and Sirnms ; Simrns et al.

Additional evidencefor male involvement in logistic activities lies in the h g h prevalence of Schmorl's. Thirtyeight percent of males in the Great Salt Lake sample with vertebrae present are affected by this disorder, including one young adult years. This could mean that Schmorl's nodes are associated primarily with farming activities. It is also possible that these males were more heavily involved in trading activities that increased their access to corn, or hunting forays that gave them greater access to bison or other large game.

Such activities would be consistent for the model of mobility in the Great Salt Lake wetlands and with knowledge of subsistence and trade, but it is not possible to conclusively determine if this was the case. The change in life history patterns and the residential cycling characteristic of adaptive diversity may reduce risks related to diet and health in a difficult and often variable environment. In a previous study of skeletalremains from the Great Salt Lake wetlands, Bright and Loveland found low levels of disease and. Table 5. Figure 4. Levels of these were much lower than in remains from Stillwater Marsh and Malheur Lake, indicating the Great Salt Lake Fremont experienced lower risks of food shortage and disease.

This raises the question of how the activities of the Great Salt Lake population differed from those of other groups in the Great Basin. Generally,a lower prevalence of osteoarthritis was observed in the Great Salt Lake sample, in comparison to samples from Stillwater Marsh Larsen et al. However, this patten1was more apparent among the females. By joint region, Great Salt Lake females are very comparable to their Great Basin counterparts in the joints of the upper limbs, but are quite different in the spine and lower limbs.

This patterning suggests that while Great Basin females engaged in similar activities that affected their upper limbs-most likely food processing activities-they participated in different activities that affected their lower limbs and backs. A possible explanation for this is that Great Salt Lake females were slightly more sedentary than their Great Basin counterparts, a. Such a situation would be consistent with Bettinger's statement that "mobility is inversely related to quality of life.

Patterning suggests all three groups led vigorous lives, characterized by high levels of mobility J3emphill; Larsen et al. These findings lend additional credence to the hypothesis that males were the primary participants in logistic activities in the Great Basin. While individuals from this area engaged in diverse subsistence activities, a general pattern of mobility exists for the sample. This pattern involves low residential mobility among many of the.

These findings are supported by biomechanical evidence Ruff ,examination of skeletal pathologies that relate to diet breadth and risk reduction Bright and Loveland , and various archaeological measures in the Great Salt Lake area and the region Madsen and Sirnms ; Simrns ; Sirnrns et al. Coltrain, J. Stafford, Jr. Hemphill and C. Larsen, pp. I would like to thank Pat Larnbert and Steve Simms for their comments and criticism of this paper, as well as for their encouragement and patience. Missouri Archaeological Society, Columbia.

Bettinger, R. Bridges, P. Annual Review of Anthropology Bright, J. DeRousseau, D. Contributions to Primatology No. Fawcett, W. Fowler, C. Madsen and J. O'Connell, pp. Society for American Archaeology Papers No. Washington, D. Hemphill, B. Jurmain, R. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Kelly, R. Journal of Anthropological Research Larsen and R.

Kelly, pp. Anthropological Papers No. American Museum of Natural History. New York. Larsen, C. Ruff, and R. Loveland, C. Simms, C. Loveland, and M. Stuart, pp. Madsen, D. Journal of World Prehis-. O'Rourke, D. Parr and S. Ruff, C. Simms, S. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology Ugan and J.

Journal of Archaeological Science Upham, S.

Osborne Russell's Journal of a Trapper: Edited from the Original… Summary & Study Guide

Journal of World Prehistory 8: White, T. Academic Press, San Diego. Zeanah, D. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor. Located stratigraphically beneath the Anasazi horizon were a series of charcoal lenses and surfaces that were investigated in profile only.

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Two of these surfaces yielded radiocarbon dates circa 3, B. Evidence is presented that suggest these underlying features represent a shallow Late Archaic pithouse that preceded later Formative developments. The site had been severely damaged by a recent wash cut that exposed a number of buried architectural features. No Archaic period sites were recorded. At an elevation of 5, feet, the vegetation of the broad valley floor is dominated by big sage Artemesia tridendata. The old growth sage brush was scheduled to be burned and drill-seeded as part of a rangeland revegetation project.

With the exception of 42KA, all of the sites occur on the pin-. The narrow floodplain of the wash itself is located meters to the east of the site and was probably used for agriculture by the Anasazi. The intervening expanse of alluvium offered opportunitiesfor both dry farming and akchin field systems that took advantage of the lateral outwash fans.

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Although the practice of agriculture structured Anasazi settlement, subsistence was not restricted to agriculture: in addition to native vegetation, Anasazi midden deposits at the Arroyo site held quantities of bone including mountain sheep Ovis canadensis , mule deer Odocoileus hemionus , and pronghorn Antilocaprus americanus Nauta In the absence of agriculture,Archaic subsistence practices could have relied on locally available native species. Native floral resources, including Cheno-ams goosefoot family and pigweed and various seedproducing grasses, were available on the valley floor.

The modem Paunsagunt mule deer herd migrates down. The varied terrain and geology of this portion of the Grand Staircasephysiographic section Stokes insured that a variety of floral, faunal and geological resources were locally available to its prehistoric inhabitants. Several springs occur in the canyon, the closest to 42KA is less than one kilometer away. Kitchen Corral Wash from the high plateaus to their winter range, and probably did so in the past. Open range near the site was likely suitable for pronghorn, and sheep habitat occurs in the rugged cliffs above the site.

Taking into account resources such as pinyon Pinus edulis and other upland species available from the surrounding slopes, the Arroyo site could have. Flood episodes sealed the cultural deposits and features and protected them from additional weathering and looters. A recent, very intense flood episode created a deep, straight-sided arroyo cut through the center of the site.

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  • Journal of a Trapper, by Osborne Russell.
  • The 2. Excavation units were opened to expose the Anasazi features in plan and they were subsequently excavated the excavation report is in preparation; see McFadden for a brief review. This report describes evidence for a deeper, apparently extensive, Archaic level and an apparent shallow "pithouse" in the stratum that underlies the Anasazi level. The lower stratum is a dense consolidated alluvium that corresponds with a soil unit described by Kulp as " Pre-Anasazi Alluvium. He goes on to say "While no absolute age data or detailed sediientology is currently available for these floodplain deposits, it seems likely that they may represent the floodplain environment of the channel system.

    Because the Anasazi horizon was continuous over the site and only discrete structural features were excavated, areal excavation of the underlying Archaic level was not possible. Thus, investigationswere limited to the exposed profiles in the arroyo cut and the excavation units. This lens is referred to as Feature 21 F21 on the east wall and Feature 34 F34 on the west wall of the arroyo which, at this point, was about two meters wide Figure 3. Another lens of charcoal, at about the same elevation, was noted in the arroyo cut eight m to the south.

    While the lens may have been continuous at one time, it appeared to have been truncated by the prehistoric excavation of the pithouse in Excavation Unit B. Subsequentexcavation of the mostly unlined pit structure revealed charcoal in its east wall offering evidence that, while the lens was not necessarily continuous, a surface occurred at the. In all, exposed profiles of the lower charcoal lenses could be identified over an area measuring 8 by 2 m. No soil horizon or occupation surface could be identified beyond the charcoal lenses.

    The initial recording of the Anasazi features at the Arroyo site involved drawing a profile of the east wall of the wash. This continuous vertical face offered excellent control for examining the buried Anasazi features as well as the deposits above and below them Figure 2. Numerous sherds and artifacts in the ashstained sands of the upper level, as well as the features.

    Evidence for the "Pithouse" The excavation of F34 was limited to a 10cm deep by 20 cm high cut above a distinct soil contact formed by a lens of charcoal-impregnated clay resting on the pre-Anasazi alluvium Figure 4. The only artifact in the feature was a portable slab milling stone that lay directly on the surface near the south end of this 1. A distinct lens of charcoal located. No occupation surface or level of origin for the F34 surface was discernible in the. Acomposite sample of small charcoal fragments was collected from the lens for radiocarbon dating, a bulk macrofossil sample was obtained, and a pollen sample was taken from beneath the milling slab.

    F21, exposed in the opposite bank, was a dishshaped soil contact nearly four meters long, originating 60 cm below the Anasazi stratum and nearly two m below the modem surface Figure 2. In the center of the feature was a basin shaped depression 85 cm in diameter and 30 cm deep. Pollen samples were collected from the surface in the depression and from the alluvium both above and below the feature.

    A bulk macrofossil sample was collected from the depression. F21 and F34 are thought to be occupational surfaces. Radiocarbon dates from composite samples of small charcoal indicate that Features 21 and 34 are roughly contemporary Figure 6. Additional traits held in common that suggest they belong to the same feature include their origination at the same elevation in the pre-Anasazi alluvium Figure 3 , the similarity of the F21 and F34 occupation surfaces, and the nearly identical fill above them.

    Evidence that these are part of a pithouse includes the basin-shaped depression that appears to be a hearth, and a single fragment of fired clay daub that suggests a lightly constructed superstructure of brush and clay. A volume of 4. A volume of 6. Also noted in each feature was a small quantity of Pinus sp. No local comparative data exist to assess the significance of these counts.

    It is noted, however, that these taxa continue to be used during the succeeding Formative period Martin , Pollen Analysis Cummings analyzed pollen from four locations associated with the Archaic level. Pollen samples were collected from beneath the milling slab on the F34 surface, from the "hearth" depression surface in F21, and from sterile contexts both above and below F21 in the pre-Anasazi alluvium Figure 2. The pollen samples collected and examined from the Archaic level exhibited a pollen record different from all of the Anasazi samples.

    The "pithouse" samples were dominated by Artemisia pollen; Pinus and Juniperus pollen counts were generally smaller than those noted in the Anasazi samples. Other species present included Asteraceae, Cheno-ams, Sarcobatus,. Ephedra, and Poaceae. Small quantities of hollow starch granules, and starch granules with hila that are typical of grass seeds, were also recovered. Tipps Although no projectile points were found in the Archaic level of the Arroyo site, Gypsum dart points, a key diagnostic of the Late Archaic period, are relatively common on the Grand Staircase Keller , Kaiparowits Plateau Geib et al.

    Keller's inventory on the Skutumpah Terrace, located about 20 km northwest of the Arroyo site, recorded 10 Late Archaic sites and a total of 34 Gypsum points. A collection of Gypsum points, reported to have been found on the terrace between the Skutumpah and the Arroyo site, are made of Petrified Forest Member chert Figure 7. The source of this distinctiveagatized wood is the Chinle Formation, which is exposed at the base of the Vermilion Cliffs.

    Dates for Gypsum points are generally cited as B. Based on a reanalysis of dated points from Sudden Shelter, Tipps cites their range as and B. On the Grand Staircase section of the southern Colorado Plateau, Gypsum points seem to have persisted into the Formative period. In addition to diagnostic projectile points, the Barrier Canyon rock art style, dated between B.

    To date, however, recorded Late Archaic site types on the Grand Staircase are restricted to lithic scatters Brown , lithic and groundstone scatters Keller ,and rockshelters Janetski and Wilde Few open camps and no residential structures have been attributed to the Late Archaic period on the southern Colorado Plateau. If, in fact, the preferred location for semipermanent Late Archaic camps was in alluviated bottom lands, such sites are likely to be under-represented by.

    Ultimately, their identification may require geomorphological studies of sediments and buried soil horizons exposed in wash profiles of the numerous alluvial filled valleys on the Grand Staircase. The identification of a Late Archaic population on the Grand Staircase has important implications for understanding the origins of Virgin Anasazi agriculture. Was the local adoption of agriculture a process of diffusion to existing bands of hunter-gatherers, or was the spread of maize the result of a migration of agriculturalistsfrom the south Berry and Berry ?

    The handful that have been reported only hint at the presence of a large enough population to adopt the Formative lifeway. Further, all of the available dates are the result of limited excavations that lack the context to flesh in details of local settlement pattern and adaptive strategy. In support of the migration hypothesis, Geib and Davidson point out that there appears to be an occupational hiatus of rockshelters in the Four Comers area between 3, to 2, years ago, just prior to the Basketmaker I1 period Geib and Davidson On the Grand Staircase the continuity of occupation is.

    If an in situ population of Archaic foragers is eventually described then local adaptation, rather than population. Nevertheless, the diffusion of agriculture to an existing population on the Grand Staircase remains a viable hypothesis. Both the wide distribution of Late Archaic rock art styles, and particularly the temporal. The excavations at the Arroyo site involved many people.

    I am indebted to them for their skilled observations and hard work. I am especially pleased to have worked with Steve Martin, U. I thank Gardiner Dalley , Bill Davis, and an anonymous reviewer for their editorial comments and advice. Brown, G. Abajo Archaeology, Bluff, Utah. George, Utah. Cummings, L. Jennings, edited by C. Condie and D. Fowler, pp Eccles, C. Compiled b y A. Fairley, H. Altschul and H. Fairley, pp. Kulp, T. Geib, P. Kiva Martin, S.

    Unpublished Ph. Huffman, and K.

    Journal of a Trapper, Osborne Russell and Relating to Forrest Fenn

    Holrner, R. Fowler, pp. Anthropological Papers Janetski, J. Utah Archaeology McFadden, D. Judd, N. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin Nauta, L. Keller, D. Report A Nielson, A. Stokes, W. Occasional Paper No. Tipps, B. Selections from the Division of Cultural Resources, No. NOTE 'The initial excavations at the Arroyo site were conducted as emergency data recovery directed at the remnants of obvious Anasazi structures. Our knowledge of Virgin Anasazi site layouts suggested that the site was extensive and that the initial investigations would recover only a sample of the features present.

    In anticipation of future investigations at the site, permanent datums were placed that would facilitate re-establishing the grid system. The definition of an underlying Archaic level significantly expands the research opportunities at the site. We think there is room in the journal for articles on nontraditional subjects and articles of general interest. The two articles in this inaugural issue are by avocational archaeologists, but anyone can contribute. We seek either nontraditional subject matter, such as the articles in this issue, or photo-essays of artifact collections that feature the photos with a minimum of text, or educational pieces on general topics; for instance a synthesis about "Paleoindians in Utah," or a guide on "What you can leam from human skeletal remains.

    If you have an idea for an article, please contact one of the editors. Having been born and raised in Ogden within walking distance of the mouth of Ogden Canyon, and having spent many summers in the surrounding foothills, Osborne's description of the area caused me to reflect on my wanderings there. Since then a question has echoed through my mind.

    Where was Osbome Russell. Dann J. Collet of a mountain man having an encounter. To attempt to determine where he was on this day, his travels and activities just prior to this time will be examined from his writings. Russell often described his travels and surroundings in great detail. In so doing, not only will the examination point out possible locations where he had his encounter with the wolverine, it will point out that he was in the vicinity of locations known today in the Ogden Valley. Even more important archaeologically, it will point out some of the wildlife and Native Americans that made the Ogden.

    I didn't give it much thought until several years later. Then, because of my interest in mountain men and current day reenactments of their rendezvous, I obtained a copy of a Journal of a Trapper, edited by Aubrey L. Haines, University of Nebraska Press. This book contained the journal of Osbome Russell, a trapper in the Rocky Mountains and eastern Great Basin during the early to mid s. In my reading, I came across an encounter that Mr. Russell had with a wolverine on February 4, This event was. I later learned that Mr. Collet's painting was depicting this event documented in Osbome's journal.

    Figure 1 is.

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    He was one of nine children of. George C. Not much is known of him until he joined Nathaniel J. Wyeth's expedition to the Rocky Mountains in From there on he had many adventures trapping and hunting until when he left for the west coast, never to return to his old ways again. He was one of the very few mountain men who had enough education to read and write, and because of this, kept a journal of his adventures hunting, trapping, and dealing with the Native Americans in the Rocky Mountains and eastern Great Basin. Osborne died August 26, and is buried in an unmarked grave in Placerville,California.

    Quoting from his journal and preserving his grammar, he writes. The mountain in to the valley on the East borders of the lake" Haines Key words from this part of Osborne's journal are "SW direction" and "narrow defile. If this is not correct, the only other alternativewould have been for him to travel south in Cache Valley, over the mountains and down Brigham.

    City Canyon. However, this direction of travel is contrary to his writings and many times he documents in his journal traveling along streams and rivers Haines , and since travel along a stream was to his liking, the Bear River should be no exception. His travels of the next few days also lend credence that the Bear River Narrows is the "narrow defile" of which he speaks.

    On December 16,he writes,. He further writes,. This will help in determining his location on February 3, It's very likely that the small branch referred to is present day Willard Creek and not the creek from Brigham City Canyon.

    Traveling through "the Valley in a South direction" and camping along this creek would not put him "by the foot of the mountain. Osbome next writes, "20th Decr. We moved along the borders of the Lake about 10 Mls. And encamped on a considerable stream running into it called 'Weavers's river' At this place the Valley is about 10 Mls wide intersected with numerous Springs of salt and fresh hot and cold water which rise at the foot of the Mountain and run thro.

    The Valley into the river and Lake" Haines The present day Weber River runs farthest north through an area known as West Weber and is approximately 9. Two presentday springs, Cold Springs and Utah Hot Springs, lie directly at the base of the mountains. Two of the creeks that run through the valley originate from these springs, Cold Springs Creek and Warm Springs Creek. Figure 2 shows the approximate location of these springs as well as a proposed path of Osborne's journey into the Ogden Valley. All of these.

    There are cottonwood and box elder trees along the river at this point that are in excess of 6 feet in diameter from personal observation. From these. I have already said the man who was the proprietor of the lodge in which I staid was a French man with a flat head wife and one child The inmates of the next lodge was a half breed Iowa a Nez percy wife and two children his wifes brother a Nex percy 2 children and a Snake Indian The inmates of the 3d lodge was a half breed Snake his wife a Nez percy and two children.

    He goes on to describe the dinner that was from stewed elk meat, boiled deer, boiled flour pudding with dried fruit and sauce made from the juice of sour berries and sugar, followed by strong coffee. Mark also stated that local farmers have reportedly plowed up gunflints and flintlock parts in this same area. Figure 2. The Northern Wasatch Front. He writes, "On the 3d we moved Camp up the stream to the foot of the mountain where the stream forks The right is called Weavers fork and the left Ogden's both coming thro.

    The mountain in a deep narrow cut. On the loth I started to hunt Elk by myself intending to stop out 2 or 3 nights I travelled up Weavers fork in a SE direction thro the mountains. Here the snow was about 15 inches deep on a level. Osbome has traveled over what is known as Trappers' Loop and into the Huntsville, Utah area. Trappers' Loop is locally known as an area that was frequented by trappers and explorers in the early to mid s,thus giving it its name.

    Several trade bead caches have reportedly been found in this area by local residents. Having killed an Elk in Ogden's Hole, he bedded. Mountain Range East of Ogden. Direction for about 3 Mls then turning to the left into a steepravine began to ascend winding my way up thro. Osborne has described very clearly the fact that travel down Ogden Canyon was impossible with his horse, so he traveled along the western edge of Ogden's Hole, which is the west edge of Huntsville, and then ascended up present day North Ogden Divide.

    In his description he stated that the snow was very deep at the summit, which is at feet. This was the 12th of January,. I took a trip up the mountain to hunt Sheep I ascended a spur. I had not rambled far before I discovered 3 rams about ft perpendicular below me I shot and killed one. I returned to my horse and built a large fire with fragments of dry sugar maple which I found scattered about on the Mountain having for a shelter from the wind a huge piece of Coarse Sandstone of which the mountain was composed..

    I was upwards of 6, ft above the level of the lake, below me was a dark abyss silent as the night of Death I. Haines , Photograph of Jumpoff Canyon Site 1. This part of his journal is very descriptive and enables an attempt to locate where he was. He was camped at the foot of the mountains where the Ogden and Weber rivers meet. He traveled in an eastward direction either on the northern or southern side of the Ogden River and ascended a ridge of lesser elevation that ran parallel to the mountains.

    He did not camp on the mountaintop, but near the top, on a flat bench around 6, feet above the lake where there was no snow. He was near a rocky formation with a deep abyss and mountain sheep below. Running nearly north to south from North Ogden Divide to the south end of Ogden is a mountain range east of Ogden that is marked on the west facing slopes by a large cliff of Tintic Quartzite. There are two areas here that lend themselves to Osbome's description of his mountain ascent. The first, which could have easily been observed on his return from North Ogden Divide, is north of the Ogden River and begins at the mouth of Garner Canyon in the vicinity of the corporate boundaries between Ogden and North Ogden cities.

    This spur heads in a south by southeast direction along the. Figure 3 shows this area as Site 1. This flat plain overlooks Jumpoff Canyon below Lewis Peak. Jumpoff Canyon is appropriately named because of the sheer drop from the cliffs above and would most certainly look like a dark abyss at midnight. Figure 4 is a photograph of this area taken in mid-January of and could possibly show the same surface conditions that faced Osborne in The other area east of the fork of the Ogden and Weber rivers is known as Hidden Valley and is accessible by one of two trails.

    The first trail is known as Indians' Trail which leads up the south side of Ogden Canyon. This trail travels along and above the cliffs and leads directly into Hidden Valley itself. Ascent up the mountain using this system of trails, which is believed to have been established long before Euro-American settlers entered the Ogden Valley, would have been much easier than. Figure 5. Photograph of Hidden Valley Site 2. There are three possible locations in this area that Osborne could have used for his overnight stay.

    Figure 3 shows these locations as Sites 2,3, and 4. Site 2, just under 5, feet, is the very flat Bomeviue terrace of ancient Lake Bonneville. It is directly above Indians Trail and at the beginning of the Hidden Valley. Much of what one would see below would also appear as a dark abyss. Later, a hostile Indian village approaches and a series of battles with the Indians occur. Russell is sent with three other men on a mission, and they are robbed by Crow Indians. Despite the apologizes of the Crow Chief several days later, Russell and his comrades refuse to trust the Chief, and they proceed on foot for a long period before making it to Fort William.

    Russell is humiliated because he has lost his goods and horses but soon gets most of his property back. Russell is attacked on another journey while with one comrade and is injured and loses his horse. He depends on the friendship of other trappers and Indians to survive and reequip. Each year, parties from the Eastern United States or the mouth of the Columbia River bring supplies to the trappers and buy beaver skins from them. Russell spends many months trapping with Elbridge Trask in the area around Gray's River, till he decides to leave his life as a trapper.

    Russell joins a group going to a new town on the Willamette River. There he is injured in an accident and loses his right eye. Read more from the Study Guide. Browse all BookRags Study Guides. All rights reserved. Toggle navigation. You can make customized word lists so the site rewords and teaches any word or phrase exactly the way you want. Select how public or private you want the document, enter the title, author, etc. You get a link that you can put in your online lesson plans, teacher web pages, or blog.

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