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Please keep in mind that this is necessarily a sketch. This means that the available records are spotty. Many details are gathered in the field. First things first: Ammunition booby-trapping is not solely an American or Syrian affair. The practice of spiking rifle cartridges and leaving them about spans the 20th century, and has involved many militaries. One source credibly describes if in passing British efforts to salt the rifle ammunition supplies of the Irish Republican Army in the Black and Tan War, circa Nicholas Marsh, a research fellow at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, compiled a list of books referring to the practice, including in Malaya, the Philippines, Burma, North Africa, Kenya and elsewhere.
He added a caveat: His search for references had been in English, which could lead to a bias in the list toward American or British actions. Another reader wrote to say that the Soviet Union long engaged in similar projects, dating from at least the s, in its campaign to suppress an Islamic uprising in Central Asia. Careful reviews of the literature might find doctored-ordnance seedings in any number of other times or places, including against terrorists, guerrilla organizations or drug rings in South or Central America, or the Tamil Tigers or Maoist rebels in South Asia, to name a few conflicts where much of the public discourse and history is not in English.
Certainly empires and superpowers were not sole practitioners of this form of lethal deception. Gravett is an artist as well as a bomb disposal tech.
Full text of "TM (Improvised Munitions Handbook)"
His poster, linked at the top of this post, provides a view of some of the methods behind doctoring cartridges. When the United States first started such programs is not immediately clear. American Rifleman, a publication of the National Rifle Association, published an article in describing Project Eldest Son, a doctored-ammunition program run by the Pentagon and Central Intelligence Agency in Vietnam.
The article credited Col. John Singlaub with prodding to life that particular chapter in the spiked-ammunition story. An excerpt is below:. After that success began a month of tedious bullet pulling to manually disassemble thousands of 7. In this process, some bullets suffered tiny scrapes, but when reloaded these marks seated out of sight below the case mouth.
Rounds were inspected to ensure they showed no signs of tampering. Several memoirs by American veterans of the war in Vietnam shared similar details. John Steinbeck, who covered the war for Newsweek in and , came across the practice as well. Steinbeck appeared to approve. That is not much different from the situation today, although the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have produced a large enough pool of veterans that more candor about these programs is available now than what Mr.
Steinbeck could turn up during his travels in Vietnam. Veterans and officers interviewed recently also said that the programs were of large enough scale, and of such duration, that the insurgents have long been aware of them. One element of these programs is worth an update on the writings from Vietnam, which tended to emphasize booby-trapped rifle or machinegun rounds. Into the drill chuck, he inserted an adjustable cup that would hold the PVC pipe and adapter base already glued together using PVC cement. As the drill rotated the PVC warhead, Mark squeezed in glue until it was covering the inner wall completely with a thin layer.
Then he would insert steel ball bearings, small nails, or some of the flechettes he had left over from the anti-ATF shotgun shell project. The centrifugal force of the rotating casing distributed the projectiles along the casing wall. Then in went more glue and more projectiles, always leaving room for the fuse mechanism and explosive charge. He had done this years before when working on improvised hand grenades, testing them inside a railroad culvert lined with plywood-backed poster board so he had been able to analyze the blast patterns.
Steel ball bearings seemed to throw the most consistent pattern, regardless of whether he used black powder, aluminum flash powder or improvised C4 as a burster. Over the past ten days, Mark had completed all of the design work and prefabrication of components necessary to make 2 grenades of each type he wished to test. There were antitank grenades of differing sizes and liners, 3 on the M31 platform each with a different composition liner and 9 different Israelis, antipersonnel and antitank.
What the militia ordnance man was doing now was the assembling of the final product, including loading in the C4 and arming the East Texas detonators. He worked slowly and carefully, stopping often to get up and stretch. He was sweating despite the coolness of the basement and every so often would mop his face with an old dish towel. Eight and a half hours after he began, the last of the improvised rifle grenades was nestled in its cardboard shipping tube, six tubes to a backpack. The backpacks were made of Realtree camouflage pattern of the type some hunters use, and Kraut had picked them for a steal when the local Service Merchandise had gone out of business years ago.
Mueller was always bringing odd items home, stuff that had no apparent earthly purpose as far as his wife could see and no virtue other than it was dirt cheap. Millie had long ago ceased asking, figuring that there were other husbands with stranger hobbies and worse vices. Ignorance may not be bliss, but it sure can be functional occasionally in a marriage. Especially when your husband was up to what Kraut was up to.
Mueller smiled, and wiped the sweat from his face and hands once more. There were other projects he was working on, of course. The improvised rifle grenade project he had dubbed "Project R". It was the first to come to fruition because it was the easiest to accomplish.
His friend Bob was working on a related project, dubbed "P," in a remote farm machine shop in Shelby County. Because it also involved shaped charges, most of what Kraut learned with P would be applied to R. Bob was working on the launcher even now and he did not need the warhead to accomplish that. When both R and P were finished, they would devote all their energies to the most ambitious of their plans, "Project M. Bob Smith smiled craftily, his dark eyes glittering, showing some of his Korean ancestry, and he flipped back the lid of the long, surplus Israeli rocket crate that rested on the folding table in the farm shop.
I still can't believe you can buy this stuff at flea markets over there," he said shaking his head. As you know we chose the Panzerfaust because it doesn't require the complex chemistry and safety issues involved in making rocket fuel like the bazooka, just black powder as a propellant. Because of that, of course, the tube must be much stronger. The was a step above the older, smaller Panzerfausts , with a new firing tube with a two-stage propellant charge that weighed grams or 6. This gave it a projectile speed of about 60 meters per second, that's about feet per second and a range of meters, hence the designation.
The was pretty much the last Panzerfaust that made it into the hands of troops in any numbers, showing up first about the time of the Battle of the Bulge. The tube length on this specimen is cm, which strangely splits the difference between the two lengths I've found in the books. It's got a tube diameter of 60 mm just like our early bazooka. That's 2. With the original projectile this weapon weighed about 7 kilos, or between 15 to 16 pounds. You can see the sights are creviced for ranges of 30, 60, 80 and meters and those flakes are what's left of the glow-paint night sights.
That last meter notch is real optimistic even with 7 ounces of blackpowder throwing it. Here you can see the arming and firing system with the lever that also serves as the rear sight.
This was an improvement over the earlier Panzerfausts. Smith continued. But all in all they are perfect to sell to World War II Wehrmacht and Waffen SS re-enactors along with an originally-shaped blunt hardwood projectile painted to look like metal. The projectile's inert and they're black powder, so they're not covered under any of the Feds crappy laws, yet. Until the ATF decides to shut down that hobby, we can sell them all day long and plow the profits back into making these.
Basically, its a combination of features from the Panzerfaust and which never got fielded with the same tube as the , but reinforced with bands of steel strapping here, here, here, and here. These reinforcements ought to make the thing reusable for at least ten shots. Like the original , we can increase the length of the projectile and the amount of black powder increments to give you more efficient flight, speed and accuracy than the original along with a much heavier charge which will punch more armor. You will also note that we have replaced the cumbersome and hard to duplicate arming and firing system with the RPG style firing handle that the Germans finally got around to putting on the Panzerfaust Why not use a bigger tube?
Seems like the reinforcements add to production time and cost. We also wanted to maintain a heavy projectile throw weight. Bob told him. That's good! Bob Smith reached behind the box and pulled out a shorter but fatter object. You can see the cavity in the base for the secondary 'booster' charge of black powder, and the fabrication process facilitates loading the warhead.
I mean the black powder solved the rocket fuel questions, but, darn, you really did it well. M Central Standard Time. Or where he makes them? Not pleased at all. My toddler could outrun him. What's wrong with you people? Two of them looked at the floor and one looked out the window. The fourth stared at a point at least six feet above the SAC's head. The ASAC cleared his throat. He knows fieldcraft.
I called up Barney Williams, you remember sir, the special agent who retired just after you came here. Barney said the guy drove like a bank getaway man and had a great many friends to help him with diversions when he needed them. He's got the electronics to scan for the latest bugs and he's very, very careful about his communications. He seems to communicate through both dead and live drops all over the place, but we can't catch him at it. If it weren't for the Confidential Informant, we wouldn't have known about the testing at all.
The SAC said nothing, staring very intently at a pencil on his desk.
The ASAC ventured another factoid. He would pretend to discuss illegal stuff on the phone just to sucker us into wasting our time chasing Tinkerbelles through NeverNever Land. Barney said he suckered the ATF into firing the company that cleaned the building because he convinced them in a wiretap that janitors were going to put brown recluse spiders in the raid gear in their lockers to bite their dicks and make them fall off. The SAC looked up. Where did he learn that, do we know? Maybe he learned it then.
What kind of sense does that make? He converted to Christianity and turned hard right and has been there ever since. It's in his file, he's not shy of talking about it. It was a thick one, he noted, a very thick one. He flipped it open and an old polaroid clipped to the inside front flew off and landed at the edge of his desk top. Reaching out, he retreived it and saw a portly middle aged man standing, no, posing, by the tailgate of his pick-up truck.
A huge sign covered it, and the man was smiling broadly. The Secret Service actually stopped him on the street and asked to take a picture of him and his pick-up truck. They took several polaroids and we asked for one, according to the notes. As I said, he has a sense of humor. I think the Secret Service guys did too. They didn't much care for guarding that President and his wife. A man who has a gift for blarney and who may or may not have destructive devices capable of blowing up vehicles and small buildings? What are his motives?
Is he being paid? Is he being paid enough? Enough not to double-agent on us? The control agent was meeting with the CI right now. The ATF's on me to let them have him as part of some big deal case they're working, as if screwing up the Gordon thing wasn't enough they think they got to take on this guy and his considerable number of friends. But the Hoover Building says no. Not just no, but hell no. There's something about this particular guy that they want us to handle.
OK, so handle it, Mr. The SAC shifted his gaze to the window and the world outside. What was so special about this guy that the Director was personally interested in keeping him out of the hands of the ATF?
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He didn't know, but he intended to find out. The estimated It is also noteworthy that two separate branches of the range is around 2 km5. The base of the rocket motor Syrian armed forces — the Syrian Arab Army and the contains six venturis canted at an angle, which Syrian Arab Air Force — have both delivered chlorine provides spin stabilisation in flight.
This is augmented attacks, further supporting the well-established by an improvised fin assembly with six cropped- pattern of chemical weapons usage by the Syrian delta fins reinforced by a ring aerofoil. The assembly government. These often technical function of these two designs of improvised dislodge during impact allowing the entire assembly munitions delivering TIC payloads.
This assessment to slide forward, scraping a distinctive pattern into draws on existing ARES reports; open and closed remnant bodies. They are typically inaccurate and imprecise munitions with a short range relative to the size of their rocket motor.
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Some examples feature launchers where the rocket motor is loaded into a launch tube or rail assembly with the payload section protruding. Accuracy and precision are also likely to be affected negatively. This is fitted with a valve of the same type used but has not been confirmed. In all documented cases, to fill industrial pressure vessels see Figure 4. At the chemical agent appears to have been dispersed first glance, this feature may be confused for a point- passively after the munition is ruptured on impact. This valve is frequently sheared encountered with point-detonating impact fuzes.
The off during impact, and may not be readily located reason for this highlights their particular genealogy that among the munition remnants. These munitions proved so unstable another. On their HE counterparts, these function in flight that they were fitted with two time fuzes at as wells for base-detonating fuzes. However, the the base of the payload section, rather than a nose- 6 These dimensions would result in a liquid i. If filled with liquified chlorine, it would deliver a maximum volume of 7. Assuming a lethal concentration of ppm, this gives a maximum theoretical lethal volume of 9, m3, equivalent to the area of roughly 18 tennis courts at ground level.
In practice, however, the lethal area would be smaller, largely determined by the time taken for the munitions to release their payload ARES, Source: Cavagna Group, Italy. Both time and impact fuzes have were taken from standard-production mm HE been fitted to IRAMs using this fuze well design.
Unlike artillery rockets manufactured in Iran. These can be high explosive payloads, chemical payloads are often distinguished from similar rockets made elsewhere by likely to be dispersed even when the munition does not their tan color and distinctive markings. The markings function as intended. For example, markings on munitions from In addition to eyewitness testimony; medical the 22 January and 1 February attacks of indicate analysis of affected victims; field chemical analysis; that the Iranian rocket motors were all produced in the presence of distinctive physical features such as , and are all from the same production lot reinforced pressure vessels and valve assemblies; see Figure 6.
Chlorine is consistent with available documentation of contained in a munition such as this is held under government multiple-barrel rocket launchers pressure; when the container is punctured — either MBRLs associated with this calibre of IRAM. These by explosive means or impact alone — the liquefied weapons are generally employed in conjunction chlorine vaporises. During this process, rapid with conventional air and artillery bombardment. As cooling of the container occurs, causing adjacent a result of its poor aerodynamic profile and crude humid air to form a frost on the container.
This assembly, this rocket design is particularly inaccurate process, known as auto-refrigeration, indicates that and imprecise. Note the frost present on the payload section as a result of auto-refrigeration, and the yellowish discolouration of that frost around a likely breach in the pressure vessel. Figure 7 shows this phenomenon, as well as a yellow design have since been confirmed in Hama, Idlib, residue around a breach in the pressure vessel.
Whilst not conclusive, this is consistent with a payload of chlorine. In practice, it usually refers to bombs that are manually released from a cargo bay.