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- In the belly of the beast
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- Animals on Factory Farms | Chickens | Pigs | Cattle | ASPCA
The answer is the Norman Conquest of Britain in That is when many French words became part of the English language. When animals were in the stable or on the farm, they kept their Old English names: pig, cow, sheep and calf. But when they were cooked and brought to the table, an English version of the French word was used: pork porc , beef beouf , mutton mouton and veal veau. On several websites, word experts claim that this change shows a class difference between the Anglo-Saxons and the French in Britain at the time of the conquest.
Because the lower-class Anglo-Saxons were the hunters, they used the Old English names for animals. But the upper-class French saw these animals only at mealtimes. So, they used the French word to describe the prepared dishes. Today, modern English speakers — regardless of social class — have come to use both.
Etymology Online says "venison" comes from an Old French word from the s venesoun meaning "'meat of large game,' especially deer or boar. Following the Norman Conquest of , any hunted animal was called venison after it was killed. However, sometimes we use the word " poultry " when talking about buying a chicken, turkey, or other similar bird to eat. But we don't use "poultry" when we order chicken or turkey at a restaurant, or serve it at a meal. Lesser common birds, such as quail and pheasant , simply go by their own names. The French word for "fish" is "poisson.
After all, even the food-rich culture of France cannot overcome the fact that eating poison might kill you or at least make you sick. In your language, do the words for animals change when you eat them? This cycle continues for several years, until the sows are no longer as productive and are sent to slaughter.
Cattle are raised and processed across several distinct industries with differing practices and welfare concerns. The ASPCA is working actively with companies that raise cattle or buy their products beef, dairy or veal to encourage the adoption of higher-welfare practices. Cattle raised for beef are the only farm animals still raised largely outdoors. Sometime between the ages of six months and one year, most beef cattle are sent to live their last few months in feedlots with hundreds or thousands of others. Without vegetated pasture and often without shelter, the cattle may suffer from digestive distress from being fed corn and other foods not natural to ruminants , as well as from heat stress, muddy conditions and respiratory issues from dust.
Routine practices that cause pain and distress for cattle include branding and castration. Beef cattle may also often endure several long transport events, which are stressful for animals and are inadequately regulated. Most cows used for dairy production are kept indoors, with some having access to outdoor concrete or dirt paddocks.
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Dairy cows often have up to two-thirds of their tails and their horns removed without painkillers. Just as with humans, cows only produce milk as a side effect of giving birth. To keep the milk flowing, dairy farms artificially inseminate cows once a year. This can be hugely traumatic to mother cows and to their calves. Male offspring are often raised for veal, while females become the next generation of dairy cows.
While large-scale dairy operations are typically separate from beef cattle operations, these industries are connected. Dairy cows usually end up at beef slaughterhouses when, at two to five years of age, their milk production has slowed or they are too crippled or ill to continue in the industry. At that point, they are slaughtered for beef. Veal is the meat of young cattle who are usually born to dairy cows. As males, veal calves are of little use to the dairy industry, and as a dairy breed, they are inefficient beef-producers.
Increasingly, calves are housed in groups beginning at about six weeks old, but they still lack sufficient space, enrichment, outdoor exercise, solid food and the fulfillment of a basic instinct to suckle. Approximately million turkeys [PDF] are raised for meat in the U. Like chickens, turkeys suffer from growth-related lameness and are housed in groups on the floors of long sheds where they are denied fresh air, sunshine and pasture. Turkeys also develop abnormal behaviors in these environments, which can result in cannibalism.
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The ASPCA is working actively with companies that raise turkeys or buy turkey to encourage the adoption of higher-welfare practices. Modern, industrially raised turkeys look very little like their wild ancestors. For one, they are disproportionately breast-heavy a result of genetic selection , reflecting a consumer preference for breast meat. Their unnaturally fast and disproportionate growth causes painful physical ailments and difficulty walking or even breathing.
In the belly of the beast
Turkeys have become so unnaturally disproportionate that they can no longer mate with one another. Their bodies, which were only meant to reproduce once per year, are further damaged by year-round artificial insemination. There is a common misconception that fish and other aquatic vertebrates do not feel pain; however, studies demonstrate that they are sentient and capable of both fear and suffering [PDF]. Aquaculture—the farming of fish and other aquatic species—is one of the fastest-growing areas of food production, surpassing global beef production.
About half of all consumed fish—namely salmon, tuna, cod, trout and halibut—are raised in artificial environments, as opposed to being wild-caught, creating a number of welfare concerns. As on industrial land-based farms, farmed fish are often housed in overcrowded conditions ripe for injury, disease transfer and stress.
Industrial fisheries are reliant on antibiotics to treat the parasites and diseases promoted by these unnatural conditions. As there are no regulations around the humane treatment of fish, they most often are not stunned before slaughter, meaning that they are fully conscious.
They are killed by bleeding out, blunt force, suffocation or freezing. Expand to read more Many people do not realize that the breed of chicken used for modern egg production is different than the breed used for meat production. If you put them next to each other, they look almost nothing alike!
Both types suffer from physical problems brought on by genetic selection for these traits. Read our report [PDF] to learn more about the negative impacts of selective breeding in the chicken meat industry. Quick Facts In , it took 16 weeks to raise a chicken to 2. Today, chickens weigh double that in just six weeks!
Chickens experience REM sleep, which is associated with dreaming. Unfortunately, on factory farms, lights are kept on almost all day and night to encourage more eating and growth , which means chickens are chronically sleep-deprived [PDF]. Chagnon says that they split up and move so often because they fight over women and are always at war.
I suggest that it is more nearly correct to say that they fight over women and are always at war because they move so often. These villages compete for the same scarce resource, and that resource is not women but protein. Their own interest is in raising more boys than girls. This interest is rooted in the fact that there are already too many Yanomamo in relation to their ability to exploit their habitat. A higher ratio of men to women means more protein per capita because men are the hunters and a slower rate of population growth.
Shame his rivals and gain everlasting admiration from his followers by destroying food, clothing, and money. Sometimes he might even seek prestige by burning down his own house.
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The giver of the feast takes the bones and the stale cakes; the meat and the fat go to the others. The big men work harder, worry more, and consume less than anybody else. Prestige is their only reward.
Competitive feasting serves the practical function of preventing the labor force from falling back to levels of productivity that offer no margin of safety. To transfer food and other valuables from centers of high productivity to less fortunate villages. Everything about reciprocity is opposed to precise counting and reckoning of what one person owes to another. In fact, the whole idea is to deny that anybody really owes anything.
One can tell if a lifestyle is based on reciprocity or something eke by whether or not people say thank you. In truly egalitarian societies, it is rude to be openly grateful for the receipt of material goods or services. The Semai: to say thank you was very rude because it suggested either that you were calculating the size of the piece of meat you had been given, or that you were surprised by the success and generosity of the hunter.
Animals on Factory Farms | Chickens | Pigs | Cattle | ASPCA
Gifts make slaves just as whips make dogs. The highest prestige falls to the quietly dependable hunter who never boasts about his achievements and who avoids any hint that he is giving a gift when he divides up an animal he has killed. During the early years of capitalism, highest prestige went to those who were richest but lived most frugally.
After their fortunes had become more secure, the capitalist upper class resorted to grand-scale conspicuous consumption and conspicuous waste in order to impress their rivals. Meanwhile, the middle and lower classes continued to award highest prestige to those who worked hardest, spent least, and soberly resisted all forms of conspicuous consumption.
Advertising induces the middle and lower classes to stop saving and to buy, consume, waste. And so among middle-class status seekers, highest prestige now goes to the biggest and most conspicuous consumer. But in the meantime, the rich found themselves threatened by new forms of taxation aimed at redistributing their wealth. Conspicuous consumption in the grand manner became dangerous, so highest prestige now once again goes to those who have most but show least. With the most prestigious members of the upper class no longer flaunting their wealth, some of the pressure on the middle class to engage in conspicuous consumption has also been removed.
Waiting for a total upgrading of their lives.