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Contents:
  1. Passwort vergessen?
  2. Bibliography and Documents
  3. Publications
  4. The Multiculturalism vs. Integration Debate in Great Britain | Hausarbeiten publizieren
  5. Wozu Erziehung? Über die Theorie der Erziehung bei Kant und Rousseau

Uneigentlichkeit und Eigentlichkeit des menschlichen Selbst. Papenfuss and O. Frankfurt: Vittorio Klostermann, Armstrong, Meg. Arnheim, Rudolf. Arntzen, Sven. Dissertation: Johns Hopkins University.


  1. Kant Rousseau!
  2. Galaxy Patrol (Black Cats).
  3. The Waterloo roll call. With biographical notes and anecdotes.
  4. Dictionary of Quotations, Compiled by James Wood. The Project Gutenberg eBook of.

Artola, Jose Maria. Arvidson, P. Asbach, Olaf. Aschenberg, Reinhold. Blasche et alii, Ashley, Leonard R. Review of J. Laursen, The Politics of Skepticism Asmuth, Christoph. Amsterdam: Gruner, Atkinson, R. Atterton, Peter Carey. Atwell, John E. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff. Lo, Treating Persons as Ends Canadian Philosophical Reviews 8 Seidler, Kant, Respect and Injustice in Ethics 98 Atwell, John. Aul, Joachim. Die Problemstellung von Kants theoretischer Philosophie. Cuxhaven: Junghans, Aune, B. The Times Literary Supplement No. Aune, Bruce. Knowledge of the External World.

New York: Routledge, Auxter, Thomas. Albany, NY, , Auzuvi, Francois. La Reception de Kant en France, Avgelis, N. Axelsen, Diana E. Axinn, Sidney. Axiotis, A. Guyer, Kant and the Claims of Taste Philosophical Books 30 Axiotis, Ares.

Passwort vergessen?

Bachta, Ab del Kader. Bachta, Abdelkader. Baciu, Claudiu. Baciu, Mihai. Bucharest: Diogene, Baier, Annette. Baier, Kurt. Bailey, William H. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Bailey, William. The Ethics of Kant and Brunner. An Existential Blend. New York, Baker, Eric. Baker, J. Baker, Judith. Grandy, Richard E. Oxford: Oford U. Bal, Karol. Balakrishnan, S.

Baldacchino, Lewis. Lewiston, Queenston, Lampeter, Baldner, Kent. Canadian Philosophical Reviews 14 Bandyopadhayay, Krishna Bala. Barbaric, Damir. Zur Anthropologie Kants. Michael Benedikt zum Wien, , Barber, Kenneth F. Albany: SUNY, Barbone, Steven L.

Bibliography and Documents

Barco Collazos, J. Hispalence, ] in Revista Latioamericana De Filosofia 12 Barker, Stephen F. Meerbote, Robert Ginsberg. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna U. Barker, Stephen. John Fisher. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, Barnouw, Jeffrey. Baron, Marcia W. Kantian Ethics Almost Without Apology. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Baron, Marcia. University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, Kantian Ethics Almost with Apology. Van der Linden, Kantian Socialism Barotta, Pierluigi. Racionalidad y idealidad. De la finitud de la experiencia a la experiencia de la finitud. Salamanca Barrotta, Pierluigi.

Barthel, G. Kant, Review of Fondements de la metaphysique des moers Review of D. Arendt, Juger. Sur la philosophie politique de Kant Kant-Studien 85 Barthel, Georges. Kant et puvoir de juger Kant-Studien 87 , Bartuschat, Wolfgang. A Esser. Berlin, Basu, Tora. Baum, G. In Schopenhauer Jahrbuch 69 Baum, Hermann.

Baum, Manfred. Literaturangaben , ed. Auflage der Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Deduktion und Beweis in Kants Transzendentalphilosophie. Baumann, Lutz. Kopper, Das transzendentale Denken des Deutschen Idealismus Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger 42 Baumann, P. Autonomie und Freiheit in der Medizin-Ethik. Immanuel Kant und Karl Barth.

Freiburg Baumanns, P. Ein kritischer Forschungsbericht. Zweiter Teil. Vierter Teil. Ein kritische Forschungsbericht. Dritter Teil. Erster Teil. Baumanns, Peter. Kants Philosophie der Erkenntnis. Baumgarten, Hans Ulrich. Kant und Tetens. Untersuchungen zum Problem von Vorstellung und Gegenstand. Baumgarten, Hans-Ulrich.

Baumgartner, Hans Michael. Eine Skizze. Eine spezielle Form des ethiko-theologischen Gottesbeweises? Freiburg: Alber, Baur, Michael. Bayer, O. Hamanns Metakritik im zweiten Entwurf. Bayer, Oswald. Bayerer, W. Bayerer, Wolfgang G. Bayne, Steven M. Baynes, Kenneth Richard. Baynes, Kenneth. Bohmann and L. Beanblossom, Ronald E. Beauchamp, Tom L. Brody, Suicide and Euthanasia. Beavers, Anthony. Beck, Gunnar. Beck, Hamilton and Kuehn, Manfred. Review of U. Beck, Hamilton. Bern and New York: Peter Lang, l Beck, Lewis White.

Rochester , Martinus Nijhoff, London: Routledge, Kant and Political Philosophy. New Haven: Yale University Press, A Prussian Hume and a Scottish Kant. Translations, Commentaries, and Notes. In collaboration with Mary J. Gregor, Ralf Meerbote, John A. Obituary for W. Walsh in Kant-Studien 77 Review of B. Journal of the History of Philosophy 32 Crowe, The Extraterrestrial Life Debate Journal of the History of Philosophy 26 Review of Roger Scruton, Kant Review of S. Kant-Studien 80 Becker, Don. Becker, Donald Eric. Becker, Thomas.

Die Hegemonie der Moderne. Becker, W. Becker, Werner. Lewiston: Mellen Press, Becker, Wolfgang. Beckermann, Ansgar. Beddoes, Diane. Routledge: New York Beets, M. Reality and Freedom. Delft: Eburon, Delft: Eburon Filosofische reeks Behler, E. Beidler, Paul G. Blasche, W. Kuhlmann, P. Beils, K.

Gurwitsch, Theorie des Verstandes , ed. Seebohm, Kant-Studien 83 Beiner, Ronald ed. Beiner, Ronald. Beiser, Frederick C. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Belaval, Yvon. Cesa and N. Hinske, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, Bell, David. Bunnin, Ed. Bellini, Ornella. Bellotti, Luca. Bellu, Nicolae. Bellu, Niculae. Croitoru, Bucharest, , Belsunce, Eduardo Garcia. Belwe, Andreas. Der Mensch ist im Gegenteil. Egelsbach, Bencivenga, E. Bencivenga, Ermanno.

New York: Oxford University Press, My Kantian Ways. Berkeley: University of California Press, Bender, Wolfgang. Gibt es einen neuen kategorischen Imperativ? Benedikt, Michael. Amsterdam: Rodopi, Bestimmende und reflektierende Urteilskraft. Huber and T. Vienna: Verlag des Verbandes der wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaften Oesterreichs, Bennett, Jonathan. Benoist, Jocelyn ed. Textes et Commentaires. Paris Benoist, Jocelyn. Bordeaux, Benson, Peter. Bergeois, B. Berger, Wilhelm and Macho, Thomas H.

Kant als Liebesratgeber. Wien, Verlag des Verbandes der wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaften Oesterreichs, Berliner, Paul. Karlsruhe: Unigios, Bernet, Rudolf. Bernstein, J. Bernstein, Jeffrey. Bernstein, John Andrew. Rutherford: Dickinson University Press, Berry, Kenneth. Baschera, Das dramatische Denken Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft und Diderots Paradoxe sur le comedien Kant-Studien 82 Berthold-Bond, Daniel. Bertomeu, Maria Julia. Bertram, Martin A. Bettoni, Marco C.

Bevc, Tobias. Beyleveld, Deryck. Beyssade, Jean-Marie. Bhave, S. Bhikku Nanajivako, Nuwera Eliya. Remarks on some Theses from Standpoint of European Philosophy. Bhushan, Nalini. Bianchi, Irene Angela. Bianco, Bruno. Gawlick and L. Bickmann, C. Bickmann, Claudia. Bielefeldt, Heiner. Philosophie der Menschenrechte. Grundlagen eines weltweiten Freiheitsethos. Darmstadt, Bienenstock, Myriam. Bigger, Charles P. Kant's Methodology. An Essay in Philosophical Archeology. Athens: Ohio University Press, Bilbeny, Norbert.

Bird, Graham H. Guyer, Kant and the Experience of Freedom 93 ; D. Hill, Jr. Neiman, The Unity of Reason 94 ; A. Bird, Graham. Schaper and Vossenkuhl. Brook, Kant and the Mind Philosophical Books 37 Guyer ed. The Cambridge Companion to Kant Philosophical Quarterly 43 Birken-Bertsch, Hanno. Biro, John. Buffalo: Prometheus, Birzescu, Ilona. Bitbol, Michel.

Bittner, R. Blaquier, Carola C. Blasche, Siegfried. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, Blatnik, Edward. Blattner, William D. New York: Cambridge University Press, Blattner, William. Hoke Robinson, II, 1, Blesenkemper, Klaus. Blittkowski, Ralf. Heinrich, Kants Erfahrungsraum Philosophisches Jahrbuch 96 Hinsch, Erfahrung und Selbstbewusstsein Blondel, Eric.

Blosser, Philip. Cassirer, Grace and Law: St. Paul, Kant, and the Hebrew Prophets Faith and Philosophy 8 91 Blum, Gerhard. Fulda: Verlag freier Autoren, Bobko, Aleksander. Boboc, A. Boboc, Alexandru. Bobzien, Hartmut. Eine Studie zu orientalischer Philologie und Typographie in Deutschland im Bobzien, Susanne. Bocancea, Cristian. Boehme, G. Boenke, Michaela. Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt, , Bohman, James ed ; Lutz-Bachmann, Matthias ed. MIT Press: Cambridge Bohman, James F. Bohman, James, and Lutz-Bachmann, Matthias. Bohman, James. Bohmann, James, and Lutz-Bachmann, Matthias eds. Translated by Robert B.

VI, This important distinction does not, however, prevent Kant from describing, almost as an aside, what physiological anthropology might be like. In this connec- tion he opines that often we are ourselves a play of obscure representations [dunkeler Vorstellungen], and our understanding is unable to save itself from the absurdities into which they have placed it, even though it recognizes them as illusions. Such is the case with sexual love, in so far as its actual aim is not benevolence but rather enjoyment of its object.

In short: Kant was more attuned to light than to darkness, and therefore shied away from direct consideration of the unconscious. As John H. Mary J. Gregor, in Kant, Practical Philosophy, ed. IV, 12— While sensibility is merely pas- sive, providing us with only the raw sensory data relating to external objects, the understanding is active and discursive, bringing concepts such as, for example, unity and causality to bear upon the data pro- vided by sensibility. Kant sees the activity of the imagination as being executed a priori; that is, as making possible the synthetic unity of experience.

Introduction: thinking the unconscious 15 consciousness: for if they did not have this, and if it were entirely impos- sible to become conscious of them, that would be as much as to say that they did not exist at all. Paul Guyer and Allen W. II, III, II, — This text can, alongside the Anthropology, be seen as having exerted a profound influence upon how ideas relating to the unconscious were theorized in nineteenth-century German thought, especially in relation to aesthetics.

V, For Kant, beauty in nature is prior to beauty in art. V, — Manchester: Manchester University Press, , Ref lections on recent scholarship, on methodology and on terminology In recent years, as yet untranslated German-language scholarship has sought to offer a systematic account of how the concept of the unconscious and related ideas developed during the three centuries prior to its becoming the cardinal term of psychoanalysis. In a study published in , Kurt Joachim Grau offers an account of this terminology which remains useful and provocative today. Das Unbewusste the unconscious , according to Grau, refers to an area of mental life of which the self can have no consciousness or knowledge at all.

Finally the term bewusstlos without consciousness simply refers to non-living objects without mentality. Grau sees Ernst Platner as being the first person to use the term Unbewusstsein unconsciousness in his Philosophical Aphorisms of The substantive masculine form der Unbewusst an interesting early variation on the eventual standard neu- tral usage, das Unbewusste is simply described in Adelung as being the condition of not knowing something Der Zustand des Nichtwissens.

Edinburgh: Blackwood, Yet at the same time, one must deploy a high degree of self-reflexivity with respect to the pitfalls of teleology in intellectual his- tory. Introduction: thinking the unconscious 23 of his tradition-lines can already be found, albeit to differing degrees, in some of the eighteenth-century sources that we have encountered in this chapter. The fact that two of the chapters associated with this second tradition- line are substantially devoted to Goethe chapters 1 and 3, by Bishop and Nicholls respectively requires a brief note of clarification.

Perhaps more than any other German literary figure of the nineteenth century, Goethe — the iconic author of Faust and arguably the central figure of modern German literature — is seen to have exerted an enormous influence upon Freud, who claimed to have embarked on his medical career after listening to a public lecture, the text of which was albeit incorrectly attributed to Goethe. These two chapters also demonstrate a theoretical precept of this volume: where teleological relations between earlier and later figures are 76 Ibid.

In posing this question, Shamdasani explores some late nine- teenth-century critiques of the concept of the unconscious that appeared both within and outside of the German-speaking world. We are surrounded and embraced by her — powerless to leave her and powerless to enter her more deeply. Unasked and without warning she sweeps us away in the round of her dance and dances on until we fall exhausted from her arms.

She brings forth ever new forms: what is there, never was; what was, never will return. All is new, and yet forever old. We live within her, and are strangers to her. She speaks perpetually with us, and does not betray her secret. Sie schafft ewig neue Gestalten; was da ist war noch nie, was war kommt nicht wieder — Alles ist neu und doch immer das Alte.

Wir leben mitten in ihr und sind ihr fremd. Erich Trunz, 14 vols. Hamburg: Wegener, — , vol. Nevertheless Goethe saw in the text an accurate summary of his early Naturphilosophie. James Strachey and Anna Freud, 24 vols. London: Hogarth Press, —74 , vol. The history of the concept of the unconscious reveals itself to be a complex and much-contested one, and the story of that com- plexity and contestation has been told by a variety of narrators.

Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, —87 , vol. IV, 34 hereafter cited as GW followed by volume and page numbers. London: Julian Friedmann, ; Henri F. George S. Klinger — See also David Hill, ed. Hendrik Birus et al. Frankfurt am Main: Deutscher Klassiker Verlag, — , part 1, vol. XIV, Wilkinson and L. Magill, ed. Unconscious from Storm and Stress to Weimar classicism 29 embodied in the character of Werther, had emphasized the potentially transgressive qualities of individual subjectivity and genius — while also rejecting, on a formal level, the prescriptive aesthetic tendencies of the French neo-classicism which had preceded it — Weimar classicism expressed the need once again to bring subjectivity and genius within formal bounds derived from the aesthetic models of the ancients.

Publications

As we shall see, for the Weimar classicism of Schiller, the unconscious inspi- ration of the genius is, in and of itself, insufficient for the production of great and morally instructive works of art: such inspiration must also, Schiller thought, be accompanied by self-reflection and the capacity to bring such emotions within clear, formal boundaries. Thus, while the Storm and Stress had valorized the breaking of psychological, aesthetic, and perhaps even social boundaries, Weimar classicism called for their at least partial reinstitution, leading Goethe famously to declare late in his life — in a polemical remark directed against some of his German romantic contemporaries — that while classicism is health, romanticism is sickness.

Jung, series B, vol. Both Goethe and Freud were aware that pleasure is fleet- ing and transient, and both recognized that one of the deepest human desires is to secure and retain pleasure at all costs, in spite of time and decay. The view that this desire to sustain pleasure over time is often unconscious and irrational, the idea that such desire should be chan- neled and redirected in useful and socially acceptable ways, and the notion that the ontological basis of this unconscious desire inheres in a materialist, yet non-reductionist, understanding of nature, constitute central features of the Storm and Stress and German classicism that persist, sometimes in a subterranean or unacknowledged form, in the work of Freud.

At the beginning of this chapter it must be pointed out, however, that the roots of these ideas lie ultimately not in the eighteenth, but rather in the seventeenth century. Julius Petersen and Gerhard Fricke, 50 vols. Riemer, August 5, , in Werke: Weimarer Ausgabe, ed. II, hereafter cited as WA, followed by part, volume and page numbers.

Charles Adam and Paul Tannery, 12 vols. Paris: Cerf, — , vol. Josef Martin and Klaus-D. Daur Turnholti: Brepols, , Gareth B. Matthews, trans. Mountain Turnholti: Brepols, , VII, But already prior to Kant, in the philosophy of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz — , consciousness acquires — and thus, by implication, so does the unconscious — a new quality: it becomes dynamic. VIII, 7. Austin Farrer, trans. Johann Eduard Erdmann ; Aalen: Scientia, , Just as when I am walking along the shore of the sea and hear the great noise it makes, though I hear the separate sounds of each wave of which the total sound is made up, I do not discriminate them one from another; so our confused perceptions are the result of the impressions which the whole universe makes on us.

Mill —73 , and Alexander Bain — Within this tradition of thought, the workings of the psyche should be approached just as any other scientific subject should be; J. Mill, for vol. Gregor The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, , See also Immanuel Kant, Lectures on Metaphysics, trans. X Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , For further discussion, see Richard J. Mill, Collected Works, ed. Priestley and J. Robson, 33 vols. Daniel O. Dahlstrom Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , Steven D. Curran and Christopher Fricker, eds. Willoughby, eds. For Johann Gottfried Herder — , philology — another rapidly developing science at the time — suggested that the motor of human history, human civilization, and human progress, was itself something primordial and irrational: language.

Schiller, On the Naive and Sentimental in Literature, trans. In the terminology of Erich Jaensch — , the former atti- tude characterizes the integrated integriert type, the latter the unintegrated disintegriert type. The Correspondence between Schiller and Goethe, from to , trans. Dora Schmitz, 2 vols.

London: George Bell and Sons, , vol. Manfred Beetz, 2 vols. Munich: Goldmann, , vol. II, ; Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller und Goethe, vol. Spitz describes it, involved an important focus on the body. Ich bin! Frankfurt am Main: Deutscher Klassiker Verlag, — , vol.

IV, —42; here IV, —; here: See Christoph F. Wessell, Jr. Unconscious from Storm and Stress to Weimar classicism 39 medicine, Goethe came to occupy a central position in the history of the unconscious in nineteenth-century German thought. Yet as the con- tribution to this volume by Angus Nicholls demonstrates, this central status is contested. Shortly after the outbreak of the First World War, the Goethebund in Berlin invited Freud to contribute to the anthology Das Land Goethes — , a wartime propaganda volume intended to raise money for libraries in Germany. He was disturbed by the thought that all this beauty was fated to extinction, that it would vanish when winter came, like all human beauty and all the beauty and splendour that men have created or may create.

All that he would otherwise have loved and admired seemed to him to be shorn of its worth by the transi- ence which was its doom. Augustine, to whose Confessions Petrarch turns for an appropriate expression of awe when confronted with the view from the top. Fischer, , Schiller, NA, 2, I: — In other words, the mountain climb or the countryside walk constitutes a long-established literary topos of whose history Freud was clearly well aware.

Out of Faust — a text itself arising from and con- taining elements of the Storm and Stress and Weimar classicism — is born the spirit of psychoanalysis. For intrinsic to the psychoanalytic conception of the unconscious is the notion of non-rational desire, which lies at the heart of Faust, Part One, the opening lines of which are concerned with the problem of knowledge and its existential relevance. Elsewhere, Goethe is equally insistent on the transient nature of beauty.

John Whaley London: Dent, , 46—7. All this green, should I enjoy it, Grateful for its recent shade? Bald wird Sturm auch das zerstreuen, Wenn es falb im Herbst geschwankt. His position is thus closely allied to the one adopted by Goethe in one of his Maxims and Relections: I feel sorry for those people who make a lot of fuss about the transience of things and lose themselves in the contemplation of earthly vanity. After all, we are here precisely to make what is transitory eternal; but that can only happen, when one knows how to appreciate both.

On the Epicurean side of Freud, we have the importance he attaches to Eros, to the pleasure prin- ciple, to bodily needs, and to the satisfaction of the id which, if repressed, will merely return. But you will be able to convince yourself that much will be gained if we succeed in transforming your hysterical misery into common unhappiness. Wilhelm Bodin and Friedrich Jodl, 2nd edn.

Stuttgart: Frommann, , vol. X, Flodoard von Biedermann, 5 vols.


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Leipzig: Biedermann, — , vol. IV, Herman Nunberg and Ernst Federn, eds. Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer, — , vol. See also Gay, Freud, —4. Brown, trans. X New York: Suhrkamp, , Ernst L. Gregor, ; Gesammelte Schriften, vol. All you have to do is to continue what you are doing: plough your fields, wield your hammer, examine your patients, take your children to the school or to the playground, report on the events of the day, penetrate ever more deeply into the secrets of nature. As we have seen, the dialectic of time and pleasure in both Goethe and Freud is deeply linked to the problem of conscious and unconscious desire: first and foremost, the desire to overcome the transience of all things beautiful and pleasurable.

Jahrhunderts, 2 vols. Munich: Fink, — , vol. I, 48; cited in Der junge Goethe in seiner Zeit, vol. Unconscious from Storm and Stress to Weimar classicism 49 To speak separately of God and of nature is as difficult and as delicate as think- ing of the body and the soul as separate entities. We know the soul only through the body; we know God only through nature. And in 96 [Separatim de Deo, et natura rerum disserer difficile et periculosum est, eodem modo quam si de corpore et anima sejunctim cogitamus; animam non nisi mediante corpore, Deum non nisi perspecta natura cognoscimus.

Varnhagen von Ense und Theodor Mundt, 3 vols. Leipzig: Reichenbach, , vol.

Immanuel Kant über Pädagogik und Erziehung / von Dr. Christian Weilmeier

Eric Mosbacher and James Strachey, ed. In a letter to his student friend Eduard Silberstein — of March 15, , Freud gave an account of a visit he and Josef Paneth paid to Franz Brentano, in which he com- mented that Brentano knew perfectly well that they were materialists. Arnold J. Pomerans, ed. Walter Boehlich Frankfurt am Main: S. Freud, Letters, 96; Jugendbriefe, His psychoanalytic theory makes exten- sive use of mechanistic, hydraulic metaphors: repression, de-repression, libidinal flow, and so on. The true essence of matter, its idea, exists in the animal, in the human being as sensuous- ness, drives, desire, passion, as the lack of freedom and as confusion.

McGrath has suggested. Werner Schuffenhauer, 22 vols. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, — , vol. Leipzig und Heidelberg: Winter, The stages of psycho-sexual devel- opment oral, anal, phallic, genital are, after all, organized around the body, while the physiological core of hysterical symptoms is likened to the piece of sand around which pearls of neurosis develop, thereby anticipating the use of chemical intervention to effect psychological cures. Sylvana Tomaselli, ed. Russell Grigg, ed. Jacques-Alain Miller London: Routledge, , What links them, and what underpins their view of the dialectic of time and pleasure, is this shared materialist outlook.

Thus the notion of the unconscious that emerges from Goethe and Freud alike is one that is conceived as essentially desiring and pleasure-seeking, one might even say: as hedonist. Kallen, ed. Sidney Hook and Milton R. Jung, Collected Works, ed. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, —83 , vol. Olten und Freiburg im Breisgau: Walter-Verlag, —83 , vol. London and New York: Routledge, —9. Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments, trans. Thomas McCarthy, 2 vols. London: Heinemann, ; Cambridge: Polity Press, , vol. I: Reason and the Rationalization of Society, and ; Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns, 2 vols.

Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, , vol. Only through love do we come to her. She opens chasms between all beings, and each seeks to devour the other. She has set all apart to draw all together. With a few draughts from the cup of love she makes good a life full of toil. Mill, four of whose essays Freud translated into German. Ralph Manheim and R. Hull, ed. Jung, Briefwechsel, ed. Nur durch sie kommt man ihr nahe. Sie hat alles isolieret um alles zusammenzuziehen. New York: Basic Books, —7 , vol. I, 55—6. The popular appeal of the idea of the unconscious, which leads to some questionable uses of the term, comes about because the uncon- scious is seen as explaining how it can be that when we do something we may not really know what we are doing.

Have to! At the same time, this loosening can also be pathological: the link of the unconscious to madness is an enduring theme in modernity — though it is one which can also too easily be used as an excuse not to think about the social causes of pathologies. As Donald Davidson shows, if it were, we would just be talking about causally determined processes, which do not involve the interpretative elements involved in many issues associated with the unconscious. The disputed borderline between nature and consciousness — which is the underlying source of the renewed debate about German idealism — is necessarily an issue in consideration of the unconscious.

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This has led to reflections on the limits of natural scientific explanation which have wide-ranging social and political implications. Schelling remains significant because he not only challenges dominant ways of thinking about nature in modern philosophy in a manner that prefigures some contemporary objections to scientistic reductionism, but also offers alternatives to some of these objections on the basis of his con- sideration of the unconscious.

The basic problem in this context remains, though, that an uncon- scious which could be directly encountered would obviously not deserve the name. Smith London: Routledge, , suggests the tension which underlies the debate. The question is what this allows us to infer about the unconscious.

But what sort of an entity is this, given that it is nei- ther present to our awareness, nor an object in any determinable sense? Language as a whole cannot be understood in terms of words corresponding to things, and the notion of correspondence has so far proved impossible to explicate in a generally convincing manner.

Similarly, when we realize that our motivation was not what we thought it was, we gain access to something which was unconscious, but not wholly opaque — if it were, how would it cease to be opaque and how could it have motivated us with respect to our conscious relations to the world? Something similar may apply to undeveloped thoughts which later emerge in clearly articulated 4 It may seem somewhat strange, given the mention of Freud, that I do not explicitly deal with the libidinal aspect associated with the unconscious in what follows.

The brief reason for this is that the libidinal is only one form of the interface between nature and consciousness that is the basis of what I have to say concerning the unconscious. Once one accepts the notion of the divided self, the divisions can result from repression and sublimation of sexual impulses, but they can also result from repression and sublimation of other kinds of impulse.

What does it mean to say that these things previously belonged to whatever the unconscious is? Africa may have been something inaccessible to fantasize about for Jean Paul, but we can get on a plane. In certain respects this may well be the case. However, even though the sciences increasingly dispel myster- ies about some areas of mental functioning, if what is at issue cannot be reduced to causal terms, there may still be significant issues concerning the unconscious. The sense of a limit to what causal explanation can achieve in this respect leads to a decisive point.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Friedrich, , vol. Language is itself not consciously produced, though once it is there it can be consciously manipulated, and seems to be located between nature and society: there is no society without it, so that in some sense it must precede society, even though it cannot develop without social intercourse.

As Herder had already observed, given how much we unreflectively assimi- late from the cultures into which we are socialized, what we think and feel must be based on something which does not all come to the level of reflective evaluation while it is being acquired. This symbolic and other expressive material can subsequently become rigidified and abstract, los- ing its power when subjected to reflection, and so creating the need for something which can replace it. The question is then how far conscious reflection can actually exhaust what is generated by such processes, and responses to this question have important consequences for modern philosophy.

Wozu Erziehung? Über die Theorie der Erziehung bei Kant und Rousseau

Schelling, Philosophie der Offenbarung —2 , ed. Manfred Frank Frankfurt: Suhrkamp , Schelling, 2 parts, 14 vols. Stuttgart: Cotta, —61 , part 2, vol. I, 52 hereafter cited as SW, followed by part, volume and page numbers. They may, though, be dealt with via other symbolic and expressive resources, and this will be one of the reasons why the unconscious is often related to art, as the locus of what is not conveyed conceptually.

It also cannot be wholly internal to the individual subject, as its content includes the effects of symbolic and other aspects of the world which the subject inhabits. Despite such changes, it is clear, however, that what is in question must, given the constitutive role of repression in every culture, be in some sense ubiquitous. The separation of mind and world, which gives rise to modern philosophical epistemology, is arguably itself best regarded in historical terms.

This separation, the overcoming of which is the aim of a great deal of modern philosophy, also leads to philosophical concern with the unconscious. The familiar problem here is that if subject think- ing and object extension are separate it is not clear how they connect at all. Skeptical answers to this question can lead, as Descartes argued, in 10 See A. It is a small step from this idea to the idea of the unconscious as what threatens the transparency of our relationship to reality, but there are many differ- ent ways in which this problem can be construed, as the divisions within German idealism will suggest.

Bowie Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Heidegger, Wegmarken Frankfurt: Klostermann , By assuming only dif- ferences of degree within nature as a whole, this position seeks to avoid trying to cross a gap between two separate realms. This conception is, how- ever, not enough to set in train the specific modern forms of interest in the unconscious, even though aspects of it are relevant to those forms and do influence Schelling.

The crucial other dimension has to do with the question of freedom, which, following Rousseau and Kant, comes to be seen in terms of the human capacity for self-determination which is independent of natural causality. However, the manner in which Kant explicates the relationship between thinking and freedom soon indicates how things are not so straightforward.

This interest results from suspi- cion of models of cognition that rely on the idea that there is a source of direct evidence which furnishes epistemological reliability. Indeed it is not images of the objects which underlie our purely sensuous concepts, but schemata. The idea of the schema plays an influential role in post-Kantian think- ing: Heidegger makes it central to the whole conception of Being and Time, for example.

The crucial aspect of this sense of intuition is that the connection is not conceptual. It therefore does not come into the domain of knowledge, and so avoids the problems entailed by reflec- tion on knowledge that we have just encountered. Whereas material nature can be seen as governed by necessary laws, our ability to apprehend such laws, and our 20 [eine verborgene Kunst in den Tiefen der menschlichen Seele]. Kant, Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Were the operations of the understanding not spontaneous, they would be caused like everything else in nature.

Explaining how we could know that this is the case would then be impossible. As we saw, the result would be the kind of regress that made the intelligibility which allows the understanding of a cause as a cause, rather than it just being reacted to in the way animals do when they respond to their environ- ment, incomprehensible. The core issue is how to conceive of nature if it is governed by determinism and yet produces self-determining beings who can both take their own stance on knowledge of the nature which has produced them and respond to their existence in expressive ways which cannot be reduced to a cognitive account of those ways.

In these terms what produces consciousness must itself initially be unconscious. How, then, is one to explain the move from nature under- stood as a deterministic system to it being the source of consciousness and freedom? This might appear as a move from total opacity to total transparency, but things are not that simple. It should be clear from the problems in conceiving of this move why the issues here are still alive. The reductionist strand of contemporary naturalist philosophy, which thinks that issues to do with consciousness will turn out to be questions of neuroscience, argues that there is no such move, and that what is at issue will be explicable in terms of the causal functioning of the brain.

The problem of this approach lies in explaining how it is that we are aware of this issue at all: the objective states of affairs which reductive naturalist philosophers invoke can only be seen as objective in relation to the judgments of a subject which can take a stance on what belongs to objectivity. This stance cannot itself claim to be objective in the same sense, because the very idea of object- ivity depends on it. One side of German idealism can be characterized 23 The person who realized the danger of a conception based solely on things condition- ing other things most clearly was F.

Answers range from something close to a theological conception to an emphatic version of the Kantian idea that without the spontaneous activity of thought there is no intelligible world. For our purposes the interpretative issues are, however, not such a prob- lem, as it matters more how Fichte was in fact construed and how this affected the development of the notion of the unconscious. If the world is really the free product of the I, why is it in so many respects not as we would wish it to be?

Schelling, SW, 1, X: At the same time the necessities are seen as being inherent in the I itself, as otherwise the connection of mind to the world is threatened. But nothing stopped a return with this I which is now conscious of itself in me to a moment when it was not yet conscious of itself — the assumption of a region beyond now present consciousness and an activity which no longer comes itself, but comes only via its result into consciousness. But what exactly is Schelling referring to?

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