Get PDF A Punishment on the Nation: An Iowa Soldier Endures the Civil War (Civil War in the North)

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online A Punishment on the Nation: An Iowa Soldier Endures the Civil War (Civil War in the North) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with A Punishment on the Nation: An Iowa Soldier Endures the Civil War (Civil War in the North) book. Happy reading A Punishment on the Nation: An Iowa Soldier Endures the Civil War (Civil War in the North) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF A Punishment on the Nation: An Iowa Soldier Endures the Civil War (Civil War in the North) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF A Punishment on the Nation: An Iowa Soldier Endures the Civil War (Civil War in the North) Pocket Guide.
Buying Options

  1. Confederate States of America - Wikipedia
  2. Table of Contents
  3. The Journal of the Civil War Era
  4. Buy for others
  5. Confederate States of America

Brady review Matthew M. Stith pp. Thomas review Scott Reynolds Nelson pp. Harris review Aaron Astor pp. Dunkelman review Joseph G. Dawson III pp. Hulbert pp. Severance pp. Weinfeld review Learotha Williams Jr. Nash pp. Contributors p. Book Notes pp. They had nine children - Edward, Abigail, James M. Esther and Lily L.

Crowell had two children by her first husband. Their names were Richard W. Of this large double family all are still living except Sylvia, who died in , at the age of twenty-two and Esther, who died in , at the age of She was the wife of Sereno Whitney. Crowell moved with his family to Ulster Township, this county, where he resided till his death, which occurred March 11, Crowell still makes the homestead her abiding place. Of Mr. Crowell it may be said he was one of the pioneers who helped lay the very foundations of the history of Floyd County.

Both Mr. Crowell were members of the M. He was a member of the I. Edward Crowell, Jr. In the year his father and family moved to Bloomfield, Walworth County, Wis. Edward Crowell, Sr. This property the family called the old homestead. It is here the family grew to man and womanhood; it is here the father and mother lived happily together till death broke the ties by removing Mr. At the age of twenty-one Mr. He served his full term, being three years; was mustered out May 6, , at Davenport, Ia. His army experience was that of the usual faithful soldier - hard marches, hot skirmishes, and short rations, and the usual exhausting and undermining camp life.

After his return from the army he moved upon his farm of eighty acres, which he had purchased in , on section 29, Ulster Township. Here he lived till the year , when he sold and purchased eighty acres on section 31, same township, where he still resides. He has under cultivation about fifty acres, and has usually about fifteen head of cattle, four horses and thirty hogs. June 3, , he and Miss Sarah Y. Porter were united in marriage. She was a native of Steuben County, N. They have five children - Dora L. Politically Mr. Crowell is a sound Republican.

Is at present Justice of the Peace, which he has been for many years, and has held various township offices. He is a member of the I. Edward Crowell, an honored veteran of the Civil War and a substantial retired farmer of this county, now living at Rockford, is a native of the great Empire state, but has been a resident of the Northwest since he was three years of age, of this county since he was about six, consequently he has been a witness to and a participant in the development of this region since pioneer days.

He was born at Centerville, in Allegany county, New York, December 16, , and was not yet three years of age when his parents, Edward and Caroline Persons Crowell, both natives of that same state, the former born in Saratoga county and the latter in Allegany county, came West in and settled in Walworth County, Wisconsin, where they remained until , in which year they came over into Iowa and in June of that year settled in Ulster township, this county, where they spent the remainder of their lives, substantial and useful pioneer citizens.

Both had been previously married and both had children by these first marriages, but to their union were born nine children, of whom Edward was the first-born, the others being Mrs. Oren L. John, Mrs. Esther Whitney deceased , Charles Wesley and Mrs. Lillie Rugg. As noted above, the junior Edward Crowell was about sixteen years of age when he came over into this county with his parents from Wisconsin and he completed his schooling in the schools of this county, such as they were at that time.

From the days of his boyhood he was a valuable assistant to this father in the labors of developing and improving the home farm and was living there when the civil War broke out. On August 15, , he enlisted for service in Ulster township as a member of Company G, Twenty-seventh Regiment, Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and with that command served until the close of the war, being in many of the notable battles and engagements of the war, yet never received a wound nor was taken prisoner. Upon the completion of his military service Mr.

Crowell returned home and resumed farming. Having married in he established his home in Ulster township and there remained, actively engaged in farming, for about twenty years, at the end of which time he moved to a farm in Scott township and there made his home until , when he retired from the farm and moved to Rockford, where he and his wife are still living and where they are very comfortably situated. Porter, also a native of New York, who was born in Steuben County, that state, a daughter of Henry and Rebecca Pierce Porter, who moved from that state to Illinois and thence in , to Iowa, locating on a farm in St.

Charles township, this county, where they established their home and where they remained until their retirement from the farm and removal to Rockford, where their last days were spent. To Edward and Sarah J Porter Crowell six children have been born, of whom the subject of this sketch was the second in order of birth, the others being as follows: Mrs.

Dora L. Church of Rockford; Clyde A. Ida M. Fisher, of Scott township, this county, and Clifford J. Crowell are members of the Congregational church and have ever given proper attention to local good works. Crowell is an active member of the local post of the Grand Army of the Republic and his wife is an equally active member of the local corps of the Woman's Relief Corps. He is a Royal Arch Mason and both he and his wife are members of the local chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star and take a warm interest in Masonic affairs.

The rest of this sketch concerned their son Clarence:. Crowell age 17, farmer, born New York , Silas W. Crowell age 10, born Wisconsin , Ruth E. Crowell age 8, born Wisconsin , Sillie S. Crowell age 5, born Wisconsin. Crowell age 3, born Iowa and Clarence Crowell age 2, born Iowa. Crowell born Dec. Crowell born Feb. Crowell born Apr. Crowell age 63, married 1 time for 46 years, 6 children born, 6 still living, born New York. Crowell age 73, born New York. Edward Crowell died Apr.

Crowell, James Monroe He was born Feb. Crowell age 67, married 1 time for 42 years, born New York , wife Elizabeth A. Crowell age 63, married 1 time for 42 years, 9 children born, 9 still living, born New York. Mother's name: Harriet McKee. James M. Crowell died June 15, Pension Index Record. Note: on James M. John W. Nutting, C 3 Minn. Nutting's pension index card is cross referenced to James M. It shows that he died Nov. His Widow Lucy L. Nutting filed for a pension on Dec. I note that on the Lucy Nutting was the housekeeper of James M. Then on his wife was Lucy.

So it appears to me that James M. Crowell remarried late in life to another veteran's widow. James Crowell's Mother's name was Caroline Persons. Were they related somehow? I also noted that on the census there was a Lucy Persons in the household as a housekeeper. Is this the same person? Note the newspaper article below says they married Feb. Koffle age 3, born Indiana and Henry W. Koffle age 2, born Indiana. Cuffle age 10, born Iowa. Slaught born Sept. Slaught born May , age 6, born Oklahoma. Albert Cuffel and Miss Rebecca A. The ceremony was performed by Reverend Warren Griffith, of the Methodist Church, of which both were members and lived true to their faith through all the ups and downs of life.

They were quietly married at the home of Mr. Henry Daggy, where Miss Newton had made her home after being left an orphan at the age of seven years. They came to Iowa in , settling near Nashua, where they lived nearly 50 years. That was in Iowa's early days and Mr. Cuffel freighted supplies by team from McGregor. At the call for volunteers for President Lincoln in , Mr. Cuffel enlisted in Company G, 27th Regiment Iowa Volunteers, served three years and was honorably discharged at the close of the war. To this union 8 children were born, all of whom are living.

They are: H. Cagley, of Waverly; Mrs. Price, of Lake Mills, Iowa; Mrs. Slaght and Mrs. Rush, of Sunnyside, Washington and with the latter they make their home. They both lived to a good old age, he being 85 and she Their health has been remarkably good for old people until this past winter when they seem to be failing quite rapidly. They have their second eyesight, doing all their reading without glasses, and his memory is unimpaired. Rebecca Ann Newton Cuffel born Nov. Daniels, Albert Grosvenor. He was born about in Vermont.

He was the son of Thomas Grosvenor Daniels Aug. Knapp on Feb. She was the daughter of Jacob and Margaret Knapp. Daniels age 45, farmer, born Vermont , Anna A. Daniels age 34, born Vermont , Orange P. Daniels age 17, born Vermont , Frances M. Daniels age 15, born Vermont , Albert G. Daniels age 13, born Vermont , Stephen L. Daniels age 7, born Vermont , Ellen L. Benedict 9age 7 , George W. Mahony age 21, carpenter and Albert Daniels age 23, carpenter, born Vermont.

Albert G. Daniels died of disease Sept. His widow S. Daniels filed for a pension on Dec. Family tree information shows 1 child name Gerra. Dawley, Lorenzo J. She was the daughter of John C. Townsend and Lucinda Underwood. There were members of the Baptist church, and have a family of four sons and seven daughters. Joseph B. She was born in Frankfort, N. He farmed in Herkimer County two years, then went to Oneida County, purchased a farm and lived there until , when he sold out and went to Hillsdale County, Michigan. He cleared a hundred acres of heavy timber land for a farm, and remained there farming and fighting ague until October , when he came to Charles City, Floyd County, Iowa, and went to where Floyd now is, bought the farm he now lives on, and built the first fine house in Floyd, Floyd County.

Dawley have five children, viz. Hubbard, a farmer of Todd County, Minn. Hill, a farmer in St. Charles Township; and Horace J. Dawley owns a fine farm of acres, under good cultivation and well stocked. He is one of the enterprising farmers, representative men and old settlers of Floyd County, having been identified here since , before this county was organized.

He has seen this county change from its wild, uncultivated state to its present prosperous condition. He has held various offices of trust; he has been County Supervisor and Assessor; was elected Justice of the Peace in , and held that office some five years. In politics he was first a Jackson Democrat, and cast his first vote for old Hickory, and at the organization of the Republican party became one of its strong supporters.

Townsend, John C. John C. He owns acres adjoining. They are both deceased, Mr. Underwood dying in Genesee County, N. Underwood, after again marrying, in Walworth County, Wis. Lucinda was born in Massachusetts, Dec. This union has been blessed with four children, three living - Chester M. Dawley, of Minneapolis, born June 17, ; Jerome W. Townsend is a Spiritualist. He has held many of the township offices; has been County Supervisor, and has faithfully discharged all the duties.

He votes the Greenback ticket. Dawley age 7, born Michigan and Jerome Dawley age 2, born Michigan. Dawley age 12, born Michigan and Jerome Dawley age 7, born Michigan. Dawley age 2, born Iowa and Vivie J. Homestead Certificate , Application The claim of Lorenzo J. Dawley has been established and duly consummated in conformity to law for the east fractional half of section twelve, in township one hundred north of range forty-one west, in the district of lands subject to sale at Des Moines, Iowa, containing two hundred and one acres and seventy hundredths of an acre.

Dawley age 72, married 1 time for 50 years, born Michigan, farmer, general farm , wife Livonia Dawley age 67, married time for 50 years, 11 children born, 8 still living, born Michigan. Lorenzo J. His widow Livonia J. Dawley filed for a pension on April 14, Livonia Townsend Dawley born June 17, , died March. Dean, Daniel M. He was the son of Ira Lew Dean - Mar. He married Elmira Knouse. Early Marriages in Floyd County say they married on May 23, However, the marriage record that was in the pension record said they obtained a license on May 23, It further says Daniel M.

Dean was married to Elmira Knouse on May 30th , by D. Mead, Minister of the Gospel. Daniel was age Elmira was age Note: there is a photo online that is a Daniel M. Several family trees have copied that photo to his family tree. However, the original poster also posted the back of the photo which said "The man left is Cassie Dean's father, Dan Dean.

He died in the War". However, based on a child named Cassie, I do not believe it is the same Daniel Dean. See below for the known children of Daniel M. Dean that served with the 27th Iowa. I have contacted the original poster of the photo, to see what I can find out. Dean Esq. Dean age 20, born Maine and D. Dean age 18, born Maine. Mansfield age 12, born Maine , Daniel M. Dean age 1, born Iowa. Note they are living next door to a family named Mansfield.

The wife was Angelina Mansfield age 37, born Maine.

In this Issue

They had a son named Ira D. I checked some online family trees and found that Angelina Dean married Ebenezer Mansfield. I suspect Seth Mansfield in the household of Ira Dean is a grandson -- However, I could be wrong, as he is not listed in any of the family trees with Ebenezer and Angelina Mansfield. Daniel M. Dean died Feb. His widow Elmira Dean filed for a pension on Aug.

A pension was filed for a minor. William Dean was guardian. Information from the pension record is extracted below. On Nov. Dean, deceased. Elmira Dean, widow of said Daniel M. Dean and mother of said minors who are under five years of age died on the 15th day of October, On Dec. On coming to Floyd county they located in Rock Grove township in the fifties. Daniel Dean saw service in the Union army during the Civil War. His widow died at Rock Grove Village. They were the parents of three children, names: Eda A. Roberts; Lewis H. Murray Roberts are the parents of three children as follows: William Murray, Jr.

Biographies from History of Floyd County, Iowa , page Find a Grave says he was born June 2, He was the son of Harvey Decker Apr. He married Laura L. Shipley on Oct. Family was indexed as Dicker. His brother C. Decker was living next door with another McEwen family. Henderson age 31 and Emeline Henderson age His brother William Clarence was living with the McEwen family next door.

Axter age 30, R. Laborer , Wheeler Decker age 25, R. Engineer, born NY , Chas. Decker age 26, born Canada , son Eugene H. Decker age 4, born Iowa. Wheeler Decker died Dec. Decker, William Clarence He was born Sept. McEwen age 33 , S. Decker age 12, born New York. His father and brother Wheeler were living next door. McEwen age 2 and Wm.

Dowd, Lorenzo Jackson He was born Apr. He was the son of Zinah Dowd, Jr. He married first Mary E. Bronson on April 3, in Chickasaw County, Iowa. Iowa County Marriages, He married second Mary Eliza Bradford on April 23, her obituary. She was the daughter of James Bradford Sept. There was a Joseph Ames age 45 family either in the same household, or next door. They were both numbered as family 14, but could be a miscount by the Census Taker, as they were on two different pages.

Dowd age 28, born Canada and Orvilla Bronson age 7, born Michigan. Mary Dowd age 56, born Vermont with two teenagers lived on one side of him. Truman Dowd age 30, born Pennsylvania and family lived on the other side. Dowd age 53, born Pennsylvania, stone mason , wife Mary E. Dowd age 7, born Iowa , son Milo B. Dowd age 6, born Iowa and mother Mary Dowd age 76, born Penn. Did Lorenzo Jackson Dowd marry two different women named Mary? All the family trees mention only a marriage to Mary Eliza Bradford. However, it appears to me that the Mary on the Census and the Mary on the Census are two different Mary's--different ages, different place of birth.

The Mary that is listed in appears to be his mother -- There was no wife listed in I decided to research this to see if I could determine the answer:. Note: It is possible that Lorenzo J. Dowd was married 3 times. In researching marriage and cemetery records, I found a marriage record for L. Harriet W. Remarks say "wife above L. None of them reflect any other marriages. Dowd age 10 , Charles G.

Dowd age 3 and Lorna J. Dowd age 2. Mary Bradford Dowd died Aug. Mary Dowd Mrs. She was born February 27, , at Clinton, Maine, 94 years ago.

Confederate States of America - Wikipedia

When a child she came here with her parents and lived here until a few years ago when she moved to Marshalltown. Bradford, Iowa, was named for Mrs. Dowd's father, James Bradford, one of the fifth generation of Bradfords to came to this country on the Mayflower. Dowd is survived by her son Glen; a half sister, Mrs. Dilla Putney, stepson, son-in-law, and a daughter-in-law, Mrs.

Dove Dowd, and several grandchildren. She was one of the last surviving widows of a Civil War veteran in the George W. Dodge Post. Dowd was a member of the Methodist Church of Nashua, and a good student of the Bible. She became blind 17 years ago and during her last years her knowledge of the Bible was a source of great comfort to her and to those who cared for her during her affliction.

Bird of the Methodist Church officiating. Baumbach sang two solos, accompanied on the piano by Mrs. Pearl Chenoweth. Burial was made is Oak Hill Cemetery. Pallbearers were: S.

The Cannibal Warlords of Liberia (Full Length Documentary)

Bellamy, Fred Wright, S. Tupper, G. Ellton, A. Davids and P. Card of Thanks I wish to thank all the friends and neighbors who gave their assistance and sent floral tributes for the funeral of Mrs. Mary Dowd. Your kindness is deeply appreciated Mrs.

  • “A Punishment on the Nation”.
  • Books - Buy Books Online at Best Prices In India |
  • Holiday in Queensland.
  • Wie es Euch gefällt (Kommentierte Studienausgabe) (German Edition).

Dutcher, Frederick He was born Nov. He was the son of Newman Dutcher May 3, - Nov. Newman was born May 3, , and was educated in New York, where he learned his trade and worked until he came to Ohio in ; here he farmed and worked at his trade nine years; then sold out and located in Green County, Wis. In , he married Jane Morrison; there were three children by this union, one living - Frances, wife of James Pitcher, of Niles Township.

Frederick, born Nov. Wherton, born Jan 11, , and enlisted May, , in the Third Iowa Infantry; he served two years, two months, participating in the battles of Missouri and siege of Vicksburg and many other hard-fought battles; he was killed at the second taking of Jackson, Mississippi, July 12, Dutcher died Dec. Dutcher married in , Mary E. Stoter; she was born in Connecticut. On regaining his health, he re-enlisted in the Fourteenth Wisconsin Battery, and was permanently disabled and is now in the Soldier's Home at Dayton, Ohio.

Mary E. Dutcher died Sept. Dutcher married Mary L. She was born in New York, Aug. This union has been blessed with nine children, eight living - Ida C. Dutcher and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. Dutcher votes the Greenback ticket. He has held several township offices, and has faithfully discharged his duty. He was living with a family named Scott. Frederick Dutcher died Dec. He is buried in Riverside Cemetery. Dyas, William He was born about in Ohio. The following information is speculation based on the fact that a pension was filed for Raymond S.

Dyas in Missouri:. Dyas age 24, born Missouri , Shelton R. Note there are a couple of family trees on line. One lists Shelton R. The rest just list Raymond S. It's possible they are the same person.. The family trees showed William Dyas married to Susan Allen. I am not certain this is the correct William Dyas, but it seems reasonable based on the Pension Index information. Cheatham age 56 , wife Susanna M. Cheatham age 43, born Ohio , Nephew Ramon S. Dyas age 10, born Missouri. Since, Raymond S. Dyas was listed as a nephew, I did some research to determine if Susanna M.

Cheatham was a Dyas. She married W. Cheatham on Sept. I found the and census for her with her parents. Unfortunately there is no "William" Dyas listed with them. They were listed in in Springfield, Gallia, Ohio. That December Davis made a tour of Confederate armies in the west of the country. He had a very small circle of military advisers. He largely made the main strategic decisions on his own, though he had special respect for Lee's views. Given the Confederacy's limited resources compared with the Union, Davis decided that the Confederacy would have to fight mostly on the strategic defensive.

He maintained this outlook throughout the war, paying special attention to the defense of his national capital at Richmond. He approved Lee's strategic offensives when he felt that military success would both shake Northern self-confidence and strengthen the peace movements there. However, the several campaigns invading the North were met with defeat. A bloody battle at Antietam in Maryland as well as the ride into Kentucky, the Confederate Heartland Offensive both in [98] drained irreplaceable men and talented officers. A final offense led to the three-day bloodletting at Gettysburg in Pennsylvania , [99] crippling the South still further.

The status of techniques and munitions made the defensive side much more likely to endure: an expensive lesson vindicating Davis's initial belief. As provisional president in , Davis formed his first cabinet. LeRoy Pope Walker of Alabama was made Secretary of War, after being recommended for this post by Clement Clay and William Yancey both of whom declined to accept cabinet positions themselves. John Reagan of Texas became Postmaster General. Judah P. Benjamin of Louisiana became Attorney General. Although Stephen Mallory was not put forward by the delegation from his state of Florida , Davis insisted that he was the best man for the job of Secretary of the Navy, and he was eventually confirmed.

Since the Confederacy was founded, among other things, on states' rights, one important factor in Davis's choice of cabinet members was representation from the various states. He depended partly upon recommendations from congressmen and other prominent people. This helped maintain good relations between the executive and legislative branches.

Table of Contents

This also led to complaints as more states joined the Confederacy, however, because there were more states than cabinet positions. As the war progressed, this dissatisfaction increased and there were frequent changes to the cabinet. Toombs, who had wished to be president himself, was frustrated as an advisor and resigned within a few months of his appointment to join the army. Walker requested, and was given, command of the troops in Alabama. Following the November election , Davis announced the permanent cabinet in March Benjamin moved again, to Secretary of State.

George W. Randolph of Virginia had been made the Secretary of War. Both kept their positions throughout the war. In , Memminger withdrew from the Treasury post due to congressional opposition, and was replaced by George Trenholm of South Carolina. In congressional opposition likewise caused Seddon to withdraw, and he was replaced by John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky. Cotton was the South's primary export and the basis of its economy and the system of production the South used was dependent upon slave labor.

At the outset of the Civil War, Davis realized that intervention from European powers would be vital if the Confederacy was to stand against the Union. The administration sent repeated delegations to European nations, but several factors prevented Southern success in terms of foreign diplomacy. The Union blockade of the Confederacy led European powers to remain neutral, contrary to the Southern belief that a blockade would cut off the supply of cotton to Britain and other European nations and prompt them to intervene on behalf of the South.

Many European countries objected to slavery. Britain had abolished it in the s, and Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of made support for the South even less appealing in Europe. Finally, as the war progressed and the South's military prospects dwindled, foreign powers were not convinced that the Confederacy had the strength to become independent.

In the end, not a single foreign nation recognized the Confederate States of America. Most historians sharply criticize Davis for his flawed military strategy, his selection of friends for military commands, and his neglect of homefront crises. On January 31, , Lee assumed this role, but it was far too late. Davis insisted on a strategy of trying to defend all Southern territory with ostensibly equal effort. This diluted the limited resources of the South and made it vulnerable to coordinated strategic thrusts by the Union into the vital Western Theater e.

He made other controversial strategic choices, such as allowing Lee to invade the North in and while the Western armies were under very heavy pressure. When Lee lost at Gettysburg, Vicksburg simultaneously fell, and the Union took control of the Mississippi River , splitting the Confederacy. At Vicksburg, the failure to coordinate multiple forces on both sides of the Mississippi River rested primarily on Davis's inability to create a harmonious departmental arrangement or to force such generals as Edmund Kirby Smith , Earl Van Dorn , and Theophilus H.

Holmes to work together. Davis has been faulted for poor coordination and management of his generals. This includes his reluctance to resolve a dispute between Leonidas Polk , a personal friend, and Braxton Bragg , who was defeated in important battles and distrusted by his subordinates. Johnston until, after numerous frustrations which he detailed in a March 1, letter to Col. James Phelan of Mississippi, he replaced him with John Bell Hood , [] [] a fellow Kentuckian who had shared the Confederate President's views on aggressive military policies.

Davis gave speeches to soldiers and politicians but largely ignored the common people , who came to resent the favoritism shown to the rich and powerful; Davis thus failed to harness Confederate nationalism. To finance the war, the Confederate government initially issued bonds, but investment from the public never met the demands. Taxes were lower than in the Union and collected with less efficiency; European investment was also insufficient. As the war proceeded, both the Confederate government and the individual states printed more and more paper money.

Davis did not seem to grasp the enormity of the problem. In April , food shortages led to rioting in Richmond, as poor people robbed and looted numerous stores for food until Davis cracked down and restored order. Perhaps even more seriously, he clashed with powerful state governors who used states' rights arguments to withhold their militia units from national service and otherwise blocked mobilization plans. Davis is widely evaluated as a less effective war leader than Lincoln, even though Davis had extensive military experience and Lincoln had little.

Davis would have preferred to be an army general and tended to manage military matters himself. Lincoln and Davis led in very different ways. According to one historian,. Lincoln was flexible; Davis was rigid. Lincoln wanted to win; Davis wanted to be right.

The Journal of the Civil War Era

Lincoln had a broad strategic vision of Union goals; Davis could never enlarge his narrow view. Lincoln searched for the right general, then let him fight the war; Davis continuously played favorites and interfered unduly with his generals, even with Robert E. Lincoln led his nation; Davis failed to rally the South. There were many factors that led to Union victory over the Confederacy, and Davis recognized from the start that the South was at a distinct disadvantage; but in the end, Lincoln helped to achieve victory, whereas Davis contributed to defeat. In March , General Order 14 provided for enlisting slaves into the army, with a promise of freedom for service.

The idea had been suggested years earlier, but Davis did not act upon it until late in the war, and very few slaves were enlisted. On April 3, with Union troops under Ulysses S. Lincoln was in Davis's Richmond office just 40 hours later. William T. Sutherlin turned over his mansion , which served as Davis's temporary residence from April 3 to April 10, Lee's letter announcing surrender. After Lee's surrender, a public meeting was held in Shreveport, Louisiana , at which many speakers supported continuation of the war. Plans were developed for the Davis government to flee to Havana , Cuba.

There, the leaders would regroup and head to the Confederate-controlled Trans-Mississippi area by way of the Rio Grande. On April 14, Lincoln was shot , dying the next day. Davis expressed regret at his death. He later said that he believed Lincoln would have been less harsh with the South than his successor, Andrew Johnson. As the Confederate military structure fell into disarray, the search for Davis by Union forces intensified.

President Davis met with his Confederate Cabinet for the last time on May 5, , in Washington, Georgia , and officially dissolved the Confederate government. Davis recounted the circumstances of her husband's capture as described below: "Just before day the enemy charged our camp yelling like demons I pleaded with him to let me throw over him a large waterproof wrap which had often served him in sickness during the summer season for a dressing gown and which I hoped might so cover his person that in the grey of the morning he would not be recognized.

As he strode off I threw over his head a little black shawl which was around my own shoulders, saying that he could not find his hat and after he started sent my colored woman after him with a bucket for water hoping that he would pass unobserved. It was reported in the media that Davis put his wife's overcoat over his shoulders while fleeing. This led to the persistent rumor that he attempted to flee in women's clothes, inspiring caricatures that portrayed him as such.

Davis's heavy shawl had been placed on Davis who was "always extremely sensitive to cold air", to protect him from the "chilly atmosphere of the early hour of the morning" by the slave James Henry Jones, Davis's valet who served Davis and his family during and after the Civil War. They were first hidden at Senator David Levy Yulee 's plantation in Florida, then placed in the care of a railroad agent in Waldo. On June 15, , Union soldiers seized Davis's personal baggage from the agent, together with some of the Confederate government's records.

A historical marker was erected at this site. Irons were riveted to his ankles at the order of General Nelson Miles who was in charge of the fort. Davis was allowed no visitors, and no books except the Bible. He became sicker, and the attending physician warned that his life was in danger, but this treatment continued for some months until late autumn when he was finally given better quarters. General Miles was transferred in mid, and Davis's treatment continued to improve.

Pope Pius IX see Pope Pius IX and the United States , after learning that Davis was a prisoner, sent him a portrait inscribed with the Latin words " Venite ad me omnes qui laboratis, et ego reficiam vos, dicit Dominus ", which correspond to Matthew , [] [] "Come to me, all you that labor, and are burdened, and I will refresh you, sayeth the Lord". A hand-woven crown of thorns associated with the portrait is often said to have been made by the Pope [] [] but may have been woven by Davis's wife Varina.

Varina and their young daughter Winnie were allowed to join Davis, and the family was eventually given an apartment in the officers' quarters. Davis was indicted for treason while imprisoned; one of his attorneys was ex-Governor Thomas Pratt of Maryland. While there was no consensus in President Johnson's cabinet to do so, on June 11, the House of Representatives voted, , to support such a trial against Davis. Although Davis wanted such a trial for himself, there were no treason trials against anyone, as it was felt they would probably not succeed and would impede reconciliation.

There was also a concern at the time that such action could result in a judicial decision that would validate the constitutionality of secession later removed by the Supreme Court ruling in Texas v. White declaring secession unconstitutional. A jury of 12 black and 12 white men was recruited by United States Circuit Court judge John Curtiss Underwood in preparation for the trial. Davis went to Montreal, Quebec to join his family which had fled there earlier, and lived in Lennoxville, Quebec until , [] also visiting Cuba and Europe in search of work.

After his release from prison and pardon, Davis faced continued financial pressures, as well as an unsettled family life. His wife Varina was often ill or abroad, and for a time refused to live with him in Memphis, Tennessee. Davis resented having to resort to charity, and would only accept jobs befitting his former positions as U.

Senator and Confederate President; several that he accepted proved financial failures. On one of his many trips to England, [] Davis sought a mercantile position in Liverpool. However, British companies were wary, both because Britons were not interested in Canadian mines, and because Mississippi defaulted on debts in the s, and Judah Benjamin cautioned him against countering former wartime propaganda by Robert J.

He recruited former Confederate officers as agents, and the board ratified his position in That speech prompted further invitations, although he declined them until July , when he was commencement speaker at the University of the South. Two years later Davis addressed the Virginia Historical Society at White Sulpher Springs , where Davis proclaimed southerners were "cheated not conquered" and would never have surrendered if they had foreseen Congressional Reconstruction.

He received criticism from the Chicago Tribune and threats to his life in Indiana, but crowds in Kansas City, Missouri and Fairview, Kentucky received him well. During the next two years Davis began writing his books about the Confederacy, but only addressed fellow former soldiers: first veterans of the Mexican War before which he attacked Congressional Reconstruction , then Confederate veterans where he promoted reconciliation.

Early in Reconstruction , Davis publicly remained silent on his opinions, but privately condemned federal military rule and believed Republican authority over former Confederate states unjustified. Senator in to finish the term of Albert G. Furthermore, during the war, after Joseph Davis's departure from his plantations at Davis Bend and the Union capture of Vicksburg and the surrounding area, General Grant had continued Joseph Davis's utopian experiment and ordered that the land be leased to the freedman and black refugees allowed to settle in the area.

Although Joseph Davis ultimately received the land back, many black leaders came from the plantation, which had its own political system, including elected black judges and sheriffs. After the floods changed the course of the Mississippi River, Joseph Davis sold the plantation to the former slave who had operated a store and handled the white brothers' cotton transaction, Ben Montgomery. Ord appointed him Davis Bend's postmaster in Ben himself was elected justice of the peace.

Other black leaders during Mississippi Reconstruction with Davis Bend ties included Israel Shadd, who became speaker of the state's House of Representatives, and legislator Albert Johnson who also served in the state's constitutional convention. Jefferson Davis considered "Yankee and Negroe" rule in the South oppressive, and said so in and especially after One recent biographer believes Davis favored a Southern social order that included a "democratic white polity based firmly on dominance of a controlled and excluded black caste".

While seeking to reclaim Davis Bend "Hurricane" and "Brierfield" plantations in , Joseph Davis had filed documents with the Freedmans Bureau insisting that he had intentionally never given Jefferson Davis title to the latter. After Joseph Davis died two years later, his will left property to his two orphaned grandchildren, as well as to his brother's children, and named Jefferson Davis one of three executors with Dr. Bowmar and nephew Joseph Smith.

After the Montgomery men entertained the three executors in May , and he suffered losses in the Panic of , Jefferson Davis decided the black men could never fulfill the land purchase contract, and filed suit against the other trustees on June 15, The local Chancery Court which then had a Republican judge, and two of the three Hamer lawyers were former Confederates dismissed Davis's lawsuit in January , citing estoppel , because Davis had been acting as executor for four years despite this claim based on alleged actions in the s.

By that time, two of the Republicans on that appellate court had been replaced by Democrats, both former Confederate officers, [] To actually gain possession of Brierfield, Davis needed to convince the Warren County chancery court to foreclose the mortgage, which happened on June 1, , and all appeals were rejected by December 1, , allowing Jefferson Davis for the first time in his life , to gain legal title. While pursuing the Brierfield litigation, Davis took another business trip to Liverpool.

This time he sought employment from the Royal Insurance Company a fire and marine insurer which refused him, citing Northern animosity toward the former Confederate President. Other insurers also rejected him both directly and through intermediaries. He then visited former Confederate ambassador John Slidell in Paris, but was unable to associate with a land company, either to aid the southern people or encourage emigration to the South. Joseph Davis had encouraged his brother to write his memoirs just after his release from prison, but Davis had responded that he was not capable of doing so, either physically nor emotionally.

His wartime assistant Preston Johnston had also encouraged Davis three years later. As Davis began to seriously consider the memoir endeavor in , his early working title became "Our Cause," for he believed he could convert others to the rightness of the Confederacy's actions. Walthall, a former Confederate officer and Carolina Life agent in Mobile, Alabama to look for a publisher for the proposed book. Walthall contacted D. Davis made minor changes and Appleton agreed. In , Sarah Anne Ellis Dorsey , a wealthy widow and writer whom he and Varina had known from childhood and who supported the Lost Cause , invited Davis to stay at her estate and plantation house, " Beauvoir ", which faced the Gulf of Mexico in Biloxi, Mississippi.

Her husband, Maryland-born Samuel Dorsey had bought Beauvoir in , and died there two years later. Dorsey wanted to provide Davis with a refuge in which he could write his memoirs per the Appleton contract. She provided him a cabin for his own use as well as helped him with his writing through organization, dictation, editing and encouragement.

Her relatives came to contest that last will, which excluded them and gave everything to Davis in fee simple. They argued Davis exerted undue influence over the widow. The court dismissed their lawsuit without comment in March , and they filed no appeal. Upon receiving the Appleton contract, Davis had sent letters to his former associates, seeking supporting documentation. When Walthall sent two proposed chapters to New York in , Appleton returned them, cautioning that it did not want a long rehash of constitutional history, but rather an account of Davis's actions as the Confederacy's president.

The publisher then sent William J. Tenney , a states-rights Democrat and staff member, to visit Beauvoir to get the problematic manuscript into publishable shape. When it still failed to arrive, Derby personally traveled to Mississippi in February Since Davis did not want to give up on the book nor return the funds and had already mortgaged the properties he received from Dorsey , he agreed that Tenney would take up residence in a cottage at Beauvoir.

On May 1, , Davis severed all connections with Walthall, who had made little progress in the preceding two years. Although the first volume still mainly highlighted secession as constitutionally legitimate and contained Davis's speeches among the lengthy appendices, the books restored Davis's reputation among ex-Confederates. Davis downplayed slavery as secession's cause, instead blaming the North for prosecuting a destructive and uncivilized war. The Southern Historical Society had been formed in by Rev. William Jones a Baptist minister and former Confederate chaplain and Gen.

Jubal A. Jones became the Society's paid secretary and editor of the Southern Historical Review; Early became President and head of its executive committee. They made Davis a life member and helped him gather material for his book. They had tried to enlist him for a speaking tour in , but Davis declined, citing his health and a yellow fever epidemic near Beauvoir, and only made one address in New Orleans on its behalf before Nonetheless, when asked to speak at dedication of the Lee mausoleum in Lexington, Virginia, Davis declined when he learned Johnston would preside, and also vented in his personal correspondence.

Davis also took issue with Gen. Sherman in an address in St. Louis in and in a lengthy letter to the editor, and also criticized young New York politician Theodore Roosevelt for comparing him to Benedict Arnold. When touring the South in and , Davis attended many Lost Cause ceremonies, and large crowds showered him with affection as local leaders presented emotional speeches honoring his sacrifices to the would-be nation.

According to the Meriden Daily Journal , at a reception held in New Orleans in May , Davis urged southerners to be loyal to the nation--"United you are now, and if the Union is ever to be broken, let the other side break it. On November 6, , Davis left Beauvoir to visit his Brierfield plantation. He embarked a steamboat in New Orleans during sleety rain and fell ill during the trip, so that he initially felt too sick to disembark at his stop, and spent the night upriver in Vicksburg before making his way to the plantation the next day.

He refused to send for a doctor for four days before embarking on his return trip. Meanwhile, servants sent Varina a telegram, and she took a train to New Orleans, and then a steamboat upriver, finally reaching the vessel on which her husband was returning. Davis finally received medical care as two doctors came aboard further south and diagnosed acute bronchitis complicated by malaria. Fenner was the son-in-law of Davis's old friend J. Davis's doctor Stanford E. Chaille pronounced him too ill to travel to Beauvoir; four medical students who were sons of Confederate veterans and a Catholic nun attended Davis in the Charity Hospital ambulance which took him to the Fenner home.

Davis remained bedridden but stable for the next two weeks. He took a turn for the worse in early December. His funeral was one of the largest in the South, and New Orleans draped itself in mourning as his body lay in state in the City Hall for several days. An Executive Committee decided to emphasize Davis's ties to the United States, so an American national flag was placed over the Confederate flag during the viewing, and many crossed American and Confederate flags nearby.

Davis wore a new suit of Confederate grey fabric Jubal Early had given him, and Varina placed a sword Davis had carried during the Black Hawk War on the bier. A common decoration during the initial funeral was a small American flag in mourning, with a portrait of Davis in the center. Several other locations in the South wanted Davis's remains. Louisville, Kentucky offered a site in Cave Hill cemetery, noting that two years earlier Davis had dedicated a church built on the site of his birthplace and claiming that he several times said he wanted to be buried in his native state.

Taylor Ellyson established the Jefferson Davis Monument Association, and on July 12, Varina revealed in a letter to Confederate Veterans and people of the Southern States that her first choice would be Davis's plantation in Mississippi, but that because she feared flooding, she had decided to urge Richmond as the proper place for his tomb. After Davis's remains were exhumed in New Orleans, they lay in state for a day at Memorial Hall of the newly organized Louisiana Historical Association.

Buy for others

Foster, Sr. The train also detoured to Raleigh, North Carolina for Davis's coffin to lie in state in that capital city, having been driven by James J. Jones, a free black man who had served Davis during the war and become a local businessman and politician. Per the association's agreement with Varina, their children's remains were exhumed from Washington, D. The monument's cornerstone was laid in an ceremony, and it was dedicated with great pomp and , spectators on June 3, , the last day of a Confederate reunion.

Jefferson Davis served in many roles. As a soldier, he was brave and resourceful. As a plantation owner, he employed slave labor as did most of his peers in the South, and supported slavery. Some portions of his legacy were created not as memorials, but as contemporary recognition of his service at the time. Fort Davis National Historic Site began as a frontier military post in October , in the mountains of western Texas.

That fort gave its name to the surrounding Davis Mountains range, and the town of Fort Davis. The surrounding area was designated Jeff Davis County in , with the town of Fort Davis as the county seat. Jefferson Davis Hospital began operations in and was the first centralized municipal hospital to treat indigent patients in Houston , Texas. Numerous memorials to Jefferson Davis were created. In , the United Daughters of the Confederacy conceived the Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway , a transcontinental highway to be built through the South.

Davis appeared on several postage stamps issued by the Confederacy , including its first postage stamp issued in In , his portrait appeared on a United States postage stamp, part of a series of 20 stamps commemorating the th anniversary of the end of the Civil War. The stamp portrayed Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. For some years, the white-columned Biloxi mansion that was Davis's final home had served as a Confederate Veterans Home. The house and library were damaged by Hurricane Katrina in ; the house reopened in Since the early s, it has published 13 volumes, the first in and the most recent in ; two more volumes are planned.

The project has roughly , documents in its archives. The birthday of Jefferson Davis is commemorated in several states. His actual birthday, June 3, is celebrated in Florida, [] Kentucky, [] Louisiana [] and Tennessee ; [] in Alabama, it is celebrated on the first Monday in June. Lee; [] Jefferson Davis's birthday had been officially celebrated on June 3 but was combined with Lee's birthday in Robert E.

Lee's United States citizenship was posthumously restored in Davis had been specifically excluded from earlier resolutions restoring rights to other Confederate officials, and a movement arose to restore Davis's citizenship as well. This was accomplished with the passing of Senate Joint Resolution 16 on October 17, In signing the law, President Jimmy Carter referred to this as the last act of reconciliation in the Civil War.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the President of the Confederate States from to For other uses, see Jefferson Davis disambiguation. President of the Confederate States. Sarah Knox Taylor m. Varina Howell m. Cooper, Jr. He used the initial at West Point, as did his mother in her will. Again, I assume that both would not have invented it No evidence supports Hudson Strode's claim that the actual middle name was Finis, signaling the final child.

A History of the American People. National Park Service. Retrieved July 27, January Civil War Times Illustrated. December Journal of Mississippi History.

Confederate States of America

Kentucky State Parks. Archived from the original on June 7, Retrieved June 14, Kentucky Place Names. University Press of Kentucky. The Three Kentucky Presidents. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. Military Academy from March 16 to January 1,