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Note: Spanish speakers need to practice pronunciation of Portuguese numbers to be understood, even though they are quite similar in written form. Give particular attention to dropped middle syllables in numbers 7,9,10, and those ending in e for Luso and te for Brazil. Also, don't confuse cento for "cents" or "centavos," as it refers to "hundreds. English equivalent of "it is Unlike Spanish, the definite article Span.
Time is written with "h" as in French: 8h30; or with a colon or period. The hour clock is often used. Most adjectives change the final o to a in the feminine and add s pronounced sh to form the plural. If the adjective ends in "a" , there is no separate masculine form. Just click any blue "Edit" link and start writing!
Grammar [ edit ] Written vs.
GUIA PARA A DISSECACAO DO CAO Evans - 7th Edition
Gender, plurals, and adjectives [ edit ] To avoid duplication, see Wikibooks. Pronouns for "You" [ edit ] These can be a little confusing, especially for those transitioning from other Romance languages to Brazilian Portuguese. Dropping the plural in Brazil [ edit ] Informal speech in Brazil may avoid the plural altogether by using a gente the people for we and todo mundo entire world for they. Rarely used anywhere in Brazil. Normally translated as just "his girlfriend. Pronunciation guide [ edit ] Portuguese has both nasal vowels and reduced vowels.
These are written in one of six ways: 1. Any vowel followed by m at the end of a word 3. Any vowel followed by n plus a consonant except nh 4. Any vowel followed by m plus b or p 5. The diphthong ui , if in the middle of a word Often, but not always, nasal vowels occur at the end of a word. Examples: 1. This article or section does not match our manual of style or needs other editing. Please plunge forward , give it your attention and help it improve!
Suggested fixes : This phrasebook should concentrate solely on Portuguese as spoken in Brazil. All information on Portuguese as spoken in Europe, Africa and Asia should be removed or moved to Portuguese phrasebook. In Portuguese, there is only o , masculine, and a , feminine. The Spanish neuters lo and ello have no plural forms.
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Some words are masculine in Spanish, but feminine in Portuguese, or vice versa. A common example are nouns ended in -aje in Spanish, which are masculine, and their Portuguese cognates ending in -agem , which are feminine. For example, Spanish el viaje 'the journey' masculine, like French le voyage and Italian il viaggio corresponds to the Portuguese feminine a viagem.
On the other hand, the Spanish feminine la leche 'the milk' corresponds to Portuguese o leite masculine, like French le lait , Italian il latte. Likewise, nariz 'nose' is feminine in Spanish and masculine in Portuguese. Some Spanish words can be both masculine and feminine, with different meanings.
The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon: An Instrument for Psycholinguistic Research
Both meanings usually exist also in Portuguese, but with one and the same gender, so that they can't be differentiated unless further information is provided. For instance, the word orden 'order' can mean both 'harmonious arrangement' and 'directive', like its counterparts in English and Portuguese. But the Spanish word is masculine when used with the first meaning, and feminine with the second:. Without additional context, it is impossible to tell which meaning was intended in Portuguese and English though other words could be substituted; in English, one would likely use orderliness in the first case above rather than order , which would, by itself, suggest the second case.
In many varieties of Portuguese, personal names are normally preceded by a definite article , a trait also found in Catalan.
In Portuguese, this is a relatively recent development, which some Brazilian dialects have not adopted yet, most notably in some states of the Brazilian Northeast. In those dialects of Portuguese that do regularly use definite articles before proper nouns, the article may be omitted for extra formality, or to show distance in a literary narrative. The major exception to the country rule is o Brasil. In addition, in most dialects of Portuguese the definite article is used before possessive adjectives as it is used in Italian , which is not possible in Spanish.
In Portuguese, possessive adjectives have the same form as possessive pronouns , and they all agree with the gender of the possessed item. The possessive adjectives are normally preceded by a definite article in Continental Portuguese, less so in Brazilian Portuguese, and never in Spanish. The possessive pronouns are preceded by a definite article in all dialects of both languages. See examples in the table below.
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In Portuguese, third-person clitic pronouns have special variants used after certain types of verb endings, which does not happen in Spanish. In Brazilian Portuguese, these forms are uncommon, since the pronoun normally precedes the verb i. However, as it has been considered ungrammatical to begin a sentence with an object pronoun, the above examples are, on rare occasion, used in Brazil as well.
European Portuguese differs from Brazilian Portuguese with regard to the placement of clitic personal pronouns, and Spanish is in turn different from both of them. In Portuguese, verbs in the future indicative or conditional tense may be split into morphemes , and the clitic pronoun can be inserted between them, a feature known as mesoclisis. This also occurred in Old Spanish , but no comparable phenomenon takes place in modern Spanish:. However, these tenses are often replaced with others in the spoken language.
Future indicative is sometimes replaced by present indicative; conditional is very often replaced by imperfect indicative. In Brazilian Portuguese, "vai trazer ele" would be the vernacular use. This is unique to Spanish. Thus, modern Spanish makes no distinction between the reflexive pronoun se and the dative personal pronoun se.
The medieval g sound similar to that of French was replaced with s in the 14thth centuries cf. Spanish co g er , 'to catch', but co s echa , 'harvest', Port. In Spanish, stressed pronouns are never used for inanimate subjects i. The use of second-person pronouns differs dramatically between Spanish and Portuguese, and even more so between European and Brazilian Portuguese. This has in turn caused the original third-person possessive seu, sua to shift to primarily second-person use, alongside the appearance of a new third-person possessive dele, dela plural deles, delas , "their" that follows the noun thus paraphrases such as o carro dele "his car", o carro dela "her car".
The formal o senhor is also increasingly restricted to highly formal situations, such as that of a storekeeper addressing a customer, or a child or teenager addressing an adult stranger. See Brazilian Portuguese. Spanish and Portuguese have two main copulas , ser and estar. For the most part, the use of these verbs is the same in both languages, but there are a few cases where it differs. The main difference between Spanish and Portuguese is in the interpretation of the concept of state versus essence and in the generalizations one way or another that are made in certain constructions.
For instance,. Also, the use of ser regarding a permanent location is much more accepted in Portuguese. Conversely, estar is often permanent in Spanish regarding a location, while in Portuguese, it implies being temporary or something within the immediate vicinity same house, building, etc. Because the airport is obviously not anywhere nearby, ficar is used in Portuguese most common , though ser can also be used. Secondary copulas are quedar se in Spanish and ficar in Portuguese.
Each can also mean 'to stay' or 'to remain. The Spanish sentence using the reflexive form of the verb quedarse implies that staying inside the house was voluntary, while Portuguese and English are quite ambiguous on this matter without any additional context. See also the next section.
Reflexive verbs are somewhat more frequent in Spanish than in Portuguese, especially with actions relating to parts of the body:. The Portuguese and Spanish verbs for expressing "liking" are similar in form gostar and gustar respectively but different in their arrangement of arguments. Arguments in linguistics are expressions that enable a verb to complete its meaning. Expressions of liking typically require two arguments: 1 a person who likes something sometimes called the "experiencer" , and 2 something that the person likes sometimes called the "theme".
Portuguese and Spanish as well as English assign different grammatical cases to these arguments, as shown in the following table:. The Portuguese sentence can be translated literally as "[I] [take satisfaction] [from] [the music]", while the Spanish corresponds to "[To me] [ it is pleasing] [the music]. While ter is occasionally used as an auxiliary by other Iberian languages, it is much more pervasive in Portuguese - to the extent that most Portuguese verb tables only list ter with regard to the perfect. Spanish has two forms for the imperfect subjunctive , one with endings in -se- and another with endings in - ra - e.
In Portuguese, only cantasse has this value; cantara is employed as a pluperfect indicative, i. Although there is a strong tendency to use a verb phrase instead in the spoken language, like in Spanish and English tinha cantado , the simple tense is still frequent in literature. In European Spanish, as in English, the present perfect is normally used to talk about an action initiated and completed in the past, which is still considered relevant or influential in the present moment. In Portuguese and Latin American Spanish, the same meaning is conveyed by the simple preterite , as in the examples below:.
See the contrast with Spanish in the following example:. As this example suggests, the Portuguese present perfect is often closer in meaning to the English present perfect continuous. See also Spanish verbs: Contrasting the preterite and the perfect. Portuguese, uniquely among the major Romance languages, has acquired a "personal infinitive" , which can be used as an alternative to a subordinate clause with a finite verb in the subjunctive. The Portuguese perfect form of the personal infinitive corresponds to one of several possible Spanish finite verbs.
On some occasions, the personal infinitive can hardly be replaced by a finite clause and corresponds to a different structure in Spanish and English :. The personal infinitive is not used in counterfactual situations, as these require either the future subjunctive or the imperfect subjunctive. Also, it is conjugated the same as the future subjunctive see next section , provided the latter is not irregular ser , estar , ter , etc. In the first and third person singular, the personal infinitive appears no different from the unconjugated infinitive. The above rules also apply whenever the subjects of the two clauses are the same, but independent of each other.
As shown, the personal infinitive can be used at times to replace both the impersonal infinitive and the subjunctive. Spanish has no such alternative. The future subjunctive, now virtually obsolete in Spanish,  continues in use in both written and spoken Portuguese. It is used in subordinate clauses referring to a hypothetical future event or state — either adverbial clauses usually introduced by se 'if ' or quando 'when' or adjective clauses that modify nouns referring to a hypothetical future entity.
Spanish, in the analogous if-clauses, uses the present indicative [ citation needed ] , and in the cuando- and adjective clauses uses the present subjunctive. Spanish maintains such a difference only in fui 'I was' vs fue 'he was'. In all other cases, one of the two vowels has been regularized throughout the conjugation and a new third-person ending -o adopted: hice 'I did' vs hizo 'he did', pude 'I could' vs pudo 'he could', etc. Portuguese has only three: farei 'I will do', direi 'I will say', trarei 'I will carry'. Spanish has restored - e by analogy with other verbs: hace 'he does', dice 'he says', quiere 'he wants', etc.
The same type of analogy accounts for fiz vs hice 'I did' in the past tense. In nouns such as paz 'peace', luz 'light', amor 'love', etc. This kind of contraction is much more extensive in Portuguese, involving the prepositions a 'to' , de 'of, from' , em 'in' , and por 'for' with articles and demonstratives regardless of number or gender. Both are generally [a] in most of Brazil, although in some accents such as carioca and florianopolitano there may be distinction. Additionally, the prepositions de and em combine with the demonstrative adjectives and pronouns as shown below:.
The neuter demonstrative pronouns isto 'this' isso , aquilo 'that' likewise combine with de and em — thus, disto , nisto , etc. The Portuguese contractions mentioned thus far are obligatory. Contractions can also be optionally formed from em and de with the indefinite article um , uma , uns , umas , resulting in num , numa , dum , duma , etc.
Spanish employs a preposition, the so-called "personal a ", before the direct object of a transitive verb except tener when it denotes a specific person s , or domestic pet ; thus Veo a Juan 'I see John'; Hemos invitado a los estudiantes 'We've invited the students. Quite common in both languages are the prepositions a which often translates as "to" and para which often translates as "for". However, European Portuguese and Spanish distinguish between going somewhere for a short while versus a longer stay, especially if it is an intended destination, in the latter case using para instead of a.
While there is no specified duration of stay before a European Portuguese speaker must switch prepositions, a implies one will return sooner, rather than later, relative to the context. This distinction is not made in English and Brazilian Portuguese [ citation needed ]. The hindquarters were left shaved to allow easier movement of the back legs and the powerful, rudder-like tail. The retriever cut is one inch 2. This cut is a more recent style and originated because breeders wanted to make the breed more appealing to buyers. Sometimes owners will clip the hair of their dogs very short, especially in the summer months, in modified retriever cut.
Portuguese Water Dogs have a multi-octave voice. They tend to be quiet dogs although they will warn when the home is approached, and they will communicate their desires vocally and behaviorally to their owner. Their bark is loud and distinctive. They may engage in "expressive panting", by making a distinct "ha-ha-ha-ha" sound as an invitation to play or to indicate a desire for nearby food. They sometimes whine. The PWD's biddability, high intelligence, and tendency to vocalise and then seek out its human master when specific alarms occur make it an ideal hearing-ear or deaf-assistance dog.
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PWDs can be readily trained to bark loudly when a telephone rings, and then to find and alert a hard-of-hearing or deaf master. Portuguese Water dogs are loving, independent, and intelligent and are easily trained in obedience and agility skills. They are generally friendly to strangers, and enjoy being petted, which, due to their soft, fluffy coats, is a favour that human beings willingly grant them.
Because they are working dogs , PWDs are generally content in being at their master's side, awaiting directions, and, if they are trained, they are willing and able to follow complex commands. They learn very quickly, seem to enjoy the training, and have a long memory for the names of objects. These traits and their non-shedding coats mean they excel at the various service dog roles such as hearing dogs assistance dogs for the deaf , mobility dogs, and seizure response dogs.
They also make unusually good therapy dogs. A PWD usually stays in proximity to its owners, both indoors and outdoors. Although very gregarious animals, these dogs will typically bond with one primary or alpha family member. Some speculate that this intense bonding arose in the breed because the dogs were selected to work in proximity to their masters on small fishing boats, unlike other working dogs such as herding dogs and water dogs that range out to perform tasks.
In any case, the modern PWD, whether employed on a boat or kept as a pet or a working dog, loves water and attention and prefers to be engaged in activity within sight of a human partner. This is not a breed to be left alone for long periods of time, indoors or out. As water dogs, the PWD's retrieving instinct is strong, which also gives some dogs tugging and chewing tendencies.
A PWD will commonly jump as a greeting. Owners may choose to limit this behavior. Some PWDs may walk, hop, or "dance" on their hind legs when greeting or when excited. Some PWDs will stand upright at kitchen counters and tables, especially if they smell food above them. This habit is known as "counter surfing" and is characteristic of the breed. Because of their intelligence and working drive, they require regular intensive exercise as well as mental challenges.
They are gentle and patient — but not " couch potatoes ", and boredom can cause them to become destructive. In in a monk's account of a drowning sailor who was pulled from the sea by a dog with a "black coat, the hair long and rough, cut to the first rib and with a tail tuft". These theories explain how the Poodle and the Portuguese Water Dog may have developed from the same ancient genetic pool. At one time the Poodle was a longer-coated dog, as is one variety of the Portuguese Water Dog.
The PWD was a breed on the verge of extinction when, during the s, Vasco Bensaude, a wealthy Portuguese shipping magnate, began to seek out fishermen's dogs for use in a breeding program to re-establish the breed. Bensaude was aided by two Portuguese veterinarians, Dr. Francisco Pinto Soares and Dr. Manuel Fernandes Marques. Charlie de Avalade Charlie , a brown-coated dog, and C.
He registered his first PWD in , after Bensaude had pioneered the re-establishment of the breed in Portugal. As with all purebred dogs , PWDs are vulnerable to certain genetic defects.