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That process had included an unsuccessful application by Ms. Mbulu to the Federal Court of Canada for a stay of execution of the removal order. El Sr. Conoce la causa el Segundo Juzgado Militar. Se establecieron faltas administrativas menores en el procedimiento policial, las que fueron sancionadas. La causa penal se encuentra en estado de sumario. La causa penal fue remitida a la Corte Marcial en consulta por sobreseimiento. Trasladados a la 43a. La causa se encuentra en estado de sumario.

Mirentchu Vivanco Figueroa, detenida el 29 de marzo de en Villa Franca. En ella consta que la Sra. Vivanco fue detenida el 29 de marzo de y llevada en un primer momento a la 21a. En la 21a. By letter dated 14 July the Special Rapporteur advised the Government that he had continued to receive information indicating that the use of torture and ill-treatment against persons held in police stations, detention centres, prisons and labour camps was occurring with frequency. According to the reports, many persons detained for political reasons were convicted of offences partly or wholly on the basis of "confessions" that had been obtained through the application of torture during interrogation.

The Special Rapporteur indicated that he had received particular allegations in regard to the conditions at Guangzhou No. The administration of beatings and other forms of ill-treatment for small infractions at the camp was said to be common. Production quotas were reportedly set at levels which in effect required prisoners, including the sick or disabled, to work for approximately 14 hours per day, seven days per week, performing such tasks as carrying and loading heavy stones onto boats.

Food provisions were reported to be inadequate and ill prisoners were said to be provided little or no medical treatment. Inmates considered to work at a slow pace were allegedly beaten, sometimes to the point of unconsciousness. One prisoner, Chen Pokong, allegedly had his hands and feet squashed with stones by guards at the camp. The Special Rapporteur also transmitted information according to which the torture and ill-treatment of persons arrested for political reasons in Tibet was particularly pervasive.

The methods of such torture reportedly include beatings, electric shocks, deprivation of food and drink, exposure to cold, handcuffing or shackling for long periods, and denial of medical treatment. In this regard, the Special Rapporteur communicated information on the cases summarized in the following paragraphs and reminded the Government of a number of cases in Tibet transmitted in regarding which no reply had been received.

Gyaltsen Kelsang, a nun, was reportedly beaten following her arrest from Garu nunnery on 14 June While serving a two-year term at Drapchi prison in Lhasa for participation in a pro-independence demonstration, she was allegedly beaten severely and as a result was confined to bed for 20 days. Soon after being diagnosed at a police hospital in November as suffering from severe kidney problems, she lost movement in her lower limbs and developed speech impairment.

She was eventually sent home on medical parole and later spent nine weeks at the Tibetan medical hospital. She died on 20 February , seven days after her release from hospital. Lodroe Gyatso, a professional dancer serving a sentence of 15 years in Drapchi prison, was allegedly beaten severely on 4 March , after he had distributed pro-independence literature and shouted slogans in the prison. He continued to receive daily beatings in a confinement cell measuring six feet by six feet.

The Middle People's Court reportedly recommended to the Higher People's Court that he be executed for his political actions in the prison. Khetsul and Yeshi Pema, from Lhundrup county, and Ngawang Drozler and Gyaltsen Wangmo, from Lhokha, were among five nuns who were reportedly arrested on 8 February after engaging in a protest outside the Jokhang temple.

They were allegedly beaten severely during their arrest. Pasang and Ngodrup, both monks from Jokhang, were reportedly arrested on 8 January and severely beaten over the course of three days in Gutsa Detention Centre in Lhasa. Pasang suffered severe back pain and was unable to stand as a result of his treatment. The monks were allegedly threatened with further punishment if they revealed information about the treatment that they had received. They were arrested, after which they were allegedly kept suspended by their thumbs at the gate of the county public security bureau and beaten severely during interrogation.

They were subsequently sentenced to terms of imprisonment. The Special Rapporteur also transmitted to the Government information he had received indicating that juveniles detained for political reasons in Gutsa Detention Centre are held together with adult prisoners, rather than in the juvenile section of the facility. In Drapchi prison, adults and juveniles were reportedly kept together because separate juvenile sections did not exist. Juveniles were allegedly forced to do hard labour and to work in unsanitary conditions with adults in prisons, detention centres, reform through labour detachments or re-education through labour detachments.

The Special Rapporteur communicated the cases of beatings of juveniles in Tibet described in the following paragraphs. Champa Tsondrue and Lobsang Choezin, both year-old novice monks at Ganden Choekhor monastery in Penpo Lhundrup county, were reportedly arrested on 20 June after participating in a peaceful demonstration at the Barkhor in Lhasa. They were allegedly beaten severely by security officials and taken to Gutsa Detention Centre. Tenzin Dekyong, a year-old novice from Michungri nunnery, was reportedly arrested on 13 March during a peaceful demonstration.

She was allegedly beaten and taken to Gutsa Detention Centre. Pema Oeser, a year-old novice form Nagar nunnery in Lhundrup county, was reportedly beaten after being arrested with three other nuns on 17 August during a demonstration in Lhasa. Dhundup Gyalpo, a year-old monk, was reportedly arrested on 26 June outside Gyaldon monastery, Lhundrup county, during a protest against the arrest of a boy accused of posting pro-independence materials. Dhundup Gyalpo was allegedly beaten by police and threw stones at them in response.

He was said currently to be serving a three-year administrative sentence. Sherab Ngawang, a year-old novice from Michungri nunnery, was reportedly arrested on 3 February during a peaceful demonstration in Lhasa.

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She was taken to Gutsa Detention Centre and allegedly beaten. She was sentenced in May to three years' "re-education through labour" and sent to Trisam Re-education through Labour Detachment. In a letter transmitted on 4 October , the Special Rapporteur advised the Government that he had received additional information with respect to Sherab Ngawang, according to which she had received treatment in more than one hospital in Lhasa following the completion of her three-year sentence in February The treatment was administered for injuries to her kidneys and lungs sustained as the result of torture by four guards, who had allegedly beaten her with electric batons and a plastic tube filled with sand, stamped upon her and kicked her.

The guards were said to have inflicted this treatment in reprisal for her having made a face at them when they closed her cell door one evening. She died on 15 May in Maldrogungkar, allegedly as a result of injuries sustained from the beating. A Tibetan undertaker who dismembered her body in accordance with traditional funeral rites reportedly indicated that her kidneys bore signs of acute damage and marks of injury appeared on her lungs.

In the 4 October letter, the Special Rapporteur also transmitted the cases summarized in the following paragraphs. Rigzin Tsultrim, reportedly arrested in May during a demonstration near the Barkhor in Lhasa, was allegedly kicked, beaten and subjected to shocks to his face with an electric baton. At the police station his thumbs were cuffed diagonally behind his back and he was forced to sit on his knees for eight hours, causing him to fall over frequently. When he fell, police officers allegedly beat him on the ribs, stomach and thighs.

On one occasion he was reportedly kicked in the jaw and as a result lost two molars. Later he was taken to the police station courtyard, where officers allegedly applied electric shocks to his chest, back, hands and palms, causing him to pass out, whereafter he was revived with water and again beaten.

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He was then placed into a cell with handcuffs and leg cuffs for three days and nights without food or water. During further interrogation he was kicked in the shins and punched in the stomach. He was eventually released from custody. Sonam Tashi was reportedly arrested on 26 May , after having participated in a demonstration at the Barkhor the previous day.

Over the course of a number of interrogation sessions, he was allegedly beaten severely and as a result sustained multiple internal injuries. He was released from prison in late , but died in early , allegedly from the injuries he had sustained during interrogation. Tamdin Tsering was allegedly beaten to death on 7 September by four forestry officials while he and his family were tending their potato farm in Linyen county of Laodu district in Amdo province. Jigme Gyatso, a monk from Tsayu township in Xiahe, was reportedly detained on 19 May by the Xiahe county police on suspicion of involvement in putting up pro-independence posters at Labrang monastery in Amdo.

He was allegedly beaten severely, as a result of which he has become partially paralysed, unable to move his arms and legs. Doctors at the Xiahe county hospital were said to have refused to treat him because of his political record. He was later admitted to the traditional Tibetan medical hospital for treatment. She had allegedly been beaten on the face and body repeatedly on 16 January by two inmates or "trustees" who had been designated by the camp authorities to supervise other detainees.

The beatings were reportedly inflicted after she had complained to labour camp authorities about her long hours of work, reportedly well in excess of the maximum of eight hours per day mandated by prison regulations. One day after she complained to camp officials about the beatings, more than 10 prisoners allegedly subjected her to another series of beatings, as a result of which her face and body were swollen and covered with bruises. Her parents were reportedly denied permission to see her and fears were expressed that she might be subjected to further ill-treatment.

On 25 February the Government replied that Tong Yi had not been beaten by other inmates or wardens, but rather a work-related quarrel had broken out between her and other members of her work team, which led to pushing and shoving. The incident ended when wardens appeared. Re-educatees at the camp worked only eight hours and the work was not strenuous. In the above-mentioned letter of 14 July , the Special Rapporteur apprised the Government of new information that he had received with respect to Tong Yi.

The source of the information had reconfirmed the allegations with respect to her case and indicated they had also been confirmed by Tong Yi's relatives. A relative who visited her in prison observed bruising and other scarring on her face. On 28 November the Special Rapporteur transmitted an urgent appeal on behalf of Zhang Lin, a political activist detained at the Nanhu labour camp, who had allegedly been subjected to torture because he was unable to perform work for medical reasons. On 19 April the Government replied that Zhang Lin had spent six days at the local hospital in Nanhu and was diagnosed as suffering "mild neuralgia".

He was prescribed abundant activity to improve his blood circulation and was accordingly assigned appropriate activities, such as work in the vegetable garden. After refusing to report for work, he was taken to Xuancheng district No. Zhang had admitted that his allegations of mistreatment by wardens were designed to put pressure on the Government to release him. No incident such as that involving his alleged beating with electric prods had occurred.

On 30 November the Special Rapporteur sent an urgent appeal on behalf of journalist Gao Yu, who was allegedly being denied medication for heart disease in detention in Beijing. On 19 April the Government replied that, after entering Yanqing prison in Beijing to serve a sentence for disclosing State secrets, Gao Yu claimed to suffer from coronary heart disease, but a check-up at the prison found no such symptoms.

She was found to have high blood pressure, but medication had been provided and she was now in normal health. Desde entonces presenta problemas mentales. Junto con otros pasajeros el Sr. According to the reports, Mr. Adel was refused political asylum by the Danish authorities and was being held in Sandholm detention camp, facing expulsion from Denmark. Fears were expressed that if deported to the Islamic Republic of Iran he might be arrested and subjected to torture.

On 18 July the Government replied that the Refugee Board, an independent body composed of representatives from the public authorities, lawyers and the non-governmental Danish Refugee Council, had on 10 March rejected Hassan Adel's asylum claim. The Refugee Board decided on 9 June not to reconsider his case. An application to the Ministry of the Interior for a residence permit for humanitarian reasons was rejected on 19 April and a request for resumption of his case was also declined on 24 May. His date of departure was moved to 1 July and he subsequently left the Refugee Centre where he was residing.

It was assumed that he left Denmark without the assistance of the Danish authorities. By letters dated 20 December and 13 February the Government notified the Special Rapporteur that, pursuant to a risk assessment study undertaken by the Medico-Legal Council, the Ministry of Justice would continue the suspension of the use of the "leg-lock" restraint. This method of restraint had been a subject of concern of the Special Rapporteur, as expressed in the letter transmitted to the Government on 5 August By letter dated 26 April the Special Rapporteur informed the Government that he had continued to receive reports indicating that the practice of torture of persons detained for political reasons was systematic.

Many civilian defendants tried in recent military court cases allegedly had been coerced through torture to make incriminating statements. Although a Human Rights Unit was established in November within the Public Procurator's Office to investigate reports of torture, the Unit was said to have failed to make public any information on the conduct of any investigations that it had undertaken. Few complaints submitted to the Human Rights Unit by human rights organizations or lawyers had reportedly been investigated. The Special Rapporteur transmitted a number of individual cases involving persons detained for political reasons, which are summarized in the following paragraphs.

A letter of reply from the Government was received too late for inclusion in this report. Ramadhan Mahmoud Ahmed, a lawyer, was reportedly arrested on 6 July by officers of the Abu Za'abal Industrial Prison, where he had gone to see a client. At the Abu Za'abal branch of the SSI, he was allegedly tortured by means of beatings, suspension and electric shocks applied to various parts of his body.

He was released on 9 July Three detainees arrested in November in connection with the attempted assassination of the Prime Minister, 'Atef Sidqi, were allegedly tortured by SSI officers. Sayyid Salah al-Sayyid Sulayman was punched repeatedly and suspended in contorted positions. Tariq 'Abd al-Nabi Hassan al-Fahal was beaten and subjected to electric shocks on various parts of his body, sustaining injuries to his nose and jaw.

Tuhami Ahmed 'Abdallah Ahmed Shalabi was subjected to beatings and electric shocks to various parts of his body, including his genitals, and he sustained injuries around one eye and to his left leg and right arm. Forensic examinations were said to have revealed injuries consistent with torture on all three persons. They had gone on hunger strike for at least 15 days to protest their treatment and a ban on visits by family members and lawyers in effect since 20 December The Special Rapporteur also notified the Government that he had received information according to which detainees at police stations throughout Egypt were frequently subjected to torture or ill-treatment.

The methods of torture reported included beatings with leather straps, sticks and electric cables; suspension in various positions accompanied by heavy beatings; beatings with solid objects and application of electric shocks. During pre-trial detention many suspects are allegedly forced to sign police records without knowing their contents. The practice of such torture was said to be facilitated by the following factors: that the Code of Criminal Procedure does not guarantee an arrested person the right to seek legal assistance in the stages of identification and during investigations carried out by police station officers; that under the Emergency Law in effect since the Ministry of the Interior is granted full powers to carry out administrative arrests without judicial or prosecutorial interference; and that under recent legal amendments, police may detain a suspect for up to 11 days without charge or judicial supervision before presenting the detainee before a court or allowing him or her to consult a lawyer.

The Special Rapporteur also transmitted the individual cases described in the following paragraphs. Magdi Shazli Abdel Rahman, arrested in March , during seven days' detention at al-Maaza police station in Cairo was allegedly suspended and beaten. He was arrested and beaten again by officers of the SSI and the Salam police station on 13 June while being held at El Salam police station. A medical report established the presence of bruises on his forearms and upper arms and abrasions around the nipple. July on a charge of theft, was allegedly blindfolded, his legs and hands were placed in iron shackles, and he was subjected to sexual assault, lashings and electric shocks.

A forensic report established the presence of injuries, including wounds and pus in the lower part of both legs and swelling and abscesses of the right leg and foot. A medical report made at the request of the prosecution reportedly revealed abrasions and scratches on his back and a bruise on the right thigh. Samy Lotfy Abul Naga was arrested on 11 September At Meet Ghamr police station he was allegedly stripped of his clothes, suspended from a door and subjected to electric shocks to sensitive parts of his body.

His detention reportedly had been ordered as a consequence of a prior civil dispute in which he had been engaged with a police officer. A medical report revealed weak shoulder muscles due to an injury under the armpits. The officer responsible was reportedly disciplined administratively by having four days' wages deducted from his pay and receiving a transfer of duty. Mohamed Mohamed Abdel Rahman was arrested in November and allegedly beaten at the second Zagazig police station by a captain and his assistant.

The forensic report revealed abrasions on the thigh, right arm and back. The prosecution was said to have recommended referring the matter to the administrative authorities for disciplinary action against the captain, but the criminal case against him was discontinued. Mohamed Ahmed Munir Shebl, detained on 1 April at the 10th Ramadan police station for failure to carry his identity card, was allegedly beaten severely and subsequently injured himself while trying to escape through a window.

A medical report revealed abrasions and scratches on the right hand and a finger. He later retracted the confession under prosecutorial examination. Gamal Mubarak Mofieh was allegedly beaten with a stick and a lash, stripped of his clothes and suspended between two chairs with his hands and legs tied. His interrogators also allegedly applied electric shocks to his ears and to other sensitive parts of his body.

A medical examination revealed swelling, abrasions, a fracture of the left forearm and bruises on the knees due to hitting and friction with solid objects. Imam Mohamed Imam was reportedly beaten and stripped of his clothes in front of his family and neighbours at his home on 29 June by a squad from the Zawya El Hamra Investigations Unit, following a dispute he had with a policeman's family.

At the police station he was allegedly beaten again under the supervision of an officer of the Unit. A medical report revealed fractures of his right foot and left leg and bruising to various parts of his body. Ahmed Ismail Ahmed was reportedly summoned to the second Zagazig police station on 14 November and beaten severely for the purpose of forcing him to confess to a charge of theft.

The prosecution investigations record revealed injuries to his right arm, left forearm, left hand, right shoulder and forehead. Medhat Ali Zahra, who had been residing abroad, was reportedly taken to Matrouh deportation station on 28 August after informing the police that he had lost his identity documents. When he began to have an attack of epilepsy, he was allegedly beaten and slapped in the face. He was transferred to the Khalifa deportation station and allegedly beaten with a lash and handcuffs by an officer and police informants.

At the station he was allegedly beaten on the back and his arms were bent back, resulting in bruises and abrasions on his back. Mohamed Farouk Ali Nafal and his father, arrested on 5 October at their home, were allegedly beaten with a stick on the chest and shoulders by a police captain and an assistant at the Mahala El Kobra police station. They were reportedly threatened with further torture if they reported the incident to the prosecution.

Mohamed Farouk Ali Nafal retained scars on his neck and ear, nail scratches, abrasions on his chest and left shoulder and a large bruise on his right shoulder. Azza Ismail Monzie, arrested at her home by a force from the Ein Shams police station, was taken to the Cairo Security Directorate, where an Investigations Section officer, who had been convicted previously in connection with an incident of torture and had been the subject of numerous subsequent complaints, allegedly pulled her veil and face cover, beat her several times, and subjected her to insults.

She was also allegedly forced to put her fingerprint to papers, the contents of which she was ignorant. All of these persons were reportedly detained at Assem police station without legal grounds until 13 December During their detention many were allegedly subjected to torture, including by beatings with fists, sticks and a rubber hose, and electric shocks. Some were reportedly stripped naked, fettered, dragged on the ground, splashed with cold water, suspended over doors and threatened with false charges.

Shawky Mohamed Abdel-Moutelab al-Zeidi sustained wounds to his arms, swelling on the left side of his chest and on his feet and scars on the surface of his left buttock, apparently due to a lighter's flame. Mohamed Shawky al-Zeidi, three years of age, suffered wounds and red marks on the right side of his forehead and under his eyes, which allegedly resulted from cigarettes having been extinguished on him.

Abdel Kadir Mohamed Mabrouk al-Zeidi suffered red scars on his left toe and swelling and a continuous shaking in his left foot. At the station he was allegedly slapped, suspended from handcuffs over a door and hit on the back of his neck, causing him to suffer abrasions on his back and a protrusion of a bone in his chest. Adel was allegedly tied up with his undershirt and Fatma's clothes were torn and she was dragged down the stairs. At the police station they were allegedly assaulted over the course of two days. Adel sustained bruises on his chest and back and Fatma suffered bruises on her hand and swelling in her face and neck.

Police officers allegedly tied Zien Ahmed Saber's hands with rope, beat him and applied electric shocks to his testicles. This treatment resulted in injuries to his chest, marks around his wrist, a wound and scars on his arm, and bruises on his back. The station officer allegedly kicked and beat Ahmed Abdel Moniem Mohamed. Eaman Abdel El Moniem was allegedly stripped of her clothes, beaten, and threatened with rape. Mona Mohamed Gad was allegedly stripped of her clothes, and threatened with rape and electric shocks.

The Public Prosecutor was said to be investigating the incident. Abdel Mohamed Ibrahim was reportedly dragged down the stairs and onto the street on 29 June by an investigation squad from the 15th May-Helwan police station. He fainted and was allegedly ill-treated at the police station during one week's detention.

He was transferred to hospital, where he received stitches on his forehead and stitches above his eyebrow. He also sustained injuries to his head, back and chest. Amr Mohamed Safarat, reportedly arrested and held at Ein Shams police station for nine days without food in October , was allegedly subjected to torture at the police station and at SSI premises and was subsequently transferred to a hospital for mental illness.

A hospital report indicated severe injuries on the back, side and legs. He died in hospital after 50 days, allegedly because of a deteriorating condition and neglect. Abdel Meguid Khalifa was reportedly arrested at his home on 4 April by a force of officers and soldiers from al-Wasta, Beni Suef Governorate, along with a mobile unit from Cairo Transport Police Investigations. Their mother, Fayza Abdel Salam, went to the station to inquire about the three arrested members of her family and was herself detained.

She reportedly heard her husband's screams on 3 May and rushed to find her husband with his hands and feet chained and the lower part of his body on fire, with the police station chief and others attempting to unchain him and extinguish the fire. Abdel Meguid Khalifa was transferred to hospital and died on 7 May Fayza Abdel Salam was allegedly pressured to drop a complaint filed concerning her husband's death and remained unaware of the whereabouts of her two detained sons.

Yasser Fateh was allegedly suspended, whipped and confined in an area known as "the refrigerator". His father was allegedly beaten to death. The prosecution detained an officer, subsequently released on bail, on torture charges. By the same letter, the Special Rapporteur sought from the Government clarification and follow-up information pursuant to the Government's replies to a number of previously transmitted cases.

On 30 January the Special Rapporteur transmitted an urgent appeal on behalf of Adel Houssein, Secretary-General of the opposition Labour Party, who reportedly had been detained under a detention order issued on 25 December by the State Security Prosecution. He was said to suffer from angina and a blood clot on the brain and his medical condition was reported to be critical. He was allegedly being denied access to appropriate medication in detention at Tora Istikbal Prison. On 5 April the Government replied that Adel Hussein had been summoned by the Department of Public Prosecutions for questioning after pamphlets issued by an illegal organization were discovered in an airplane after the flight he had taken had landed.

On 28 December he was examined by the Department of Forensic Medicine, whose report indicated that he had not suffered any injuries. His wife had supplied him with blankets, medicine and food on 24 December and on 27 December an acquaintance had provided him with clothing, blankets, medicines and books.

He received a number of subsequent visits as well. On 18 January the Attorney-General ordered his release. On 30 January the Special Rapporteur transmitted an urgent appeal concerning Wolde-Yesus Mengesha, who was reportedly arrested in early January in connection with events at the funeral in Ambo of businessman Derar Kefana in September A number of persons had previously been arrested after attending the funeral, and one of the detainees, Bekelle Wolde-Michael, required medical treatment in Addis Ababa for injuries allegedly resulting from his ill-treatment in detention.

On 28 June the Government replied that neither Bekele Wolde-Michael nor Wolde-Yesus Menesha, detained on charges relating to disturbances at the funeral of Derara Kefana and other incidents, were ever ill-treated in detention and would not be ill-treated in the future.

On 6 February the Government replied that he had not been imprisoned or ill-treated. They had suffered no ill-treatment. Ill-treatment did not occur in any place of detention in the country. The mayor of Godey, Mirad Leli Sigale, was among those arrested and was allegedly killed in detention. The Government replied on 29 June that a person identified as Ugaz Mirad Lilai was killed when trying to escape from detention.

Thomas Darnal : interruption temporaire de travail de plus de huit jours. L'affaire est en cours au parquet de Paris. Yves Zaparucha : interruption de travail de plus de huit jours. They were among at least 40 persons reportedly arrested around or after 12 October in connection with their alleged support for the banned People's Progressive Party.

They were said to be held incommunicado at the Bakau military barracks near Banjul. On 29 May the Special Rapporteur transmitted a letter informing the Government that he had received reports indicating that some persons, mostly foreigners, asylum-seekers or members of ethnic minorities, had been subjected to ill-treatment or torture by police officers. The Special Rapporteur also transmitted three individual cases and on 18 September the Government sent replies to those allegations.

The allegations and the replies are summarized in the following paragraphs. Two officers allegedly punched him in the kidneys and the face and one officer kicked him in the head so that his face hit the ground and two teeth broke. Medical certificates were said to reveal that he had suffered bruises, abrasions, two broken teeth and a broken finger which required surgery. After falling he had tried to get up and run, but was restrained and handcuffed by the officers. He told the officers that he had broken two incisors and an abrasion was visible on his face, but he refused a police offer to take him to hospital.

After his release from police custody he was treated in hospital, where bruises, abrasions, partial tooth loss and a broken finger were diagnosed. Investigations did not confirm claims that the injuries resulted from kicks and blows administered by the officers. The injuries may have resulted from his fall and subsequent attempts to escape from the officers. The evidence was lacking for criminal charges to be brought against the officers and it had not yet been decided whether any disciplinary measures would be taken against them.

Yusef Barzan, an Iraqi Kurd asylum-seeker, was reportedly attacked by a group of youths carrying baseball bats during an anti-foreigner rampage in Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt, on 12 May While being chased through the streets, he encountered several police officers. Instead of offering him protection, one of the officers allegedly threw him to the ground, struck him with his baton, kicked him in the testicles and continued to beat him in the police car. He was released from custody the following morning. The Government replied that the Magdeburg public prosecutor had filed charges against the officer for physically ill-treating Yusef Barzan and damaging his health.

The charges alleged that the officer had struck the victim with a rubber truncheon during apprehension, kneed him in the testicles during a body check, struck him over the head with an object and kneed him in the testicles again at the police station. The officer was suspended pending the proceedings.

The Magdeburg local court acquitted the defendant in a judgement dated 30 June The Magdeburg public prosecution office filed an appeal against the judgement with respect to a part of the indictment relating to an alleged kick in the testicles. A number of persons attending a demonstration in Hamburg on 30 May were allegedly subjected to ill-treatment by police, including the spraying of irritant gas at close range directly into their eyes and beatings.

Oliver Ne, a journalist covering the event, was allegedly punched in the face and hit repeatedly in the kidneys, pelvis and chest with batons. He was also reportedly pinned to the ground by two police officers, while a third officer removed one of his shoes and forcefully rotated his ankle, causing his ligaments to tear. Medical certificates revealed torn ligaments, as well as multiple bruising and abrasions to the whole of his body and to his limbs. The Government replied that criminal proceedings were pending before the public prosecution office at Hamburg Regional Court for bodily harm in office and that the investigation should be completed shortly.

The Special Rapporteur also advised the Government that he had received follow-up information from the source of allegations concerning the beating of Abdulkerim Balikci by two police officers in Berlin on 3 August The Government in its reply had informed the Special Rapporteur that an investigation had failed to substantiate the allegations. The source maintained that the office of the public prosecutor had reached a decision without regard to its own determination that a witness attesting that the alleged victim had not been struck by the officers could not have been present at the scene at the time he claimed.

The source also indicated that the allegation that Abdulkerim Balikci had himself attacked two officers was not confirmed by another witness who viewed the entire incident and whose testimony had been quoted in detail by the public prosecutor. That witness maintained that Abdulkerim Balikci had in fact tried to run away when apprehended by the officers. The Government replied that neither in the statement of the public prosecutor's office at Berlin Regional Court dated 18 July nor in the decision on the complaint issued by the public prosecution at the Appeal Court dated 19 September was it clear that an eye-witness could not have been at the crime scene.

Moreover, the police officers had not complained that they were attacked, but rather that they used necessary and proportionate force to apprehend the subject, who was resisting arrest. On 1 February the Special Rapporteur transmitted an urgent appeal concerning Fariz imek, a Kurdish national of Turkey, who was reportedly facing deportation by the Free State of Bavaria.

He had allegedly been tortured by police in Turkey in December during a detention of 17 days. His ordeal included the stubbing of lit cigarettes on his head and hand; suspension upside down by his feet and by his wrists with hands tied behind his back; application of electric shocks to his hands, feet, body and penis; insertion of an object, possibly the leg of a chair, into his rectum; and by hosing with and immersion into ice-cold water.

A medical examination conducted in Germany reportedly documented scars consistent with these allegations. Subsequent to his release from detention in Turkey, he went into hiding, and during that time his pregnant wife was allegedly beaten severely by police in the course of a raid on his house in Istanbul. He was reported to have fled Turkey and reached Germany in May , following continued harassment. On 17 February the Government replied that the authorities and administrative courts in charge of examining requests by asylum-seekers had determined that Fariz imek's claims of political persecution in Turkey were implausible.

In addition, the Government of Turkey had officially represented that it would not subject him to any persecution. Nevertheless, at the request of the Federal Constitutional Court, he had not been deported or detained for deportation. That Court would be re-examining his case. On 13 November the Special Rapporteur made an urgent appeal on behalf of Geng Dauti, a year-old national of Albania, who was reportedly detained on or around 2 November by police after the boat on which he was travelling ran out of fuel and drifted towards Greek territorial waters.

He had allegedly been beaten in custody at Corfu police station and was not granted access to a lawyer or doctor. The Government replied that Geng Dauti had been charged in connection with the alleged theft of a speedboat. He had not requested a doctor or lawyer, either during his initial detention at the central harbour-master's office, nor during his subsequent detention by the Corfu police.

He had appeared before an examining magistrate on 3 November and was being held in the juvenile prison in Volos pending trial. Official investigations into allegations of torture, including those that resulted in custodial deaths, were said to be rare. On the few occasions where such investigations had taken place, they were carried out by the security forces themselves, rather than by an independent body.

The investigations were said frequently to conclude that the victim had died in such circumstances as a "cross-fire", without elaborating upon the evidence on which the conclusion was based. The Human Rights Cell, established by the Jammu and Kashmir State Government in June , was reportedly headed by an inspector-general of police who is also in charge of the Kashmir intelligence service and also incorporates members of the paramilitary forces and army who themselves have been accused of committing serious human rights violations.

Torture victims or their relatives have reportedly had difficulty in filing complaints because local police were issued instructions not to file a first information report FIR without the permission of higher authorities. In addition, section 7 of the Armed Forces Jammu and Kashmir Special Powers Act provides that unless approval is obtained from the central Government, " n o prosecution, suit or other legal proceeding shall be instituted This provision was said to allow the security forces to act with virtual impunity.

Doctors treating torture victims in Jammu and Kashmir were reported to have observed numerous cases of acute renal failure and to have named the phenomenon "physical torture nephropathy". The direct cause of the renal failure is a combination of dehydration during torture and the breakdown of soft tissue. The condition may lead to chronic kidney damage or even death.

One common means of torture reported is "the roller", whereby the victims are forced to lie on their backs and a round pole is rolled over their legs and bodies with substantial force, often by two officials standing on each end of the pole and "walking" it over the victim. Rape was said to be carried out frequently to punish women suspected of being sympathetic or related to alleged militants and to intimidate the local population.

Other methods of torture reported include beatings, forced distortion of joints, application of electric shocks, suspensions, burns, insertion of metal objects in the body, plunging into freezing water, dousing with boiling water, amputation of body parts such as fingers, and mock executions. In a reply dated 8 December , the Government informed the Special Rapporteur of the existence in India of various legal provisions which provided safeguards against the use of torture.

These provisions include: the constitutional right of a person subjected to torture to move the higher courts for a remedy; the requirement under the Criminal Procedure Code that the police register and investigate complaints of torture; the right of an arrested person under the Code to receive a medical examination upon request to a magistrate; the inadmissibility in court of confessions to police officers and the requirement that a magistrate ensure that confessions or statements made by an accused are voluntary; the mandate under the Code for an inquiry be conducted by a magistrate into any death in police custody; and the prohibition under the Code of causing hurt to extort confessions or information from a person.

The Government was at present considering making legal provisions for payment of financial relief to victims or their families of certain custodial crimes and the courts had in certain cases ordered such payments to be made. In addition, the National Human Rights Commission had made several recommendations for such compensation, which had been accepted by the Government.

With respect to allegations regarding Jammu and Kashmir, section 7 of the Armed Forces Jammu and Kashmir Special Powers Act was aimed at protecting members of the security forces from vexatious complaints.

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Nevertheless, the Government had, without exception, accorded permission to launch a prosecution wherever investigations had established the prima facie culpability of any security forces personnel. Allegations as to the routine nature of torture, including rape, by the BSF, CRPF and the army were false and part of a propaganda campaign by terrorists to divert the attention of the international community from the issue of terrorism. This was not to suggest that no human rights violations had occurred, but any such cases were promptly investigated and stringent action was taken where appropriate.

Any allegation of a cognizable offence had to be registered by the State police. Such cases were investigated by the Criminal Investigation Department CID , which functions independent of interference or influence from the security forces and State police. The security forces, including the army and BSF, maintained their own statutes prescribing severe punishment for acts of indiscipline by their members.

They also had their own courts of inquiry to try cases such as torture, deaths in custody and rape. Contrary to the allegations, the Human Rights Cell of Jammu and Kashmir was not headed by a police officer, but rather by the Division Commissioner, Kashmir, who is a member of the civil service. The security forces were represented on the Cell so as to provide for better coordination and effective follow-up action on investigations.

The allegation that police had instructions not to file an FIR without the permission of higher authorities was incorrect, as no such orders had ever been issued. Rather, the police were duty bound to register such complaints and were subject to legal and departmental action if they failed to do so. In his letter of 11 April , the Special Rapporteur also transmitted nine cases occurring in Jammu and Kashmir, as well as three other cases occurring in the country. The Government provided replies to some of these cases on 23 August , 2 November , and the above-mentioned letter of 8 December The allegations, followed by the Government's replies, are summarized in the following paragraphs.

Naseer Ahmad Hajam was reportedly arrested and interrogated by soldiers on 23 November during operations conducted in the Batamaloo district of Srinagar. He allegedly received electric shocks to his ears, eyelids, finger and wetted genitals and was subjected to the "roller", which resulted in broken bones.

He twice lost consciousness during his ordeal. The Government replied that no such person had been arrested on the date in question by the security forces in the Batamaloo district. Ghulam Mohammad Bhat, a senior hospital doctor, was reportedly interrogated under torture in a makeshift detention centre, following a raid on the village of Mujagund on 25 June by troops from the Zainkot army camp.

He allegedly had water poured down his mouth through a wet cloth placed over his mouth and nose, while two soldiers sat on his legs and another placed his feet on his chest. Electric shocks were then applied to his penis. He was said to have been tortured repeatedly in minute periods. The Government replied that the allegations were totally baseless and unfounded.


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He had never been arrested by the security forces and no person had lodged any complaint on the matter to the police. Ghulam Mohammad Dar, reportedly detained on 26 April during a raid by security forces in Letapora, Pulwama district, was allegedly subjected to electric shocks, burning, beatings and the "roller" at an army camp in Khannabal. After three days of this treatment he was left on the side of a road. At hospital he was diagnosed with acute renal failure and doctors concluded that it would take at least a year for him to recover, if he responded to treatment at all.

Ghulam Nabbi Sheikh was reportedly arrested on 10 May during a raid by security forces on his village, Kangri Pora, near Beerwah in Budgam district. He was allegedly tortured for several hours during interrogation, including through the insertion of an iron rod into his anus, which caused severe damage to his lower intestine. He was sent to hospital in critical condition and his chances of survival were said to be low.

Hanifa, aged 16, was allegedly gang-raped by soldiers of the 26th Punjab regiment in November during a search operation by the army at Lathi Shot near Sopore. Naseema, from the same village, was allegedly gang-raped by members of the security forces in July The Government replied that the State Criminal Investigation Department had found the allegations regarding Hanifa unsubstantiated. Mushtaq Ahmad Bhat, reportedly arrested on 19 March by the 5th Garwal Rifles during operations at Akhraj-pora, Srinagar, was allegedly tortured at an unofficial interrogation centre at Gogaland.

His family visited him at this location two months after his arrest and reportedly observed burns to the left side of his body and ankles and wounds on his head. Other detainees reportedly had urged that the authorities allow a doctor to see him after he had fallen ill with pains in his chest. A magisterial inquiry and a police inquiry were ordered with respect to this case.

Fayaz Ahmad Magloo, reportedly arrested on 8 April in Stadium Colony, Baramulla, by the BSF, was allegedly tortured throughout the night and his body was handed over to local police the next day. A post-mortem was reported to reveal that he had been burned with heated objects and given electric shock treatment. Local police registered a case against BSF personnel, but the outcome of any investigation was unknown. According to the Government, Fayaz Ahmad Magloo had been apprehended during a cordon and search operation, but had not been tortured as alleged.

Rather, he had died in a cross-fire with militants while he was being taken to Kansipora. To allay any misgivings, proceedings were initiated by the CID and the district magistrate of Baramulla. Nazir Ahmad Sheikh, reportedly arrested by the army on 31 December during operations in his village of Chak Yama, near Handwara, Kupwara, was taken to the army camp at Kalm Chaklat.

It was reported that at the camp a wooden roller was run over his legs, his legs were forcibly pulled and held apart, he was forced to crawl on frozen snow, his feet were burnt repeatedly on a hot stove and he was beaten frequently with bamboo sticks. On 12 January he was transferred to the army camp at Langet and was allegedly subjected to torture for a further 10 days. He was thereafter transferred to the Joint Interrogation Centre in Baramullah and two days later, when his physical condition had deteriorated, to the army base at Badami Bagh in Srinagar.

He was released in critical condition on 7 February to the custody of local police, who brought him to the Bone and Joint hospital. He had developed gangrene of the feet and left hand and had to undergo amputations below both knees and of four of fingers of his left hand. The local police reportedly refused to register a first information report against the army. The Government replied that on 1 January Nazir Ahmad Sheikh had tried to flee upon seeing an army patrol and was chased and taken in for questioning.

He had been barefoot and was suffering from frostbite. During questioning he confessed to being a militant and, after weapons were recovered, he was brought back to the army post and kept in a warm room and provided food and shoes. He was taken to hospital by local police, but when he refused treatment was released on bail so that he could get himself treated on his own. It was not true that his injuries had resulted from torture.

Baba Sewa Singh, reportedly arrested on 24 September at Sri Guru Angad Dev college, Khandoor Sahib, Punjab, was allegedly subjected to the "roller treatment" at Khandoor Sahib police station, during which he was forced to lie naked on the ground with his hands tied behind his back.

His feet were pulled in opposite directions by police officers and an iron roller was moved up and down his legs for five or six minutes by three men sitting on the roller. The treatment was repeated four times in the space of an hour. Doctors confirmed that tiny fractures in his thigh bones and smashed hips were consistent with his allegations of torture. The Government replied that Baba Sewa Singh had not been arrested by the police of Verowal police station on 24 September and the allegation was therefore baseless. He was allegedly tortured by six police personnel at Sadar police station, during which he was beaten severely on the soles of his feet and palms of his hands with a danda stick , his chest was stamped upon with boots after a sack had been placed over his head, threats were made against his life and the lives of his family.

He was allegedly beaten with a wooden pole with a protruding nail, which punctured his soles, and made to frog-jump on the floor. He lost consciousness due to loss of blood and was taken to hospital. Medical reports revealed the presence of multiple contusions and broken bones in both feet, soles, ankles and the lower parts of both legs, a laceration of a toe, and other injuries.

An independent medical expert concluded that his injuries were consistent with the torture allegations. No action was reportedly taken with regard to a complaint filed by the victim. The Government replied that, pursuant to the complaint filed by Adhikari Biraj, two subinspectors and two constables had been arrested and later released on bail. They were placed under suspension, a criminal case was registered on 28 January with the court of sessions judge, East and North, and the matter was sub judice. A payment of , rupees had been made to the alleged victim for medical and other expenses.

Dhan Raj Tamang, an SDF party worker from West Sikkim, was reportedly arrested by police on 7 December and subsequently beaten throughout the night. Moreover, local connections, native language skills, and cultural understanding can boost international business development exponentially. One way is by interfacing with people from other countries! Spanish is the most prudent language to learn so that you can interface with people in 21 other countries AND 41 million people in your own backyard! Another way to learn Spanish is to sign up for online classes with instructors located in Antigua, Guatemala who are ready to share about culture, colloquial words and their everyday life experiences!

And what is the one thing we humans do every single day of our lives? We eat! Food is one of the things we all need and enjoy. We all also have that one food that brings us back to our childhood; just the smell of it reminds us of when our mother, grandmother, aunt — or in my case, both my grandmother and great-grandmother — cooked the dish! All this talk about cooking got me thinking about the one dish that immediately brings me back to a younger version of myself.

What are reflexive verbs?

So, I grabbed the phone, called my grandmother, and asked her for her amazing chiles rellenos recipe — the one she learned from my great-grandmother! It was nice to talk on the phone with her, and to catch up. She took a long time explaining really carefully and with much detail how to prepare the dish. Like a typical Guatemalan abuela , she only cooks in really big batches!

Last time she cooked chiles rellenos, she made over 50 at once! However, she tried downsizing it for me to only 20 chiles rellenos instead. Like with any other recipe, before we start, we first need to make sure that we have all the necessary tools and ingredients. What I try to do whenever I cook is to take all the ingredients out and put them on the counter to make sure I have everything I need!

Those last-second trips to the grocery store are not always ideal! The one thing I remember best is that my grandma always prepares the stuffing one day and she finishes the chiles rellenos the next. This stuffing that we made needs to be room temperature, so you need to wait for it to not to be hot anymore anyway. It tastes especially well if you put it in a bun. Once cooked, you can store the chiles rellenos in the fridge! You feel confident enough to have your first real-life conversation with a native speaker.

Everything starts off well — you introduce yourself with the correct phrases and ask the right questions. Have you been there? Have you ever just needed a moment in a conversation to collect your thoughts, remember the correct translation of that tricky word, or recall how to conjugate irregular verbs in the past tense?

I have. Oh, I have been in that situation too many times to count. Even now, as a fluent Spanish speaker, I still have moments where I get confused between Spanish and English, or a particular tense trips me up yes, this happens to me in both languages now. Are we destined to always stumble over our words while we think of the correct way to express ourselves?

The answer is no. Have you ever noticed how native speakers — of any language — pause naturally to think about what they want to say? It is usually accompanied by a transition word to let the other person know that they just need a moment to gather their thoughts. Very few people can hold a conversation flawlessly without using these little words to help them along. There are some words that take a lot of work to switch into our second or third or fourth language because they are second nature.

However, I have put together a list of phrases that I have learned to use as transitional words to give me some extra time to think and put together my thoughts in my second language. It is such a common word that it may seem weird that it is not universal. However, you may start to notice that native Spanish speakers say it a little different. Here are some examples to look at:. So, we started simple. This one is just a change in pronunciation. Since English has become the international language of business, many English words have infiltrated various languages, especially Spanish.

If it is your goal to become fluent in Spanish, it is always good to know the correct way to say things in Spanish and not just use a common English word in its place. It can actually be used in two main ways. The first would be short for the word for vale , which also means okay. The second way is actually short for the word true, verdad , and is used at the end of sentences. Now, for the purposes of this blog, we will be focusing on the first use. It is normally used as a response to someone to express your understanding and agreement, but you can also use it to give you some time to process what that person said before responding.

You would have to use context clues to know which word is being spoken. What about, Bien, no estoy seguro. Unfortunately, that would be incorrect. The correct word to use would then be pues. Dame 5 minutos. Well, I need to finish up here first. Give me 5 minutes. If you are unsure of how to respond to someone, the word pues can give you that little extra time you need to form your response without making it seem like you are struggling.

Reflexive pronouns

Have you ever been in the middle of a great conversation and then been interrupted? Sorry about that, Alex. Maybe you are talking to someone outside and see a car run a red light, almost causing an accident:. That was so scary. People need to be more careful. I knew it sounded strange, an English interjection in the middle of Spanish conversation, but I was stumped by how to correctly express myself in Spanish.

After listening closely to Spanish conversations, however, I realized that there is such a word in Spanish — bueno. Part of the beauty of learning a language is discovering all the different ways you can use one small word. This next transition phrase is by no means official, but it is extremely common in informal conversation.

There is often a pause following these phrases as we figure out how to best express ourselves. Guess what? You will hear this very often as native Spanish speakers organize their thoughts or think of how to better explain something. This phrase often has no connection to the following sentence but is just used as a filler while the speaker decides what they want to say.


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  • This makes it perfect for all you Spanish learners — you can use this trick to sound just like a native speaker while you search your memory for those tricky rules about the subjunctive tense. We all have trademark phrases that we use way too often. While he eventually understood what I intended to say, it frustrated me that I was lacking a key phrase in Spanish.

    However, there are other ways to express the same thing. Is that correct? Both phrases are helpful to know, but in reference to transition words, digo is definitely one of the keywords to learn. When speaking our native language, we can mix up our words and accidentally say the wrong thing. This becomes all the more probable when speaking another language, which is why this small word will help clear up confusion quickly and effortlessly. This phrase is a great way to give yourself another chance at explaining something or to be sure that you understand what is being said in the conversation without saying no entiendo.

    O sea que tendremos que trabajar este fin de semana. This phrase can be literally translated to la cosa es que, but there is another phrase that is very unique. It has actually become notorious as the introduction to excuses!

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    No he tenido tiempo. This is also one of those great examples of a word that has no good translation in English — you can understand the meaning but there is no word that truly captivates its essence in the English language. Either way, the translation would be the same in Spanish — mirar can be both a verb and a transition word. Look, I need help with these documents. Could you authorize them for me?

    No matter the form you use, this word is a great way to introduce ideas and give you some extra time to organize your sentence in Spanish. That was a lot of information! Also, listen for these words in Spanish conversations, movies , and songs. This is just a short guide to all the nuances of Spanish transition words! Raise your hand if you have a busy schedule. So many of us have filled our schedules to the brim — not always voluntarily. As a working mother with a couple of side jobs, I completely understand having a busy schedule.

    However, I am a language addict. Every time I meet someone from a different country, I want to learn their language. I currently have nine languages on my practice list. To be fair, though, I am only working consistently on two — German and Chinese. Still, that is a lot to put on an already overflowing plate. How does one find time to study another language? Before we talk about making time, we need to establish what language is the most practical to learn. If we are already extremely busy, why waste precious time on a language that we will hardly ever use? I would like to make a strong case for learning Spanish.

    If you would like a more extensive list of why Spanish is the best language to learn, click here. For now, I will just leave you with this — Spanish is the second most spoken language in the world. There is no need to worry about never using Spanish, as there are about million native speakers worldwide — about million more than native English speakers. How much effort are we talking about, though?

    If you are serious about learning Spanish, you will need to be consistent in your study habits. You cannot expect to make progress if you think about Spanish once every month. When you learn a language, you must actually retrain your brain how to think about things. It requires consistency and repetition. However, it does not require hours of extensive study each week.

    There are several ways that you can study on-the-go or for just a couple of minutes a day. This is probably the easiest way to fit Spanish into your crazy schedule because you can dedicate as much or as little time as you would like to your studies. Most of the best apps have a feature where you can determine what your daily goal is — 5, 10, or even 20 minutes. They keep track of your progress, reward your dedication, and remind you when some of your vocabulary words have become weak. My personal favorite is Memrise , but there are several other excellent apps to learn Spanish on the go.

    We depend on our phones for everything — directions, transportation, games — which ensures that it is always with us. Instead of browsing Instagram the next time you look at your phone, start with learning a bit of Spanish. Find a time you have available every day that you can dedicate five minutes to studying. For example, I often study on the bus or in an Uber. However, if I want to use the pronunciation feature, I prefer to be alone.

    I have two minute breaks at work, and I usually dedicate one full break to language learning with an application. So, find a couple of minutes in your daily schedule that you can spend on your phone — doing something productive instead of browsing social media. Where do you spend most of your time? Maybe you often find yourself in the kitchen, your cubicle at work, or perhaps even your car. Wherever that place is, look up the vocabulary for the objects that surround you and make small labels. These can be either handwritten or typed out, whatever works best for you.

    Tape the labels onto each object so that every time you use that item or walk past it, you see the word. This will help you relate that object to the word in Spanish. A big step in language learning is being able to immediately relate an object to its corresponding word in the target language instead of having to translate it in your mind.

    Basically, when you start learning Spanish, you start by thinking about what you want to say in English, translating it to Spanish, then producing it. The goal is to eliminate any English go straight to Spanish. To get to that point, you need to repeatedly see the object and connect it to the Spanish word, which is where our labels come in; every time you use a labeled object, you will be reminded of its Spanish name. This will create new pathways in your brain and rewire it to associate objects immediately with their Spanish names. Now, this one may sound a bit crazy, but it has greatly helped my progress in various languages.

    Talk to yourself in Spanish! Whatever you are thinking about, try to express it in Spanish. Instead of stumbling over words and phrases when you are in an actual conversation, practice with yourself first to make sure the words flow! I studied Spanish for several years, but I just could not speak it for the life of me. I traveled to Peru, thinking I could speak fluent Spanish, but as it turns out, I could barely get a few sentences out. There is a big gap between understanding a language and actually being able to reproduce it — those are even two different types of fluency.

    So, to help me get used to thinking in Spanish and quickly forming sentences, I tried to think in Spanish, and I spoke out loud at times to make sure I could pronounce what I was imagining. I specifically remember one morning at home. I was doing laundry and talking to myself in Spanish. If you had seen me, you may have thought I was a bit on the crazy side, but this really helped me when there were no native Spanish speakers around to talk to. You can still flex those speaking muscles by yourself while doing one of the million tasks you have for the day. However, you can still work on thinking in Spanish.

    Try and remember how to say a certain phrase in Spanish that you just said to your coworker. Look up some words if you need to. Practice it in your head. Remember, learning a new language is retraining your brain, and training takes consistent practice. All of these previous choices do not give you the ability to actually converse with a native speaker. They are great tools to supplement but to reach fluency you need to actually communicate with someone else who speaks the language. However, that would involve hours of classes a week, loads of money, and lots of travel time to get to the class.

    It is possible! Here at Spanish Academy , we offer online Spanish classes at a cost you can afford. Our company is located in Guatemala, so all of our teachers are certified, native Spanish speakers. That means that instead of relying on the conversations you have with yourself, you can ask someone who actually speaks Spanish for some help with your pronunciation and sentence formation.

    Even if you have a crazy schedule and only have a half hour free during your lunch break, you can take a class then. Our flexible scheduling ensures that you get to take a class at the best time of day for you. You can even choose from over 50 teachers to find one that best suits your personality and learning needs. As I have learned, nothing beats immersing yourself in the language.

    I have done all of the above practice habits and they have definitely helped, but they are more of a supplement to my real-life conversations with a native speaker. You have four methods to chose from to make sure you fit learning Spanish into your busy schedule. Choose which of these options above would be best for you…or do them all! Take a Free Class with us today to see how our program can meet your specific needs and start supplementing with the other methods mentions. I went to the same school for 14 years, and for 12 of those years, I wore a uniform!

    Just think of those days you stay at home wearing pajamas. Our uniform was grey pants or skirt and a white polo shirt. Just imagine a couple hundred children wearing the same clothes! While wearing a uniform makes life so much easier, I do like being able to decide what to wear. I love wearing vestidos dresses and botas de combate negras black combat boots — that would have been a big no-no at school!

    If you want to hear the pronunciation of the following phrases and vocabulary, check out our video! You can also download the printable version of this blog with some extra exercises here:. Something interesting happens here:. As we learned above, ponerse is a reflexive verb. In this case, we are putting the clothes on ourselves. We conjugate this verb like this:. As we have seen above, the use of articles- or lack thereof — depends largely on the context. Llevar means to carry. In the context of clothes, we say in Spanish that we carry the clothes that are on us. Llevar puesto [insert noun here] then means that we are actively using the clothes, carrying them placed onus: we are wearing them!

    Something very important to note here is that since puesto is an adjective, it needs to match the noun it refers to! The matching needs to occur both in number and gender. Since puesto is an adjective, we can place it both before or after the noun. Check out more on Spanish adjective placement here. So we can say:. We use them the same way we would with llevar puesto! I suggest adding the articles every time so that you get extra practice with the new vocabulary! As an example, let me tell you what my morning looked like:.

    Yo me pongo la playera. Yo me pongo las calcetas. Yo me pongo los zapatos. Me pongo gorra antes de salir. I put on pants. I put on a T-shirt. I put on socks. I put on my shoes.