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  1. Richard Parnicki (Author of How to Fly a Constant Descent Angle Approach)
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More complex aircraft require more study when it comes to systems. This system consists of a pitot-tube, and a static port. These components measure air pressure, and are necessary for the operation of the altimeter, airspeed indicator, and vertical speed indicator. The pitot tube measures impact air pressure, it is mounted in some area where the airflow is not turbulent to reduce instrument error. Usually the pitot-tube is located under the pilot side wing, the left wing. As the aircraft moves faster through the air, the air pressure at the pitot-tube opening increases.

If an airplane sits still on the ground and is pointed into the wind, the airspeed indicator will indicate the wind speed; this is good because an airplane's performance depends on airspeed, not groundspeed. A static port is used to measure the atmospheric pressure around the aircraft. The static port is located in front of the left door on many general aviation aircraft.

As the altitude of the airplane increases the pressure decreases at a relatively linear rate, meaning that the static port is useful for measuring altitude, and vertical speed. Icing, or other obstructions can block either the static-port or pitot-tube. Specific instrument errors and how to recognize them are detailed in"From the Ground Up".

Airplanes are usually equipped with a backup static port inside the cabin of the aircraft. The powerplant is the source of thrust for an aircraft. On general aviation aircraft it is usually a four stroke reciprocating petroleum burning engine, similar to a car.

The fuel system consists of the storage tanks, pumps and lines used to deliver fuel, and some kind of instrument for mixing the fuel with air. Before the fuel can enter the cylinder for combustion, it must be mixed with air in the correct proportion. Fuel is mixed with air in a carburetor, or is introduced into the system unmixed by fuel injectors. Aviation gasoline is a low-lead product containing tetraethyl lead. This compound is supplied worldwide by a single company.

The continued availability of low-lead avgas containing this compound is unlikely over the next couple of decades. For this reason, many light sport aircraft have engines designed to burn conventional automobile gasoline. The increasing use of ethanol in automobile gasoline may impact its use in any aircraft engines that are not designed or modified for its use.

Turbine and jet engines use a kerosene-based fuel that is under no immediate danger of being discontinued. The electricity used to generate the spark at the beginning of the power stroke comes from magnetos. The use of magnetos allows the ignition system to be completely independent on the rest of the electrical system, i. General aviation powerplants usually run at higher temperatures than automotive engines, so a higher viscosity oil is used.

Usually aircraft checklists will require that oil pressure be within the green limit soon after the engine starts, this is because low pressure could indicate that oil is not circulating. Usually a general aviation powerplant is air cooled. The engine cylinders are horizontally opposed to allow for more air surrounding each cylinder. Each cylinder has many fins attached to it, to increase surface area. Sometimes baffles are used to direct airflow through the engine compartment.

In many light aircraft, typically used for the purpose of training, the aircraft consists of various flight control surfaces. These include: ailerons , rudder , elevator and flaps. Ailerons are used for primary directional control and are usually located on the trailing edge of each wing tip. Using the control column or "stick" one aileron is deflected up while the other is deflected down causing one wing to rise while the other is lowered , resulting in the turn.

Rudder is mainly used to prevent the undesirable effect of drag that is created during a turn or to "coordinate the turn". It is used to assist in the turn under normal circumstances but can be used to turn ,or stop a turn , on its own for example at times when the ailerons are mostly ineffective such as in a spin.

The rudder is located on the vertical stabilizer at the tail of the aircraft. Rudder is normally manipulated by depressing the foot pedals located in the aircraft. Elevator controls the vertical direction of an aircraft climbing or descending. It is located on the horizontal stabilizer of the aircraft at the tail section and is also controlled by use of the control column or"stick".

Back pressure on the control column deflects the elevator upwards changing the flightpath of the aircraft upwards. The opposite is true when forward pressure is applied to the control column. Flaps are not considered a "true" control surface because they do not control the direction an aircraft is traveling up ,down,left or right.

However,they do control the rate or speed and angle at which an aircraft climbs or descends. Flaps change the cross sectional shape of the wing or camber by deflecting them downwards in increments usually three or four ,this usually permits the aircraft to fly at slower speeds and also increases forward visibility. Flaps are primarily used during approach and landing ,but can also be used to reduce takeoff roll.

They are located on the inboard section of the wing on the trailing edge and are usually manipulated by an electrical switch or mechanical lever in the aircraft. Flight controls produce many complex reactions when introduced to an airflow so it is recommended that a good understanding of Theory of Flight and Flight Aerodynamics be attained before trying to understand them fully. If you don't, ask someone. They will be certain to help. Aviation is very procedural. Every action you will undertake in the aircraft will have a checklist tied to it somewhere.

Many of the checklists are simple, and can be memorized, but this is not always a good practice. Memories can be faulty, and in aviation a faulty memory can be a death sentence. Use your checklists. It should only be used as an example. The general idea behind any checklist is to establish a standardized, and methodical routine for some operation. Checklists provide peace of mind for pilots because they aren't wondering if they remembered to check something as they are flying.

This is the first portion. Here we approach the aircraft, and begin our systematic search for problems that will make the aircraft unsafe. We unrope the aircraft, and remove the control locks so that the aircraft is free and able to move. By turning on the master switch, we have given the aircraft instruments, gyroscopes, and other electrically driven systems life.

By turning the master off, we insure battery life. Without it, the engine will not be able to start. This is to make sure that the magnetos, which control the engine sparkplugs are off. If they were on, and you move the prop, the engine might turn over and kill you.


This is to make sure that if even if the magnetos were not grounded, and the engine were to start, it will not be able to run because there would be little or no fuel running into the engine. Similar to above, this ensures that even if the throttle has some fuel running through it, the fuel-air mixture in the cylinders will be excessively lean, and the engine will be unable to continue running. By draining fuel into a small clear container, we ensure that there is no water or debris in the fuel.

Unclean fuel could lead to engine damage, or, in a bad case, to engine failure. Water in the engine would cause the engine to stop because water will not combust. Here we are looking for wrinkles, or anything that might impede the integrity of the airflow. If the aircraft is not streamlined, it will not fly very well. Again, check for wrinkles, and any sort of damage. If our vertical stabilizer was broken, maintaining a level attitude would be hard.

If they seem to go to far up or down, there is probably a problem. The push rods that control their movement may be damaged. This is to make sure that the aircraft's tail is actually fastened in place, and not just hanging there. Yet again we are looking for wrinkles, or anything that might impede the integrity of the airflow. Again, if the aircraft is not streamlined, it will not fly very well.

If the flaps are not properly attached, asymmetrical flap position, and or the flaps going up through the wing could result. Those are not too favorable outcomes. The ailerons control roll, if they are broken, it will be more difficult to control the aircraft. Make sure they will function. This is incredibly important. Ice changes the surface of the aileron, and may make it less effective.

Richard Parnicki (Author of How to Fly a Constant Descent Angle Approach)

It may also limit the movement of the aileron. These weight the aileron in order to ensure a return to their original, "neutral" position. As complicated as this may seem, it is barely anything. The checklists that needed to be completed to launch the Apollo Spacecraft would take days to complete. This only takes 45 minutes or so. Once you become more accustomed to your aircraft you will establish a natural flow in the preflight inspection you will be able to complete the preflight without a checklist and it should take no longer than 15 to 20 minutes.

The basic point behind take off is simple. Get the airplane in the air without crashing into anything! There are a couple of standard ways to do this:. The standard way to take off is fairly simple. Advance the throttle to full, and start off down the runway. Once your speed has sufficiently built this should be your Vr speed you pull back gently on the yoke or stick, and raise the nose gear off of the runway. The airplane should, at this point, fly itself off the runway and into the air. Let the airspeed build to the Vx best angle of climb until you have cleared any obstacles then accelerate to Vy best rate of climb.

Sometimes you want to get the airplane airborne at the lowest possible airspeed, using the shortest possible takeoff roll. For example, gooey mud on the runway will cause tremendous amounts of friction on the wheels. The sooner you become airborne, the sooner you are free of that friction and the better you will be able to accelerate.

Additional reasons for using soft-field procedure will be given below. The procedure is as follows:. There are two ways of completing the maneuver. If the field is unobstructed, remain in ground effect until the pitch attitude and angle of attack have decreased to their normal takeoff values. Then climb while accelerating to VY just as in the normal takeoff. If, however, there are obstacles, it is better to remain in ground effect until the speed approaches VX, then raise the nose and climb out while maintaining VX as in the obstructed-field takeoff. You may be surprised at how well soft-field procedure works.

Just after liftoff, the airspeed is extremely low. In ordinary conditions of flight, your airplane might well have a negative rate of climb at that airspeed yet in this case it not only maintains altitude, but accelerates. The special ingredient in this case is ground effect: a wing produces very little induced drag while it is in ground effect that is, roughly, within one wingspan or less off the ground. The engine is producing full power, so if none of it goes into drag and none of it goes into climb, the airplane will accelerate like crazy.

Suppose the runway is perfectly smooth and firm, but very short and suppose it is surrounded by open fields with lots of bumps but no serious obstacles. You can become airborne over the runway, and then accelerate in ground effect over the fields. Suppose you are attempting an ordinary takeoff from an ordinary field, but due to a gust or perhaps even a lapse in pilot technique you become airborne at a too-low airspeed. In all cases you must be careful to remain in ground effect until you have accelerated to a proper climb speed.

If you try to climb at the liftoff speed you will have a big problem: in many cases, you will be unable to climb out of ground effect. That is, as soon as you climb to a height where ground effect is no longer significant, the induced drag will become so large that you will be unable to climb or accelerate.

Otherwise, they may find the procedure extremely disturbing. Just tell them you will lift off at a low airspeed and they fly horizontally for a few moments while you accelerate to the optimal climb speed. Tell them that a this is standard procedure for getting best performance, and b it minimizes jolts to the passengers. Whereas in a normal takeoff you can guide the airplane by looking out the front, in a soft-field takeoff the nose will block your view during most of the maneuver. Therefore you must use the edge of the runway as your reference.

Practice this skill during taxi. A go-around can be needed for any number of reasons, but most involve either an unsafe runway to land on or a poor approach to where the pilot is not in a position to make a safe landing. Once the pilot decides to go-around or Air Traffic Control ATC has instructed the pilot to go-around, the pilot will apply full power and stop the descent to the runway.

After the pilot has done this, s he will raise the landing gear if applicable and raise the flaps upon reaching a safe airspeed. In a normal situation, the pilot will begin a climb to the traffic pattern altitude and make a normal pattern for another attempt to land. This brings the wind down the axis of the ship, meaning a cross-wind from starboard, which the pilots must be aware of. Worse, it moves the "burble", the air disturbance caused by the island structure, directly into the groove in close.

Eyewitnesses and Physical Evidence

Must be prepared for that, and be ready to add power when we hit the burble. I'm looking for the ball out the port windscreen as I roll into the groove. There I have it. Make the ball call: " Paddles , Gruesome twelve, "Gator", ball, fuel state 3. You're fast. I've been distracted by writing.

I have the same "idiot lights" in the cockpit, directly in my field of view as I'm looking at the mirror. They're easier to see than the angle of attack gage, 'cause you can't be looking at the instrument panel on final approach. I see myself going slightly high, too. High and fast is a bad mix. I'm flying a manual pass, not depending on autothrottle or ACLS.

We need to fly manual controlled passes from time to time, or the skill won't be there when we need it. I pull power and hold the nose steady. I need to correct gradually, not all at once; then again, not too gradually, or I won't get down on the glide slope. I'm locked on the ball; dimly aware that the skipper is still in the spaghetti. But that's normal. He should be clear just a few seconds before I get to the wave-off point.

If the deck is still fouled when I get there it's another trip around the pattern for me. It's often a matter of a second or two between the "clear deck" call and the wave-off point. The meatball is gradually centering on the mirror; I'm still slightly fast low chevron and donut.

Pull the nose up slightly. When flying a manual pass, you control rate of descent with the throttle, and speed with the nose position. Seems counter-intuitive, and that's why you have to work at it. More crab to starboard. Even in the best of circumstances, when the wind is directly down "the angle", the carrier is still moving away to starboard at some speed, so you always have to crab. Today, with the captain making wind, in a manner of speaking, this is magnified. Here, I'm fixing the lineup. Most pilots worry most about the glide slope, because a mistake there seems most likely to make beneficiaries out of your family.

But a lineup mistake can be equally fatal. Almost all lineup problems are right-to-left drift, since the ship is moving off to your right. If the drift is bad enough, especially if you catch the last wire No. Here's the burble. I know it's coming, I'm on with a couple of percent of throttle, to avoid settling. One second later I'm over the ramp, and at touchdown. My eyes are still on the mirror, not on the deck.

Immediately on touchdown I push the throttle to percent. I don't know yet whether it will be a trap or a bolter. Ah, that feeling! Perhaps more lucky than good this time.

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The harness straps are digging into my shoulders, as my body is trying to go through the windscreen. The feeling of stopping from some miles per hour in less than 2 seconds can only be experienced, not described. In addition to the forward deceleration there is the vertical deceleration. The vertical velocity at touchdown is about 13 feet per second, which is the equivalent of being seated in a chair and dropped from a height of six feet.

This is not good for your back, in the long run. Together, these decelerations are So here I am on the deck. The hook has caught the 2-wire I was slightly lower than the target 3-wire, but safe , my brain unscrambles in about half a second; I'm still at full power. And Red 3 is calling the ball behind me. A yellowshirt flight deck director runs up from next to the island, gives me the power back signal.

I come to idle. When the hook is clear of the wire the yellowshirt gives the Hook up signal. I raise the hook, my eyes glued on the yellowshirt. That's where I'll be getting all my directions, and if I don't follow them immediately there will probably be a fouled deck for my playmate behind me.


The yellowshirt gives Come ahead, Turn right, and Fold wings signals, nearly simultaneously. I power up, move forward, turn right and he tells you how far to turn right , and fold the wings. As I'm following his directions and moving forward, I see in my mirrors that Red 3 is safely on deck. Just parking the aircraft can be an adventure. So the yellowshirt aims me toward the forward starboard edge of the deck. He signals "Come ahead".

I come ahead. My cockpit is now over the water; I'm looking back at the yellowshirt on the deck. He's looking at my nose gear, which is about ten feet behind the cockpit. I'd like to turn now. The gouge is on AviationInterviews, and it is pretty good. I think almost every question was from the ATP test bank, or about an instrument approach. There were some questions about PSA. Make sure that you know a little about the company If you study the gouge, and you are currently flying, you should be fine. Just review instrument stuff. Know how to fly approaches. In talking with them before the interviews when we were waiting in the cafeteria for it all to start, I am glad that they were not hired.

Hadn't touched an airplane in several years and were not people that I want working with me. I would not want to fly with them, and I do not want my family to fly with them. There needs to be a way to weed the bad people out.

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Let them go to Mesa and we will keep the good ones at PSA. The people that conduct the interviews are pilots and they are good guys. They are not going to trick you. They just want to make sure that you are capable of flying the airplane safely, that you understand how to fly IFR, and that you will be cool enough to work a 4 day trip with.

I saw the guy that interviewed me at the airport a few weeks ago, and we had a great conversation. I guarantee that they don't remember anything about airplanes that they flew 10 years ago, and they won't expect you to either. If you are currently flying something, then you should know the basics. But there is no way that the pilots that do the interviews know everything about every airplane. When I saw him, I asked him if he liked doing the interviews, and he said that he loved it. He said it was a chance to "sit down and talk to other pilots about pilot stuff. But, if they hand you a Jeppesen chart for an ILS ask you "how would you fly this approach", they expect you to know.

PSA wants to hire you. It is your job to lose. Study the gouges, study the things that you are weak on, and be ready. I really like it here, and so will you. If this was Mesa maybe, but here, not even close! The interviewers are actually being quite choosy and with good reason. I am in the CLT school house and see the interviews and talk with the interviewers when I get the chance. One day they had 12 interviews and selected 2! So pulse check is cute but not factual. Why one might ask? We are seeing problems in the school house and make it known to DAY as to what the weaknesses are, what we are looking for and the aptitude needed to get through training.

It's not a cake walk, but it is not difficult either. Just know the we will not spoon feed you and we expect that you are prepared and ready to learn. With this comes a person who must have the aptitude to adapt to this kind of environment. We are not just signing people off to "fill the seat.

For those interviewing, congratulations on the interview. Say you do not know the answers but if given the resources you could find out! The job is really yours to lose, so DON'T! In the old days, when CFI's were professionals with decades of experience in the industry, they helped prepare their students for airline interviews.

They were mentors and had a great deal of experience. The "old guys" that hung out at the local FBO were old airline guys and wouldn't hesitate to help the younger generation when it came to their first airline interview. Those days are gone in most places. Now, the flight schools are full of kids teaching kids, and no one has any idea on how to prepare for interviews. So, when people post things like "do you have a pulse", people believe it and do not prepare for the interviews.

They think that they can just show up and get the job. Talk to people. Read the gouges. Every person that applies to a regional airline should have found someone to refer them before they applied. Find someone that will answer your questions and help you prepare for the interview. Find someone that will help your application get reviewed quickly and make sure that you get the interview.

I know several people on here are great about this. There are people that would have never been called for an interview that ended up flying here. It does pay off. I'll say it again Email them. Talk to them. Make them answer questions. If so, why such a large room? Why not just at or above ? Is it just way it is to accommodate various planes? Are you not already at that restriction? Is it that you're allowed to speed back up after crossing? If not, why bother with giving same restrictions multiple times? Next question is on approach plate. For procedure entry from the enroute enviroment " is shown in the plan view.

What if you have GPS? Many thanks all!!! CHSLY2 - due to traffic, winds, your current altitude and speed you may not be able to descent as fast even with speed brakes. The block gives a very generous block for you to get established on the arrival. In addition, PSA uses ODP optimum descent profile so once you are on the arrival you can descend via at the constant degree without step level off - most likely between 2 and 3 degrees.

GPS is not required for this approach and can't be used in lieu of radar requirement. On STARs, it is common to not join at the first fix, but rather part way through the arrival.

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That is one reason that the speeds are repeated in several places. This one took me in a spin, but I was able to show what the correct procedure, It's funny because I was throwing numbers at him. Which runway can I takeoff with the current Metar Vis? For anyone interested into coming to PSA and want info on the interview process or have any questions, some of the recruiters and senior interview team have facebook profiles set up so you can "friend" them and answer questions.

PM if you want to learn how to find them and friend them on facebook. They cal also tell you about all of the opportunities to interview. There are some mostly at job fairs and air shows that do not have written tests, and much less formal. More like a meet and greet, where they can get to know you, answer your questions, and you can get a job offer in a more relaxed environment.

Time out from FAF? The 5. For 36L, the missed approach is determined by DME from the localizer. Above the missed approach point, there is a "D1. If it doesn't have the DME listed above, along with where you are getting that DME information from identifier of loc or vor , then it will be determined by time for a localizer only approach. Rog, thanks for the clarification, thought that was the answer. Where does one go to get a refresher on these plates?

Jeppesen has free tutorials. Try these links. They are really good. Well he did ask where not how :D. How quickly after my interview could I begin training?

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How likely is it that I can get off work for the birth of my child? How fast you can start would depend on if you need The CTP course, but you should be able to start within a couple of weeks if you wanted. As for the birth, that sort of depends on when the kid is due.

I would call and ask a recruiter to see how they handle births while guys are in training? Sent from my iPad using Tapatalk. Study interview prep to get ready for your interview. Personally I think you are wasting your money to get both I would get the ATP prep prior to your interview and study that -- understand the concepts behind the question, not just question answer familiarity. When you take the ATP question answer familiarity is the goal. Good luck and happy studying. Why study all this extra stuff that: 1 Does not pertain to the interview, and 2 Will be useless in both training and on the line?

Also, when you do get the job do NOT study anything except what you're given, esp limitations and procedures. We are discussing AQP candidates, correct? The specific gouge you refer to I'm assuming you are referring to AI will get a person hired at PSA but right after that you have to pass the ATP test so you may as well be prepping for the career and not just the job, right? I may have misunderstood the original statement If I eventually want to try and get picked up by American, is PSA the best regional to possibly make that happen?

All military time, no civilian time. Hopefully starting a new career soon. Where do you live or want to live? Just out of curiosity, why would you limit your options to American? OH I'm not. I just wasn't sure if American looks more for future employees at PSA than they do other airlines. New to this career field. It does happen and there are guys who have somehow made a glorious impression either on paper or in person but I don't think there are many people would say that you improve your chances of getting hired at American outside of the flow by going to a wholly owned.

The other piece is this -- that is true for all of the Major Airlines and their sub carriers. With that knowledge in hand and the fact that American flows a higher percentage than any other; and knowing that the remaining American hiring is going to be even more competitive. If you or anyone asking for my recommendation were to ask my answer is that the AA wholly owned airlines are THE place to be. If you have to chose one airline to limit your chances at chose the one where you are least likely to be hired at.

Does that make sense? The remaining question is where do you live or want to live? Getting hired outside the flow does happen, and the one person I personally know who made that happen for himself had a stellar military resume before he was hired at PSA. But your first priority needs to be maximizing your quality of life while at a regional while doing your damnedest to move on to your career gig.

The way to do that is get hired at a regional with bases very near where you want to live, or baring that a really easy commute. If you've got any questions or need a referral, just let me know. AA is only going to hire about 75 non-military pilots off of the street this year. The rest are going to be military and flows. For 5 of those 75 to have come from PSA outside of the flow is a pretty good percentage.

Those that were taken were recruiters and a chief pilot. I can't say that it will happen again next year, but that is where we stand this year. Fair point, but my point is likelihood of being hired at one of the, say, big 6. Would you say it is more likely to be hired at American or one of the others? I guess in a sense you proved my point since I didn't know the exact number. Again, if you already have a low percentage chance of getting hired at AAL then why not go to a wholly owned AA carrier where you probably won't get hired outside the flow anyway. Not to mention that God forbid things turn sour on the hiring front you have the flow to hold cling onto.

Just one man's opinion, worked for me Well I'm military and I am trying to figure what is best for my family and I. Most of this airlines talk is new to me. Been there Hotty Toddy!!! Most important question: Where do you live, or want to live? I will probably be living near the Atlanta area. We have a child on the way and I'm trying to avoid moving right now. I don't mind commuting I know its a sacrifice. Does anyone have any simple gouge for the interview. Trying to avoid getting that AviationInterviews subscription. Or can I just study that book mentioned in previous posts? I had no idea there was a technical test to prep for.

Sheppard Air also has a written test prep for airline interviews separate from their ATP written prep. Seriously - spend a few bucks to invest in your career. I don't think you will regret spending the I did it without and it was painful. My classmates laughed at me when I told them of my studies. It's probably worth investigating how senior the Endeavor folks think ATL will be.

Aside from that I've heard that CLT is a pretty easy commute from there. PM if you've got any questions or want to chat. I've got a hour or so in the car later and can chat. I'll take you up on that soon. I have a lot of questions to ask but don't want to be the one who acts like an idiot on this website. Gonna schedule my interview for some time in early March. Again I'm military and new to this process. Can someone briefly explain what "flow through" is with regards to major airlines?

Any and all opinions are appreciated. Thanks Flow through is simply that AA has agreed to fill a certain number of new hire class spots with pilots from their wholly owned regional airlines, no interviews required. At PSA that number is 6 per class currently, and those pilots are taken from the seniority list in seniority order. Much has been written about the efficacy of said flows, but I think the bottom line is that it's a good thing to have in your back pocket for the long run.

If you want to go to AA, people have been hired outside the flow, so it is possible to bypass that wait.