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Lactobacilli are present in the early infant gut and correlated with a lower risk of allergy later in life. In addition, lactobacilli dampen in vitro immune activation induced by Staphylococcus S. Aims: Here we investigated if early life colonization with lactobacilli and S. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children at age two and adults were analysed basally or after stimulation with cell free supernatants CFS from Lactobacillus L.

The cells were stained with antibodies and analysed by flow cytometry. Results: Children colonized with S. Further, in vitro stimulation with S. Introduction: The atopic march refers to the sequential development of allergic conditions in childhood and is associated with severe and persistent disease manifestations. Aim of the study: We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study GWAS for infantile eczema followed by childhood asthma to unravel the genes underlying this characteristic pattern of allergic disease.

Methods: GWASs were performed in 6 study populations discovery phase. Selected SNPs were replicated in another 6 study populations replication phase.

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Our study included cases and 17, controls of European descent. Association was calculated by logistic regression using an additive allele-dosage model. Results: We identified 7 loci associated with the atopic march at genome-wide significance. Two chromosomal loci at 6p Four additional loci at 1q By inspecting all known GWAS loci for eczema or asthma in the discovery set, we found that eczema loci were significantly more likely to be associated with the atopic march than asthma loci. Conclusion: The two novel loci provide genetic support for a specific atopic march phenotype.

In addition, we demonstrate that eczema loci were the main genetic determinants of the atopic march which may point to the development of eczema as a key event initiating this unfavorable disease course. We suggest that the prevention or early treatment of infantile eczema could be a promising approach in order to reduce the burden of allergic diseases associated with the atopic march. Oral food challenge was performed to confirm the diagnosis, except in severe recent reactions.

All children had negative skin prick test SPT to the offending food. A control group of 10 non atopic children with good tolerance to foods were also tested. Eighteen patients were diagnosed by OFC, 4 with clinical history and OFC was not performed because of a recent severe reaction. At the first visit, 8 children showed positivity APT to the offending food, 14 were negative sensitivity: 0.

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Children in control group showed negative APT. Although in some patients APT become negative, clinical symptoms persisted, so the age of diagnosis may be important, with loss of sensitivity in older children. Background: Recently, there has been an increased recognition of patients who are allergic to the seeds but not the pulp of citrus fruit. A study of patients with nut allergy demonstrated high rates of co-sensitisation between cashew and orange seed but the clinical relevance of this state was not investigated by challenge.

Watermelon Citrullus lanatus , of the Cucurbitaceae family, has a high protein content in the seeds. Watermelon allergy predominantly presents as oral allergy syndrome but we describe a different manifestation. Case history: 2 patients have presented to our pediatric allergy service, both with a history of uneventfully enjoying consumption of watermelon on multiple occasions. Neither has ever eaten cashew nut.

Discussion: Watermelon seeds are often swallowed whole or removed before eating, hence patients may appear to tolerate watermelon. When the seed contents are consumed the reaction occurs. Watermelon seeds contain high levels of vicilin-like glycoprotein seed storage protein. In cashew nuts Ana o 1, a vicilin-like protein, is a major food allergen hence the possibility of cross-reactivity. Other vicilin-like proteins such as peanut Ara h1 , soya gly m5 and sesame Ses i3 may also need consideration. Conclusions: Allergy to fruit seeds may be common and under-recognised.

One should consider seed allergy despite previous or ongoing apparent tolerance to the fruit pulp. Clinical significance of the co-sensitisation to the cashew nut is uncertain and needs further investigation. They have little resource or access to allergy testing and may be unfamiliar with the interpretation of results. Many guidelines have surfaced in the past few years but it is felt that the knowledge, uptake and application of these guidelines have been suboptimal. This project attempted to assess if an electronic version of a modified CMPA guideline can increase the confidence of primary care clinicians in the management of children with possible CMPA.

This was done by developing a template which was adapted and modified from a national guideline and was introduced into individual primary care computer systems. Methodology: An electronic guideline template for managing CMPA was introduced for a period of two months in primary care electronic record keeping computer system. Confidence scoring was compared in GPs before and after this period to see whether use of the template resulted in changes in confidence scores.

Results: Nine clinicians participated in this study from five surgeries across North of England. Conclusion: Our study, like many previous studies, has demonstrated that the uptake and use of national guidelines remains poor. Our study demonstrates that confidence levels in managing CMPA improved significantly by following an electronic template. We recommend that national and international bodies take note of the significance of these findings as these may guide future CMPA and other guideline implementation in primary care. Oral immunotherapy OIT , a novel strategy, has been recognized as promising treatment for severe and long-lasting CM allergy.

The protocol involves the introduction of increasing amounts of non-diluted CM, beginning with sublingual drops and gradual increases of the threshold dose at predetermined intervals. The doses increments and establishment of the dose for daily ingestion at home were always performed in hospital sessions. There were 4 failures: 2 due to gastrointestinal symptoms and 2 by poor adherence. All reactions were controlled with rescue treatment. The protocol used allowed to achieve tolerance within a short period of time. Introduction: Numerous epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that frequent contact to a traditional farm environment in early life protects children from the development of allergic airway diseases like hay fever and asthma.

We have previously demonstrated that intranasal application of the cowshed-derived lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis G LL resulted in protection from allergic disease in different murine asthma models. However, details of the underlying mode-of-action of this protective immune response are largely unknown. Materials and methods: Cellular mechanisms involved in cytokine induction upon LL exposure were analysed in human monocyte derived dendritic cells moDCs and murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells BMDCs by use of specific inhibitors for uptake and endosomal acidification.

Preincubation with the inhibitors Cytochalasin D or Bafilomycin A1 Baf strongly decreased the cytokine production indicating the importance of both uptake of the bacteria and endosomal acidification. However, treatment of BMDC with Baf prior to LL exposure significantly reduced the protective effect resulting in a restored allergic phenotype. Conclusion: We revealed uptake of LL in dendritic cells and subsequent endosomal acidification as key elements of the mode-of-action of allergy protection mediated by the cowshed-derived bacterium.

These findings will greatly support the further development of a Lactococcus -based primary prophylaxis against hay fever and asthma for protection of children early in life. Introduction: Hospitalisation with bronchiolitis in infancy is associated with increased asthma risk and reduced quality of life QoL. Stress may negatively impact morning cortisol and possibly asthma development. We aimed to investigate the association between cortisol and QoL in young children and the potential modifying effect of having been hospitalised for bronchiolitis. By robust regression, cortisol results were analysed as dependent of QoL quartiles, adjusting for age and gender, and subsequently also for asthma severity, graded depending of follow-up plans or daily steroid inhalations.

Results: Cortisol did not differ significantly between the groups, but was lower the more severe the asthma. Increasing QoL for 11 of 13 domains was associated with increasing morning cortisol in the bronchiolitis group but not in controls except for two domains. Controls had results for one domain pointing the opposite way. After adjustment for asthma severity, the associations remained significant for 9 of 13 domains in the bronchiolitis group.

We found interaction between hospitalisation for bronchiolitis and QoL quartiles. The group differences are possibly due to different asthma frequencies and severities, but not explainable only by our measured asthma severity. Qualified subjects had a history of AR, were in good health, and had no evidence of nasal mucosal erosion, nasal ulceration, nasal septum perforation, or any significant nasal disease.

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Results: The total symptom score at baseline was 1. The PK schedule was optimally designed to minimize the number of samples and the total volume per child. Final model establishment and validation was done using standard statistical and diagnostic criteria for parametric non-linear mixed effects models. Introduction: Asthma is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality throughout the world in terms of access to emergency services, number of hospitalization days, school absence. IOEASMA program used an integrative care model, implemented international asthma guidelines, to address pediatric asthma with a multidisciplinary approach.

During the protocol, skin prick tests and spirometry were administered. After the first visit, children and parents undertook an individual therapeutic education course, conducted by the health personnel, about: environmental prevention, asthma attacks management, daily therapy use, proper use of devices, self-management disease control.

The ECCM, after the first visit, addressed the following health adversity: social interaction, diet, physical activity, smoking. Background: The difficulty to sensitize most strains of laboratory rodents to ovalbumin OVA -and especially through the airways-, without the addition of adjuvant is well-known. It is also well-known that even if sensitization does occur, it is difficult to model longstanding disease, as the rodents gradually develop tolerance to OVA and usually only one or two exposures are carried out before sacrifice. Fifteen days later, awake rats were re-challenged i.

The rodents were re-exposed every third day for a total of 13 exposures. Results: OVA-challenged rats demonstrated signs of allergic rhinitis as evidenced by a statistically significant increase in the number of sneezes and presence of marked nasal mucosal inflammation, as opposed to the control group. Conclusions: We present an experimental model whereby we managed to sensitize to OVA, rats of a sensitization-tolerant strain.

These rats were of weaning age upon first exposure and sensitization. Furthermore, these weaning rats were sensitized via the airways without the addition of adjuvant, and multiple exposures to OVA failed to tolerise them to this innocuous aeroallergen. It is likely that exposure to inert aeroallergens at a very early age and in the context of in irritant ether , rendered these rats susceptible to sensitization and longstanding disease.

Background: Development of allergic sensitization may be regulated by microbial exposure. Children spend a lot of their time in school, under an extensive diversity of biological aerosols, such as bacteria and fungi. We aimed characterize indoor air microbiological exposure as a predictor of allergic sensitization.

Atopy was defined by a positive SPT to at least one of the allergens. Quantification was performed by naked eye count. Mann—Whitney tests and logistic regression models were used to statistically analyse the data. Results: Prevalence of atopy was Similarly, higher concentrations of Penicillium spp. Conclusion: Although the cross sectional nature of our study does not allow to establish causal relationships, our results further suggest that current exposure to higher levels of endotoxin is associated with increasing odds of allergic sensitization in children.

However, some fungi species, such as Aspergilus fumigatus , Aspergilus niger and Chaetomium spp. Introduction: Allergic rhinitis AR is a highly prevalent disease among the worldwide population, with significant impact on quality of life and healthcare costs that affects both pediatric and adults. Numerous studies describe the characteristics of AR in adult and pediatric patients, but do not compare the characteristics between both populations.

Objectives: The aim was to compare the characteristic of AR between child and adults. Methods: Two observational, cross-sectional, multicenter studies were performed with data collection consecutively in two phases, the study in children and study in adults. We compared both databases, and we was performed a database in common, for analysis by SPSS Results: patients children: ; adults: were included, mean age According to their duration, was intermittent in Children was In children was moderate Adults T4SS 6. Moreover, adults VAS Regarding comorbidities, Conclusion: We found significant differences between the characteristics of AR between children and adults.

Rhinitis is more intermittent and severe in children, being also more prevalent comorbidities. Background: Asthma and rhinitis are the commonest chronic diseases in pregnancy, with possible outgrowth in progeny. Objective: This study aimed to characterize the immune profile of atopic asthmatic women in late pregnancy, and to further evaluate its relation with the development of atopic signs and symptoms in newborns. At this time point, peripheral blood samples from each woman were collected and analyzed by Flow Cytometry, in order to characterize T and B cell subsets.

Six months after birth, the babies were clinically assessed and atopic manifestations were investigated atopic dermatitis, recurrent wheeze. Transitional B cells point towards a more effective B cell output in BW mothers. These are preliminary data that need further confirmation, but can be useful in the future development of atopy risk markers in children from atopic mothers. Tilburgs T, Strominger JL. Am J ReprodImmunol. Background: It was suggested that bacterial infections in children at early ages can protect allergic reactions in future.

Nevertheless, contact to bacterial products such as endotoxins in early childhood may protect development of allergic diseases later in childhood is still a dilemma. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the impact of neonatal sepsis on development of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in children. Methods: children were divided into two groups. Group 1 was consists of 63 subjects mean age Another 63 children mean age The prevalence of asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis were compared between two groups.

Comprehensive examination was performed for all subjects by the same pediatric allergist. In addition, total blood count for eosinophilia, total IgE levels were measured and skin prick tests were performed for each subjects. However, we found no significant difference between two groups in terms of prevalence of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis.

Conclusion: Our study has highlighted that severe infections such as sepsis in neonatal period can protect from sensitization to environmental allergens and developing asthma in later childhood. Selective IgE deficiency was recently associated with immune system dysregulation leading to lung diseases, autoimmunity and chronic urticaria in adults and children.

Seventy-six children with selective IgE deficiency have been studied since Clinical history was taken, SPT, nasal as well as sputum cultures, lung function test and chest x-ray were performed. Abnormal CXR was detected in Conclusions: Selective IgE deficiency seems to be related to increased prevalence of lung diseases and non atopic asthma.

Low serum total IgE may be used as a marker of immune dysregulation. Non skeletal effects of vitamin D have been discussed in recent studies and many reports refer to its role in health and disease. There is also evidence that vitamin D deficiency can impair immune function, resulting in both, overactivity or suppression. However, there are no studies relating Vitamin D levels to total IgE, a basic marker of allergic diseases.

Clinical and laboratory data from children and adolescence Serums were collected during winter Allergic diseases might influence vitamin D synthesis or vice versa, low levels of vitamin D might increase allergic markers. More studies are needed to clarify this relation and to evaluate any clinical role.

Background: Atopy and allergy have long been associated with asthma. Usually the presence of atopy or any allergic diseases could interfere and obstacle the control of asthma. For all children we drew blood for IgE against inhalation and food allergies antibodies detection and asked them to fill ACQ. IgE were detected with the predesigned kit EurolinePediatric. Conclusion: Closer monitoring for patients sensitive to birch, D.

Objective: To study the clinical features of the current chronic urticaria CU of adolescents. All patients had a comprehensive examination, including clinical history, physical examination, laboratory and instrumental examination, specific allergy tests. The most common form of CU of adolescents was inducible The inducible CU met among young men 2 times more often It should be noted that spontaneous urticaria of adolescents was predominantly moderate.

Middle-aged patients had not only moderate disease, but mild Urticaria in half of boys and girls was observed more than a year. Most common comorbidities of adolescents were a disease of gastrointestinal system Patients of middle age had also pathology gastrointestinal system Conclusions: CU of adolescents had certain features. Urticaria observed among young men mainly. The symptoms of urticaria induced mainly by physical factors. The most common forms of urticaria is inducible: dermographic and combination cold contact with cholinergic.

Idiopathic CU usually has moderate forms. The most common comorbidities are diseases of the gastrointestinal system, helminth infections and parasitosis. Objectives: To characterize the clinical features, response to therapy, evolution and prognosis of pediatric cutaneous mastocytosis in a children hospital in Athens, Greece. We evaluated gender, age at onset, character and distribution of lesions, associated symptoms and course of the disease. Results: In total 8 children were diagnosed with mastocytosis based on clinical presentation and on histological examination of the skin using special stains.

There were There was a male predominance The majority of lesions were distributed over the trunk and limbs. Different kinds of associated symptoms were noticed. None of the cases was familial. Treatment did not modify the disease evolution. Conclusion: Pediatric onset mastocytosis is an unusual disease with an often benign course. Most cases of pediatric mastocytosis appeared within the first year of life, especially on the trunk. The most common clinical form of mastocytosis was urticaria pigmentosa followed by diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis and mastocytoma. The disease in childhood is less likely to have a systemic component.

The prognosis of pediatric mastocytosis in general is good. Introduction: Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in children. There is a variety of symptoms from eczema to anaphylaxis. Comorbidity with other allergic diseases is common. The aim of this study was to evaluate if specific symptoms, comorbidities or biochemical markers could be used as prognostic factors in the development of tolerance. Methods: 52 children 28 boys and 24 girls with a mean age of 7.

Using logistic regression, we have searched for associations between age, gender as well as specific clinical characteristics and biochemical markers IgE to egg and ovomucoid and the oral egg challenge result. Results: 33 children had a positive egg challenge. However, adjusting for age at provocation, only the association between IgE to egg and the oral challenge result remained nominally significant.

There was no association between comorbidities or a specific symptom and the oral egg challenge result. Conclusions: Positive IgE to egg was the only factor that could be used as a prognostic factor for the result of an oral egg challenge in children with a history of egg allergy. Background: Nearly 2. However, in infants and children unable to tolerate EHP formulas, amino acid-based formulas are often recommended. Methods: This was an observational, prospective, multi-center study conducted in France. Formula efficacy was evaluated by body weight gain and evaluation of allergic manifestations atopic dermatitis AD , bloody stools, GER score, chronic diarrhea, and urticaria.

Results: Thirty 30 of 32 infants completed the week feeding period. Improvement was observed for all allergic manifestations, both in terms of the number of infants presenting symptoms and the intensity of symptoms. Conclusions: The amino acid formula supported healthy weight gain and improvement in allergic manifestations in CMPA infants who had a history of intolerance to EHP formulas. Background: Anaphylactic shock is a life-threatening circumstance which requires urgent and proper medical management. The delay in making an accurate diagnosis, initiating appropriate treatment and inappropriate use of epinephrine can lead to death.

Objectives: This study is designed to evaluate and emphasize the paramount importance of the trainee knowledge about anaphylaxis, the treatment methods, life-saving medications, the route of administration and the dosage. Results: In phase 1, the questionnaires were distributed to 96 trainees. Conclusion: Although prompt treatment with epinephrine is deemed to be critically important for survival in anaphylaxis, we have huge gap between theoretical knowledge about epinephrine concentration and site of administration of epinephrine and fundamental practice among pediatrics trainees.

Analysis of these data necessitates the urgent need of a concrete program for teaching the trainees, especially the pediatrics fellows to solidify their knowledge about anaphylaxis. More important practical guidelines about the site of administration, what concentration and how to act fast when faced with anaphylaxis is needed to be taught to current and future trainees. Hypothesis: Several studies suggest an increase in both the prevalence of food allergy and in the frequency of emergency department ED visits for food-related allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis.

Aim: To describe the key features of anaphylactic reactions in children and their management when presenting to the Emergency Department. We collected data on patient characteristics, suspected triggers, signs and symptoms, ED management, and discharge recommendations.

Adrenaline i. Conclusions: Food allergens are the main triggers for anaphylaxis in Irish children. The rate of Adrenaline use in emergency setting clearly needs to improve in Ireland, and barriers to Adrenaline use must be addressed. Aim: To develop an effective model of care for allergic children at school and ensure all staff are familiar with and able to implement it. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to measure the preparedness and confidence by staff following the training. Conclusions: Adopting a county-wide, age appropriate school protocol including training in anaphylaxis led by the school and supported by all the stake holders will ensure that all school staff can prevent, recognise and initiate safe treatment of anaphylaxis.

FPIES are similar to severe forms of food allergy where there is the risk of death, but due to hypovolemic shock rather than anaphylaxis. FPIES are also different from classic IgE mediated food allergy, as the foods involved are often atypical foods and not validated tests exists. The measure underwent further psychometric analysis including factor analysis and reliability analysis.

There was a high positive correlation between independent clinical items and scores on the questionnaire. It will provide a powerful disease specific outcome and tracking measure in both research and clinical contexts. Rationale: There is limited research into coping and management strategies of teenagers and young adults living with food allergy, particularly with a strong developmental focus using either qualitative or quantitative methods. Aim: The current study qualitatively investigates the experiences of teenagers and young adults in growing up and living with food allergy with emphasis on coping, management and risk, support, and social and self-identity.

Method: In-depth case study interviews were conducted with participants aged 18—24, and analysed following the method of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Findings show that coping and management in food-allergic young adults is a journey. This journey is similar for all young adults in that they all are striving for control, though their experiences are unique. All are challenged by the developmental juncture with which they are faced as young adults and are informed by previous developmental transition experience.

While they move towards developing independence, young people rely on external support for their safety and to cope with the fear and anxiety around reactions. Conclusions: The findings from this study add complexity to our existing knowledge of coping and management in food allergy from a developmental perspective, and can be used as a basis for interventions or further qualitative and quantitative research in the field. The aim of this study is to report the epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary characteristics of CMPA in children living in Constantine. Method: This is a retrospective study that included all children with CMPA seen in a pediatric allergy clinic from to and all available data were used.

Results: 62 cases were gathered 32 boys and 30 girls. An early identification of, and intervention for, CMPA is essential to avoid vital complications. CM allergic children: Mean time at build-up phase 8. At the maintenance phase only 1 child withdrew due to adverse events. EA children: Mean time at the build-up phase 7.

In EA, drop-outs due to adverse events were more frequent. Methods: All pediatric doctors working in pediatric departments of BCUHB were asked to complete a specific questionnaire in order to determine their awareness on diagnosis and management of CMPA. Of the 50 distributed questionnaires, 40 were completed and returned to us.

A good proportion of medical staff deviated from the guidelines regarding the management of CMPA in cases of anaphylaxis However nearly a quarter of staff was not aware of the existence of guidelines and another third stated they had not read them. Therefore it is important to educate staff regarding the presence of guidelines and management of CMPA, as prompt and correct diagnosis of this condition will reduce the parental anxiety and will decrease the financial burden on the Health System.

Methods : In we made a questionnaire on Spanish teachers between November and January , with the following questions:. Would you know how to administer the medication if a student had an anaphylactic reaction in your school? Results : In the survey it became evident that knowledge about anaphylaxis was scarce, only Conclusion : We present a protocol for teachers in case of anaphylaxis, where we explain simply the steps and how to use the auto-injector adrenaline with drawings. Despite the rise in diagnosis, many community members are unaware that a severe allergic reaction, such as anaphylaxis, could result in death.

Food allergy can often be confused with food intolerances leading to misunderstandings regarding severe allergic reactions. It can also have a significant effect on the quality of life QoL of the FA child and their parents in social interactions. Objective: The focus of this research is in the area of extra-curricular activities that FA children participate in.

No previous FA studies have looked at this before. Such a study is of significance in order to understand parental concerns and if necessary improve supports within the community. Methods: A qualitative approach was used by conducting semi structured telephone interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Results: The interviews produced a number of key findings: food was regularly provided at one or more of the activities which the child engaged in, although primarily in team sports; parents tended to stay at the activity partly due to trust and also due to a sense of responsibility.

Conclusion: The main conclusion drawn from this study was that there is a lack of awareness and understanding of FA indicating that there is also no risk perceived by some coaches or instructors. Some sporting bodies were more proactive with regards training than others, but central to the risk of food allergen exposure is the education of the coaches and instructors in all activities where there is a potential for food to be provided.

This research proffers engagement with coaches and instructors at community level to recognise that this is a real concern for parents of FA children and also to get governing sports bodies involved in developing FA and anaphylaxis policies. Introduction: Parents often overestimate the likelihood of their child having a food allergy. Food challenge audits such as this will help tailor the decision whether or not a food challenge is required in this subpopulation.

Exclusion Criteria: Drug allergy challenges and food challenges with incomplete information were excluded. Results: A total of challenges were performed over the time period. There was one case of a food challenge wheat with exercise. A total of 45 patients underwent SPT prior to the food challenge, underwent IgE testing and 35 had both investigations. There was one case of anaphylaxis. There were two incidents of respiratory reactions requiring Beta-2 agonists. Conclusion: A significant number of food challenges occurred without any prior investigation.

There was a large discrepancy between the number of those who passed verses failed the food challenges.

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Venter C, et al. Prevalence of sensitization reported and objectivity assessed food hypersensitivity amongst 6-year old children: a population based study. Background: Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening systemic hypersensitivity reaction and its first-choice treatment is Epinephrine given intramuscularly IM. On discharge, all patients should be prescribed epinephrine auto injectors, and referred to an allergist. But do we use the epinephrine appropriately in case of anaphylaxis or do we skip it?

Methods: We studied retrospectively 41 children who performed anaphylactic reaction and who were admitted to the emergency department or were attended by emergency mobile units during a 9-years period — in a , population. We determined the prevalence of use of epinephrine as a first-choice treatment and the percentage of patients in whom epinephrine auto injector was prescribed when they were discharged.

Just 4. All patients were referred to an allergist. Conclusions: The use of epinephrine as a first choice treatment is still not solid. The prescription of epinephrine auto injectors when patients are discharged from emergency departments is still an issue.

Keywords: anaphylaxis; emergency; infant; epinephrine. Background: It has been established that child allergies, such as asthma and rhinitis, have a direct impact on carers usually the mother , increasing their likelihood of psychological disorders and social network deterioration. Therefore, this study compared the relative odds of the occurrence of gastric symptoms in the food allergic child given exposure to maternal psychosocial factors.

Low perceived social support was found in Conclusions: The psychological impact of caring a food allergic child and the perceived social support can predicts the occurrence of allergic symptoms in children. CFA is propounded as a process where biological, psychological and social variables have a relationship of mutual influence. Background: Tree nut allergy is a frequent medical problem. Some are allergic to tree nuts due to birch pollen cross reactivity whereas others have a primary tree nut allergy. There can be great regional variance in the serological profile and hence in clinical allergy.

A pilot study suggested that hazelnuts, walnuts, pistachio nuts and cashew nuts were the most common nuts involved in allergic reactions in a Danish Pediatric population. Aim: To investigate the correlation between sIgE towards four common tree nuts and the correlation between sIgE towards hazelnuts and birch pollen amongst patients in a Danish outpatient allergy clinic. The interrelationship between sIgE was pictured in XY-plots and Spearman correlation was calculated for sIgE towards hazelnut and birch pollen and for sIgE towards hazelnut, walnut, pistachio and cashew measured in the same patients.

Conclusions: Our findings show a strong relationship between sensitization towards cashew nut and pistachio nut, and hazelnut and birch pollen and a moderate relationship towards walnut and cashew nut, and walnut and pistachio nut. Results from the same population are underway to determine the clinical association of these findings. Nowadays, social media is a powerful tool that parents use to get informed.

Despite this, little has been published about social media role in health issues. Objective: To evaluate the content of communication in parents dedicated websites regarding topics on food allergy in children. Design: We searched for non-medical online networking websites dedicated to parents, with topics and talks regarding food allergy in children and identified 19 online sites which we further evaluated in respect to content form personal experience, information and correctitude of information from a medical point of view.

Results: The number of answers to a topic was variable according to the popularity of the website, ranging from 8 to However, the number of unique visualizations was exponentially higher, ranging from to Parents of children with food allergy either medically confirmed or suspected use social media tools to ask for information and share personal experiences. The hierarchy of most common reasons to use the online media is the following: 1 to describe an acute reaction and ask for opinions on management and causes 2 to get informed about food diet and treatment and find out others experience with specific treatment, including different brands, 3.

Other important concerns raised by parents were the difficulties encountered regarding collectivity attendance due to impossibility of providing food specific diet. There were some medically inaccurate recommendations such as use of homeopathic treatment or inadequate definition of medical terms. Conclusions: Online social media provides a place to share personal experiences, receive emotional support and get information on medical management, suggesting that this tool should be better managed for greater efficiency.

Introduction: Food allergy FA affects 8. This study evaluates the impact of on quality of life QoL. The appropriate questionnaire will depend on the age of the patient. Emilia Romagna. Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Italian Lakes. Diekirch area. Grevenmacher area. Luxenburg city area. East-Malaysia Borneo. Bay of Kotor. Budva Riviera. Central Montenegro. North Montenegrin Mountains. South Coast. Nederlandse Antillen. Sint Maarten. Sint Eustatius. West Noorwegen. East Norway. Fjord Norway. Middle Norway. Nord Norway.

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Våre betalingsmåter

Czech Republic. Adler Mountains. Bohemian Forest. Giant Mountains. Lipno Lake. South Bohemia. West Bohemia. Zuidelijke Noordzee. Capital Region. Central Jutland. North Jutland. Southern Denmark. Lower Normandy. Pays de la Loire. Upper Normandy. Baltic Sea. Black Forest. North Rhine-Westphalia. North Sea. Great Britain. Northern Ireland.

Central and North Greece. Greek Islands. Noord Brabant. Friese meren. Aan de kust. Great Hungarian Plain. Northern Hungary. Irian Jaya. Zuid-Oost Ierland. Noord-West Ierland en Lakelands. East coast and Midlands. Shannon region. Aosta Valley. Emilia Romagna. Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Italian Lakes. Diekirch area.

Grevenmacher area. Luxenburg city area. East-Malaysia Borneo. Bay of Kotor.