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  1. Part One. Pagan Period, Ca. 600–864 Migrations, Settlement, And Consolidation Of The State
  2. Bulgarians
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Slavic pagan customs are preserved in Bulgarian Christian holidays. The Miladinov brothers and foreign authors noticed that even pagan prayers are preserved quoting plenty of Slavic pagan rite songs and tales remained in Bulgarians, including Macedonians and Pomaks , mainly dedicated to the divine nymphs samovili and peperuna for the feasts surva , Saint George's Day , Koleda , etc. In the mix of Christian and pagan patrons of thunder, at Saint Elijah 's feast day Ognyena Maria is worshiped, the Slavic goddesses assisting Perun that took a substitutional dual position of the Christian Mother of God.

The custom for rain begging Peperuna is derived from the wife of Perun and the god of the rain Dodola , this was described by a Bulgarian book as a continued worship of Perun at times of absence of rain with a ritual performed by a boy or a girl dressed like Perun. In case of continuous lack of rain, a custom of driving out the zmey from the area is performed. In the dualistic Slavic belief the zmey may be both good tutelary spirit and evil, in which case is considered not local and good, but evil and trying to inflict harm and drought. At the Rusalska Week the girls don't go outside to prevent themselves from diseases and harm that the dead forces Rusalii can cause.

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The men performing the custom are also called Rusalii, they don't let anybody pass through between them, don't talk with each other except for the evening, avoid water, if someone lacks behind a member swoops the sword over the lacker's head to prevent him from evil spirits. Before leaving rusalii say goodbye to their relatives as if they went to war, which is not surprising because some of them are killed. When two rusalii groups met there was a fight to the death in which the dead were buried in special "rusaliyski cemetery.

A relief for the scared believers is celebrated at the Beheading of St. John the Baptist , when according to Bulgarian belief all the mythical figures go back to their caves in a mythical village in the middle of nowhere Zmeykovo of the zmey king, along with the rusalki , samodivi, and return at Annunciation.

It is believed that no man can go in Zmeyovo and only the magpie knows the location of this place. At many of the holidays a sexual taboo is said to be practiced to prevent conceiving a vampire or werewolf and not to work, not to go to Sedenki or go out. Live fire is set in case of epidemics. On the day of St. Vlas , the tradition of a "wooly" god Veles established itself, a god who is considered to be a protector of shepherds, and bread is given to the livestock on that day. In the Chech region there is a custom forbidding "touching the land", i.

Bulgarian mythology and fairy tales are mainly about forest figures, such as the dragon zmey , the nymphs samovili samodivi , the witch veshtitsa. They are usually harmful and devastating, but can also help the people. The samovili are said to live in beeches and sycamores the, which are therefore considered holy and not permitted burning. The samovili are spirits in Bulgarian beliefs are the diseases themselves and punish people, kidnap shepherds, make blind the people or drown them and are in white colored dress, they are in odd numbers, which suggest they are ones of the "dead".

The elm is believed to scare the evil forces. Sacral trees in Bulgarian beliefs are beeches and oaks. The tradition forbids killing of sacred animals - deer, while it is hold a belief the samodivi runaway from horse. The alleged as "unclean" animals resembling the devil such as the goat are, however, exempted from being eaten as the holy ones. The zmey is transhuman and can turn "into" animals, plants and items, he is also "responsible" for diseases, madness and missing women.

The girls who practiced Lazaruvane and other rituals "could not" be kidnapped by the zmey. The main enemy of the Sun is the zmey, which tries to eat the Sun, which scene is preserved in church art.


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Mora in Bulgarian beliefs is a black hairy evil spirit with four firing eyes associated with nightmares when causing someone to scream, similarly to Kikimora. Polunoshtnitsa and Poludnica are believed to be evil spirits causing death, while to Lesnik , Domovnik and Vodnik a dualistic nature is attributed. Kuma Lisa and Hitar Petar are the tricky fox and villager from the fairy tales, the tricked antagonist is often Nasreddin Hoca , whereas Bay Ganyo is a ridiculed Bulgarian villager.

Ivancho and Mariika are the protagonists of the jokes. The Slavic language was officialized at the same time with Christianity, so Slavic paganism has never been a state religion of Bulgaria or more influential than Tengriism. Most of Bulgarian land lack any pagan archeology left from the Bulgars, despite early Christianization and that during most of the pagan period medieval Bulgarian borders spread significantly only in today's northern Bulgaria.

Although legacy indicating ancient Bulgar culture is at most virtually absent in modern Bulgarian culture, some authors claim there is a similarity between the dress and customs of the Chuvashes , who descend from the Volga Bulgars , and the Bulgarian ethnographic group Kapantsi from Targovishte Province and Razgrad Province , among whom the claim that they are direct descendants of Asparukh 's Bulgars is popular.

The Bulgarian folk costumes feature long white robes, usually with red embrdoiery and ornaments derived from the Slavic Rachenik.

Part One. Pagan Period, Ca. 600–864 Migrations, Settlement, And Consolidation Of The State

The Bulgarian folk costume is considered to be mainly derived from the dress of the ancient Slavs , the female dress with the overgarments joined at the shoulders that evolved from Sarafan and all the types of soukman , saya and aprons fasten at the waist are said to be directly descended from the ancient Slavs only with negligible mutation. The male dress is of likewise origin, usually Riza "robe", poyas "belt", poturi "full-bottomed breeches" typical for the Slavs and often a tsarvul and kalpak for shoes and jacket.

Among the most similar relatives of the latter for example is Ukrainian hutsul, but the kalpak is attributed to Ottoman influence. The male skirt fustanella appears on the dress only of the Macedonian Bulgarians and is of indigenous Balkan origin or influence. In some dress of Thrace the symbol of the snake as in medieval tombs is found and is considered a Thracian cultural legacy and belief. Folk songs are most often about the nymphs from Bulgarian and West Slavic mythology samovili and the epic heroes yunaks.

The most spread dance is a circle dance called horo and khorovod. Songs are generally loud. Recent eastern influences from the genre music chalga and turbo-folk even brought a prestige for the masculine voices of females. Valya Balkanska is a folk singer thanks to whom the Bulgarian speech in her song " Izlel ye Delyo Haydutin " will be played in the Outer space for at least 60, years more as part of the Voyager Golden Record selection of music included in the two Voyager spacecraft launched in As for most European peoples, football became by far the most popular sport for the Bulgarians.

Hristo Stoichkov was one of the best football soccer players in the second half of the 20th century, having played with the national team and FC Barcelona. He received a number of awards and was the joint top scorer at the World Cup.

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Dimitar Berbatov , formerly in Manchester United , Tottenham Hotspur , Bayer Leverkusen and others, the national team and two domestic clubs, is still the most popular Bulgarian football player of the 21st century. In the beginning of the 20th century Bulgaria was famous for two of the best wrestlers in the world — Dan Kolov and Nikola Petroff. Stefka Kostadinova is the best female high jumper , still holding the world record from , one of the oldest unbroken world records for all kind of athletics.

Ivet Lalova along with Irina Privalova is currently the fastest white woman at metres. Veselin Topalov won the World Chess Championship. He was ranked No. He regained the world No. The national symbols of the Bulgarians are the Flag , the Coat of Arms , the National anthem and the National Guard , as well other unofficial symbols such as the Samara flag. The national flag of Bulgaria is a rectangle with three colours: white, green, and red, positioned horizontally top to bottom. The colour fields are of same form and equal size.

It is generally known that the white represents — the sky, the green — the forest and nature and the red — the blood of the people, referencing the strong bond of the nation through all the wars and revolutions that have shaken the country in the past.

Bulgarians

The Coat of Arms of Bulgaria is a state symbol of the sovereignty and independence of the Bulgarian people and state. It represents a crowned rampant golden lion on a dark red background with the shape of a shield. Above the shield there is a crown modeled after the crowns of the emperors of the Second Bulgarian Empire , with five crosses and an additional cross on top. Two crowned rampant golden lions hold the shield from both sides, facing it. They stand upon two crossed oak branches with acorns, which symbolize the power and the longevity of the Bulgarian state.

Under the shield, there is a white band lined with the three national colours. The band is placed across the ends of the branches and the phrase "Unity Makes Strength" is inscribed on it. Both the Bulgarian flag and the Coat of Arms are also used as symbols of various Bulgarian organisations, political parties and institutions. The horse of the Madara Rider is preserved on the back of the Bulgarian stotinka.

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Ethnic map of European Turkey i. Ottoman Empire , Guillaume Lejean , praised by Serbian authors. Henry Wilkinson 's map from Map of A. Scobel, Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas , Shepherd , Swiss ethnographic map of Europe published in by Juozas Gabrys.


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  6. Percentage of Pomaks by first language according to the Census excluding Bulgarian. Distribution of Bulgarians in Odessa Oblast , Ukraine according to the census. Distribution of Bulgarians by first language in Zaporizhia Oblast , Ukraine according to the census. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the modern people. For the early medieval people, see Bulgars. For other uses, see Bulgarians disambiguation. See also: Bulgars. Main article: Genetic studies on Bulgarians. See also: Byzantine commonwealth and Rum Millet.

    See also: Bulgarian Millet. Main article: Demographics of Bulgaria. Main article: Bulgarian language. Main article: Cyrillic alphabet. Main article: Bulgarian name. Assen Jordanoff left , Bulgarian American inventor considered by prominent aviation specialists the main contributor to the American knowledge of aviation, likewise the Boeing , airbag and tape recorder.

    Main article: Bulgarian cuisine. Main articles: Bulgarian customs and Slavic mythology. Main article: Sport in Bulgaria. Hristo Stoichkov , awarded the Golden Ball and regarded as one of the best footballers by Barcelona. Veselin Topalov , the 21st World Chess Champion. Distribution of predominant ethnic groups in Bulgaria according to the census. Distribution of Bulgarians in Romania according to the census. Distribution of Bulgarians in Moldova according to the census. Bulgaria portal. Native Peoples of the World.

    Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia. On the Margins of Nations. Retrieved 28 April Bulgarian Parliament in Bulgarian. Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 20 December Migration from and towards Bulgaria — Retrieved 22 November Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia. International Organization for Migration. Retrieved 29 April Archived from the original on 11 October Statistics Canada. Retrieved 11 February OECD iLibrary. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia.

    Retrieved 25 December Archived from the original on 19 October Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 16 April Archived from the original PDF on 17 April Archived from the original on 27 June Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 8 February Mikrocenzus - Ethnic data ] PDF. Hungarian Central Statistical Office in Hungarian. Retrieved 9 January Political and economic dictionary of Eastern Europe.

    Retrieved 13 November Retrieved 15 October Retrieved 30 August Gordon, Jr. Grimes, eds. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 14 June Retrieved 17 August Lexington Books. Most scholars categorize Pomaks as "Slav Bulgarians Minorities in the Balkans. Minority Rights Group. They are Slav Bulgarians who speak Bulgarian Archived from the original on 3 July Late Antiquity: a Guide to the Postclassical World , p.

    Harvard University Press, Bibcode : PLoSO..

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    It ended in the triumph of the Slav element and in the ultimate disappearance of the Thracian ethnos Attention is drawn to the fact that even though assimilated, the Thracian ethnicon left behind traces of its existence in toponymy, the lexical wealth of the Bulgarian language, religious beliefs, material culture, etc. Summary in Englis h. University of Michigan Press. Contemporary Byzantine inscriptions are not obviously similar, implying that this Bulgar epigraphic habit was not imported from Constantinople but was a local Bulgar development, or rather, it was an indigenous 'Roman' inheritance.

    Volume 38, No. Editor of this issue: Antanas Klimas, University of Rochester. Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture. Landscapes of Change - Chapter 8. Adams, pp. The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism. Palgrave Macmillan, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire. London: G.

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    Jahrhundert , Orbel, Sofia, Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. Regna and gentes: the relationship between late antique and early medieval peoples and kingdoms in the transformation of the Roman world. Horsemen in forts or peasants in villages? An historical geography of Europe, B. CUP Archive. Essential History of Bulgaria in Seven Pages. Sofia, The early medieval Balkans: a critical survey from the sixth to the late twelfth century. Discourses of collective identity in Central and Southeast Europe — : texts and commentaries.

    Central European University Press.

    In: Lozny L. Frankfurt - Chicago: University of Chicago Press, , Cambridge University Press. Who are the Macedonians? Manchester University Press. University of Michigan. Retrieved 11 February — via Books. East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, — University of Washington Press.

    Retrieved 21 December With the capture of a rump Bulgarian kingdom centred at Bdin Vidin in , the last remnant of Bulgarian independence disappeared. The Bulgarian nobility was destroyed—its members either perished, fled, or accepted Islam and Turkicization—and the peasantry was enserfed to Turkish masters. Europe and the Historical Legacies in the Balkans. The first attempts to define a Bulgarian ethnicity started at the beginning of the 19th century. Nationalism, globalization, and orthodoxy: the social origins of ethnic conflict in the Balkans.

    Greenwood Publishing Group. Modern Bulgaria. Religion and Power in Europe: Conflict and Convergence. Edizioni Plus. Availability date:. The minimum purchase order quantity for the product is 1. Add to cart. Add to wishlist. Each volume presents a set of pieces that can be played with or without repeats, in sequence or not, depending on the circumstances. As part of a concert, you can play a volume in its entirety each lasts for about 30 min : although pieces are arranged to alternate between genres, characters and keys, it is totally possible to play them in the order that fits you best, or to extract one for a bis.

    To animate a klezmer ball, you have the possibility to select the arrangements of your choice, by juxtaposing dances of the same nature by borrowing them in both volumes. The dances are different, by their rhythmic and stable nature, from pieces with an instrumental or sung character such as A Yiddishe Mame, or Oriental Melody.