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Rather his interest was in transitioning math into areas such as Radar and microwave. Of course it was only a matter of time before new interests crept in. Most history books cite the creation of the internet as being an event that happened in , when for the first time two computers in different geographical locations shared information, ARPANET was born. The history books are both right and wrong, remote access to computers had been achieved sometime sooner.
And one of the earliest adoptees was an Alan Kay concept and company AutEx, a way that financial traders could automate the buying and selling of Stock Exchange products.
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It was also the beginnings of E-mail. Alan Kay is just one of those people that you can not keep down, having spent his time in the world of E-commerce before the word had even been thought of he moved on. What next? Well why not world peace? All I can say is that this guy is a dynamo. The Cold War did not deter Alan Kay, both sides were wrong. Politicians were doing little to diffuse what could become a world terminating situation. They may have been the worlds superpowers, but in reality the US and the USSR had become ugly adversaries in a game of atomic chess.
Kay spent seven months in Tokyo as a Japanese language interpreter in occupied Japan Kay awakened to the sad state of politics and governance. Dr Kay was an investor and advisor to start-up companies pioneering energy efficiency and pollution control technologies. He was an early sports writer for the Boston Globe and Boston Herald In , he established the art and science of public-interest polling. His writings are available in their original form at www. He co-authored with Col. All rights reserved which includes the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof in any form whatsoever.
Andrew St. Reprinted from the November issue by special permission. Acknowledgments Many people helped. Dealey Plaza 80 5. The Hughes Connection 7. The Watergate Plane Crash 8. Who Killed JFK? Since publication, Carter has become president, the JFK and King assassination cases have been reopened by the Congress, there has been more heavy commotion within the Hughes empire, and accounts published by such Watergate heroes as John Dean Blind Ambition , and Fred Thompson At That Point in Time, have further strengthened the view that there is some important, still-concealed connection between Water- gate and the CIA.
These matters tie directly to the themes explored in this book. But since a general update would still be premature, I decided to restrict my textual changes to a few corrections of fact and adjustments of style, except for the insertion of one new passage, a Yankee-Cowboy analysis of the coming of President Carter, at the end of chapter 8.
But these two events represent neither isolated disasters nor a generalized failure of American institutions but something almost beyond the ability of ordinary people even to see, much less control. The two events — Dallas and Watergate — are actually concrete links in a chain of related and ominous events passing through the entire decade in which they occurred and beyond. And this chain of events itself represents only the violent eruptions of a deeper struggle of rival power elites identified here as Yankees and Cowboys.
We see it as well, as this book argues, in the crime and cover- up of Dealey Plaza, the crime and cover-up of Watergate. How could the clandestine state have stricken us so profoundly? What accounts for the way the various organs of state force — defense and security alike — became so divided against each other? Yankees and Cowboys 3 The Dallas-to-Watergate outburst is fundamentally attrib- utable to the breakdown taking place within the incumbent national coalition, the coalition of the Greater Northeastern powers with the Greater Southwestern powers, the post- Civil War, post-Reconstruction coalition, the coalition of the New Deal, of Yankees and Cowboys.
This is the theme, at bottom, of the entire narration to follow. To maintain the two lines was, in effect, to maintain two separate and opposed realities at once, two separate and contradictory domains of world-historical truth. In Europe and the industrial world, the evident truth was that we could live with communism. In Asia and the Third World, the evident truth was that we could not, that we had to fight and win wars against it or else face terrible consequences at home. As long as the spheres of detente and violence could be kept apart in American policy and consciousness, as long as the Atlantic and Pacific could remain two separate planes of reality wheeling within each other on opposite assumptions and never colliding, then American foreign policy could wear a look of reasonable integration.
But when it became clear that the United States could not win its way militarily in the Third World without risking a nuclear challenge in the North Atlantic, the makings of a dissolving consensus were at hand. I argue in Part Two of this book that the power-elite collision one sensed at Dallas on November 22, , was real.
It was no chance collision of a lone political maniac with a lone political star. It was a collision anchored in the larger social dialectic that propels the life of the national ruling elites. The conspiracy to kill JFK and the much larger conspiracy to keep official silence embodied this collision 4 The Yankee and Cowboy War and had their being in this, the opposition of Yankee and Cowboy.
The Yankee lights had made the usual arrangements to provide world banking services to a Free South Vietnam and take the oil from its waters, and it was always clear that there would be no serious objection from the Yankees as a whole if the Vietnam War turned out to be winnable. No vital American interests were being attacked or defended in Vietnam, after all.
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Europe was appalled at us. Our European alliances were suffering. Our young people were strenuously alienated. Our economy was hurting. Other problems were lying neglected. We needed to wrap up the bleeding stump and move to a better position. It was directly clear that there was a regional component to this difference. The West Coast Bank of America, for example, spoke throughout the period of maximum unrest over the war with an essentially liberal voice.
And Fulbright is from Arkansas. But on balance, the souls most fervently desirous of decisive military measures to prevent a Communist takeover tended to argue from a Frontierist, China-Lobby kind of position, and the souls most calmly able to accept losses and pull back tended to argue from an Atlanticist, Council on Foreign Relations, NATO-haunted kind of position. An inquiry into their long rivalry is the first step in our exposition of Watergate in Part Three.
But the spirit of Yankeeness is given off by many things besides the Chase Manhattan and of Cowboyness by many things besides the Hughes empire. Yankee is the exclusive clubs of Manhattan, Boston, and Georgetown. Yankee is the Council on Foreign Relations, the secret Round Table, Eleanor Roosevelt, Bundles for Britain, and at a certain point, the Dulles brothers and the doctrine of massive retaliation.
Yankee is Kennedy, Cowboy is Nixon. But I stress my purpose is not to name a concrete group of conspirators and assassins, though I do not doubt that the conspiracies I speak of are actual. My aim rather is to call attention to the persistence of Civil War splits in the current situation and to the historical ideological substance of the positions at play. A reader of one of those pieces informed me of the similarity of my views with those of Professor Carroll Quigley, a historian at Georgetown. Quigley is the author of a huge book about the contemporary world, Tragedy and Hope , to which I will return in chapter two.
I begin my debt to Quigley here by borrowing the following observation from his summary. This new wealth, based on petroleum, natural gas, ruthless exploitation of national resources, the aviation industry, military bases in the South and West, and finally on space with all its attendant activities, has centered in Texas and southern California. Its existence, for the first time, made it possible for the petty-bourgeois outlook to make itself felt in the political nomination process instead of in the unrewarding effort to influence politics by voting for a Republican candidate nominated under Eastern Establishment influence By the elec- tion, the major political issue in the country was the financial struggle behind the scenes between the old wealth, civilized and cultured in its foundations, and the new wealth, virile and uninformed, arising from the flowing profits of government-dependent corporations in the Southwest and West.
The main idea of looking at things this way is to see that a sectional rivalry, derived from the patterns of the Civil War, still operates in American politics, indeed that at the altitude of national power elites, it may be the most sensitive and inflamed division of all, more concentrated than race and class and more basic than two-party system attachments and ideologies. The argument of this book is that the emerging clash of Yankee and Cowboy wills beneath the visible stream of events is the dominant fact of real U. Let us go a step further with these types, Cowboy and Yankee, and sketch a first outline of the differing worlds they see.
The Yankee mind, of global scope, is at home in the great world, used to regarding it as a whole thing integrated in the far-flung activities of Western exploration, conquest, and commerce. He believes the United States continues the culture of Europe and relates to the Atlantic as to a lake whose other shore must be secured as a matter of domestic priority. The Yankee monopolists who first broke faith with the goal of military victory in Vietnam did so in view of what they saw as the high probability of failure and the certain ambiguity of success.
The Cowboy entrepreneurs who fought hardest to keep that faith alive did so out of conviction of the necessity of success. It will destroy its much more essential relations in Europe if in spite of all wisdom its leadership continues to Yankees and Cowboys 9 siphon off precious national blood and treasure to win this war. It is necessary to stand down. It arises because one naturally looks for a class-economic basis for this apparent conflict at the summit of American power. That is because one must assume that parties without a class- economic base could not endure struggle at that height.
It is then only necessary to recall that antiwar feeling struck the Eastern Establishment next after it struck the students, the teachers, and the clergy — struck the large bank-connected firms tied into the trans-Atlantic business grid. They supported the Texan Johnson and the Southern Californian Nixon as far as they would go toward a final military solution. After a century of Northeastern leadership, and one-quarter century of Cold War unity, why should the national ruling coalition of the old and new owning classes, Yankee and Cowboy, have begun pulling apart?
But then we have to go back: What was the basis of their unity to begin with?
Williams thus stands the Turner Frontier on its head, correcting it. The rugged- individualist self-made rich man, the autonomous man of power, the wildcatter, began to drop out of sight, to lose presence as individual, type, and class, with the rise of the current-day computer-centered monopoly-corporate forma- tions. The tycoon-entrepreneur is of course disappearing as a type in America too, at least as a political force in national life. The Hughes empire, at last, has been corporatized. Old man Hunt is dead. His sons are bringing Harvard Business School rational bureaucracy to the operation.
But that only makes it all the more curious that political power continued to emanate from the type and the person, the image and the reality, the ghost perhaps, of a creature like Hughes as late as the second victorious presidential campaign of Nixon. Why should the Cowboy tycoon have persisted so long as a political force, competent to struggle against the biggest banking cartels for control of the levers of national power? As others have argued, the Frontier was a reprieve for democracy. We may note here that it was also a reprieve for capitalism as well, whose internal conflicts were constantly being financed off an endless-seeming input of vast stretches of natural riches, having no origin in capitalist production.
All that was needed was for the settlers to accept the genocidal elimination of the native population and a great deal became possible — the purple mountains, the fruited plains. And generation after generation of American whites were able to accept that program. The Indian wars won the West. The railroads and highways were laid. The country was resettled by a new race, a new nation. Energies of expansion consumed the continent in about two centuries, pushing on to Hawaii and Alaska. There is no way to calculate the impact of that constant territorial expansion on the development of American institutions.
Yankees and Cowboys 11 There is no way to imagine those institutions apart from the environment created by that expansion. How can we congratulate our national performance for its general democracy and constitutionalism without taking into account the background of that constant expansion? We do not teach our children that we are democrats in order to expand forever and republicans on condition of an unfrozen western boundary with unclaimed wilderness. To the extent that the American miracle of pluralism exists at all, we still do not know how miraculous it would be in the absence of an expanding frontier, its constant companion till the time of the Chinese revolution.
The overwar in Asia has its internal American origin in the native reflex to maintain the Western Frontier on the old terms and to do so at all cost, since our whole way of life hinges on the Frontier. What the late-blooming Yankee liberal critics of the Vietnam war refused to hear and recognize between the lines of the prowar arguments of the more philosophical Cowboy hawks was this essential point about the importance of Frontier expansion in American life from the beginning.
In the nature of things, the American Frontier continued to expand with the prosperity it financed. Now, in our generation, it has brought us to this particular moment of world confrontation across the Pacific, fully global in scale for both sides, fully modern in its technological expression for both sides — the old Westward-surging battle for space projected onto the stage of superpowers. The success and then the successful defense from to of the Asian revolutionary nationalist campaigns against further Western dominance in Asia — China, Korea, Vietnam — means that all that is changed.
What was once true about the space to the west of America is no longer true and will never be true again. There will never be a time again 12 The Yankee and Cowboy War when the white adventurer may peer over his western horizon at an Asia helplessly plunged in social disorganiza- tion. In terms of their social power to operate as a unified people and in the assimilation of technology, the Chinese people are, since , a self-modernizing people, not colonials any more. And instead of a Wild West, Americans now have a mature common boundary with other moderns like ourselves, not savages, not Redskins, not Reds, only modem people like ourselves in a single modern world.
This is new for us, a new experience for Americans altogether. Our national transformation from an unbounded to a bounded state will of course continue to stir the internal furies. No one interpretation of the event will be able to establish itself.
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No one will agree what the end of the Frontier means, what it will lead to, what one ought to do about it. But all will agree that it is upon us and past, whether it is called one thing or another. And now after Vietnam, as though it were not clear enough before, it is apparent beyond any possibility of doubt that whatever this force of Asian self-modernization is, whether it is evil or good or beyond good and evil, it is assuredly not a force that United States policy-makers can manhandle and manipulate and hold back through diplomatic chicanery and military force.
Look and see: China, Korea, Vietnam. My less bloody belief is that ordinary people all over the map, Northeast by Southwest, have a deep, simple, and common need to oppose all these intrigues and intriguers, whatever terms one calls them by and however one understands their development. To comprehend his murder as with the murder of Lincoln is to comprehend a very basic event in the history of American government, as well as the crimes that came after it. The comprehension of these covert political actions is the absolute precondition of self-government, the first step toward the restoration of the legitimate state.
More broadly I write to say that we are the American generations for whom the frontier is the fact that there is no more frontier and who must somehow begin to decide how to deal with this. What shall America do about the loss of its wilderness frontier? Can we form our nation anew, on new, nonexpan- sionist terms without first having to see everything old swept violently away? It is the precipitous and at the same time unfocused character of this question of the closed, lost frontier that has created such a challenge, such a threat, to traditional American values and institutions, the threat of a cancerously spreading clandestine state within.
Can presidents be assassinated by conspirators who go free and win out in the end? Are events which the media soberly report on often little more than playshows contrived by Machiavellian power elites for the manipulation of mass consciousness? The secret submission of the U. But as these narratives will be appreciated better in view of their distance from standard ideas, we will first take up two other responses to this question, one by a conservative CIA sophisticate, Miles Copeland, a retired CIA official, and the other by his liberal counterpart, Andrew St.
George, a journalist specializing in CIA themes.
And as we shall see, despite their conservative-liberal opposition, the men are ideological bookends. Both assure us — I almost said reassure — that in terms of Big Brotherism and the police state, things will be getting worse. Copeland opens his explanation of clandestinism in U. He sees this process of breakdown as leading inevitably to the world-wide escalation of left-wing terror- ism. In response to this forthcoming contagion, the governments of the world one after the other will be forced to the use of totalitarian methods of social control.
Watergate gives us, he says, a slice-of-life look at the way these forces were developing i. The inevitability of terror in a collapsing situation culminates in the inevitability of a gestapo response. The point he is in a rush to make is that, for the ruling classes with whom he identifies, it is better to impose a police state than to suffer a revolution. He is also saying that even in the United States, the people will tolerate or welcome this police state as the only alternative to revolution. All ancient history. Witness the Huston Plan and Opera- tion Gemstone and Octopus and all the rest that came with the succession of Nixon to the Johnson throne.
A current failure of Buckleyite conservatism as a serious political philosophy is that it refuses to dissociate itself from 18 The Yankee and Cowboy War this anticonstitutional mania for the state-financed subver- sion of political dissent and radical-popular movements of reform. It has no values to propose other than the one single flattened-out value of the total security of the state.
The more traditional and substantial conservative values of republicanism, limits, and constitutionality are all reduced in the National Review to the one imperious demand for order, silence , sleep. Tyranny was never a remedy for terror.
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Tyranny is terror. The choice between terror and totalitarianism is a choice that can only be made — camonly be identified as a choice — by terrorists and tyrants. The democrat, the republican, and the independent among us will not be so quick to see terror and tyranny as opposite alternatives, but only as two sides of one coin, a single composite choice against liberty and humanity. The authentic rejection of terror mandates the rejection of tyranny. The authentic rejection of tyranny mandates the rejection of terror. There is no way to defend the democracy by the use of antidemocratic means.
There is no antirepubli- can method corresponding to a republican purpose. There is no furtherance of national and personal, political and social independence through submission to national police controls. The state cannot at the same time uphold the law and trample it underfoot. The liberal survey of the same forces, however, is disquietingly similar. As Copeland finds totalitarianism necessary, Andrew St. George finds it irresistible. George rather sees a monster he calls technofascism as emerging from the material conditions of ultramodern production, from the Clandestine America 19 computerization of everyday life.
His position is sociologi- cally sophisticated. He borrows knowledgeably from the Weberian literature and incorporates the pessimism of current observers like Jacques Ellul and Hannah Arendt without a trace of unconfidence. George finds the Hannah Arendt coinage useful] right at home if it wanted continued progress toward fully achieved, seamlessly engineered, cybernetically controlled techno-totalitarianism.
It seemed that when the operational side of the Agency cut in, the intelligence side cut out. It was baffling — The real question was: Why? To go to the heart of it, what seems strange on the assumption that the CIA is an integrated bureaucratic entity ceases to seem strange on the assumption — our assumption — that it is a house divided against itself. George might have been about to lay this important distinction bare. But he goes wrong. George knows or surmises that a conflict shoots through the CIA, through the presidency, through the entire executive system, and that effective presidential command and control are the more deeply in doubt the deeper one goes into the heart of the national defense and security establishments.
Why ignore the overwhelming differ- entials of policy and faction at play in these breakdowns? Nixon knew he was secretly bombing Cambodia. The Joint Chiefs knew they were secretly bombing exempted targets in North Vietnam. He was not deceiving himself, only others. He was not deceiving his class. George lets the fashion for psychohistory guide him to the belief that the hero of the story will turn out to have been J. Edgar Hoover. George says Hoover distrusted and hated the CIA.
Yet St. Blow the alarm. This did not stop with Watergate. No doubt, as St. But let us remember that we are actually looking back on the certain knowledge of a clandestine America which these writers can still pretend to see as a future threat. We are trying to understand the onset of an achieved , not merely a prognosticated, predicament. So we may not be so abstract.
We must find the concrete mechanisms. The way into the blind snarls of clandestinism was not led by pious elders Clandestine America 23 seeking to quiet the public sleep or by robots programmed with a contempt for democracy. The way was taken step by step by ordinary human beings acting under the burden of ordinary human motives. The following three examples will bear out the importance of this innocuous reminder.
The Round Table The John Birch Society maintains that linked up with, if not actually behind, the International Communist Conspira- cy is a higher-level supercabal of internationalists of the United States and Western Europe, led here by the Rockefeller-M organ group and there by the Rothschilds, whose purpose is to create a unified world political order. There does exist, and has existed for a generation, an international Anglophile network which operates, to some extent, the way the radical right believes the Communists act. In fact, this network, which we may identify as the Round Table Groups, has no aversion to cooperating with the Communists, or any other groups [e.
He objects to a few of its policies e. Their original political aim was federation of the English-speaking world along lines laid down by Cecil Rhodes. The U. Lamont, Jerome D. Greene, and Erwin D. Canham of the Christian Science Monitor , a Yankee bouquet. The organization was originally financed by the asso- ciates and followers of Cecil Rhodes, chiefly from the Rhodes Trust itself, but since , according to Quigley, substantial contributions have come from wealthy individu- als, foundations, and firms associated with the international banking fraternity, especially the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust, and other organizations associated with J.
The chief link-up in this organization was once that of the Morgan Bank in New York to a group of international financiers in London led by Lazard Brothers, but at the end of the war of , the organization was greatly extended. In England and in each dominion a group was set up to function as a cover for the existing local Round Table Group. The two ends of this English-speaking axis have sometimes been called, perhaps facetiously, the English and American Establishments. There is, however, a considerable degree of truth behind the joke, a truth which reflects a very real power structure.
It is this power structure which the Radical Right in the United States has been attacking for years in the belief that they are attacking the Communists. The arguments for a conspiracy theory are indeed often dismissed on the grounds that no one conspiracy could possibly control everything. But that is not what this theory sets out to show. Quigley is not saying that modern history is the invention of an esoteric cabal designing events omnipotently to suit its ends.
The implicit claim, on the contrary, is that a multitude of conspiracies contend in the night. Clandestinism is not the usage of a handful of rogues, it is a formalized practice of an entire class in which a thousand hands spontaneously join. Conspiracy is the normal continuation of normal politics by normal means.
This point arose in a seminar I was once in with a handful of businessmen and a former ambassador or two in at the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies. The question of conspiracy in government came up. I advanced the theory that government is intrinsically conspiratorial. Blank incredulous stares around the table. Routinely, these businessmen all operated in some respects covertly, they all made sure to acquire and hold the power to do so, they saw nothing irregular in it, they saw it as part of the duty, a submerged part of the job description.
Conspiratorial play is a universal of power politics, and where there is no limit to power, there is no limit to conspiracy. As we are to see, there are other main roads to the self-same city. I call attention to it because it is precisely the kind of semihidden organization that standard con- sciousness does not recognize as a force in the flow of events, and yet whose influence is vast. The Derivation of Kennedy John Kennedy was not by personal heritage a Round Tabler any more than his family was by type or beginnings an Establishment Yankee family.
On the contrary. He was the great-grandson of an emigrant Irish cooper and the grandson of a ward-heeling East Boston saloonkeeper.
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His father Joseph, the founder of the dynasty if indeed the family is to prove dynastic , was an operator, speculator, wheeler-dealer and Prohibition-era smuggler whose drive for wealth, power and social status was easily worthy of any new-rich Cowboy, and who was in fact often snubbed by the Boston brahminate. James and an ardent anti-interventionist] in the critical days at the American Embassy in' London in But maybe this rounds off the corners too much. According to Whalen p. Whalen says p.
But these men and women of lofty rank and distinguished lineage belonged to a dying England. The intimate of those who first lost their function, then their faith in themselves and in their country, Kennedy rode high and handsome at their side, and shared their fall. Meyer Lansky, meanwhile, chief minister of organized crime, was troubled because certain Mafia families were proving reluctant to join the larger Syndicate which he had been building since Prohibition under the yellow and black colors of Lucky Luciano.
Luciano had been jailed in by New York D. Thomas Dewey, and Lansky had been operating since as his top man in the world of the other capos, where his main problem was how to persuade the Sicilian holdouts to accept the executive leadership of a Jew. Lansky's leadership. The perceptive and original Alfred McCoy, for example, in The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia , treats Luciano himself, not Lansky, as the first wholly modern executive of crime and attributes to him, not Lansky, the insights that led to the current federation of previously autonomous criminal groups around particular rackets and particular cities.
But this difference matters little for the current point. What artist of the possible saw the convergence of these two problems in a common solution? Naval Intelligence. The idea could have been dropped there by any messenger. In any case, it came down to a straightforward proposition.
Lansky first turns to the reluctant capo and says: What if I can free thy leader, Luciano? Then he turns to the anxious Roosevelt and says: What if I can secure thy docks against sabotage? The offer Lansky made in particular was simply for Roosevelt to intervene in the Luciano matter, although from the prosperity enjoyed by organized crime during World War II, it may appear to imply that the deal went much further and actually entailed federal protection for certain areas of Syndicate wartime activity, e.
Luciano was moved right away from the remote Dannemora Prison to the more comfortable and spacious Great Meadow Prison north of Albany. Promptly on V-E Day, his lawyer filed the papers that opened the doors for his release and deportation to Sicily. He would shortly return to Clandestine America 31 his Godfatherly duties in the exile capital Lansky had been preparing all the while in Havana. Lansky delivered Luciano and won federal protection. The Syndicate was made. But that only began it. Syndicate collaboration with the American war effort went much further.
The Mafia was a power rival and Mussolini crushed it bloodily. This support may or may not have been of measurable military value. The Kefauver Committee theorized later that it was too slight to have justified the release of Luciano on patriotic grounds. Then in Roosevelt wanted Batista to step aside in Cuba. The most persuasive confidential ambassador he could think of, the best man for delivering such a message to Batista, Messick reports, was Lansky himself.
Whom else would Batista listen to? Lansky and Batista had first met ten years before in the year of Repeal, Lansky had seen that the coming legalization of liquor might give an enormous business opportunity to those who had run it when it was illegal. So as Repeal drew nearer, he started shopping for raw material sources, for all the world like a run-of-the-mill corporate- imperial businessman. He got to Havana in shortly after Batista first won power. The two men found themselves in deep harmony. Lansky stayed three weeks and worked out with Batista the arrangements that would bring molasses from Cuban cane to Syndicate-controlled distilleries and set up Havana as a major gaming capital of the Western hemisphere.
When the wind changed yet another time in the early s and it was time for Batista to go back to Cuba and resume command, it was again Lansky who gave Batista the word to move. In France, too, the forces of crime were integrated into U. It was another twisted situation. The main serious wartime resistance to European fascism was that of European Communists.
Their resistance was militarily and therefore politically significant. Beyond Communist Party activity, resistance to Nazi Germany had been fragmentary or weak- willed and ineffectual. The non-Communist left e. The rest of the country collaborated. With no interference from outside, the natural result of this disposition of factors in postwar Europe might easily have been the immediate rise of the Communist Party to great power if not dominance in French affairs.
The same thing was threatening to happen all across Europe. Given that American policy was committed to the achievement of a non-Communist postwar Western Europe, there was possibly no way for the pacification effort to have avoided collusion with crime. Besides the Corsican Syndi- cate , there was no other group sufficiently organized and disciplined to challenge the French CP for control of the Marseilles docks. A result is that Marseilles became within a few years the heroin-manufacturing capital of the Western Clandestine America 33 world and the production base of the Lansky-Luciano- Trafficanto heroin traffic into the American ghetto.
The integration of the forces of law with the forces of organized crime extends from the municipal to the federal level. It takes in vast reaches of the law-enforcement and security establishment: police, military, paramilitary, and private alike. It constitutes a burden of corruption possibly already too heavy to be thrown off. East Coast docks and gave implicit protection to their activities everywhere.
With his instructions to Patton in , he restored the Mafia to power in Sicily. When he sent Lansky to Batista in , he paved the way for the spread of Syndicate influence throughout the Caribbean and Central America. When he directed the CIA to use Syndicate thugs at Marseilles in , he licensed the heroin factories that would be feeding the American habit into a contagion virtually unchecked over the years of the Cold War.
But we must also judge his acts by their longer-term consequences. Fine word, legitimate. Operation Underworld is one of the roots of Operation Gemstone. Roosevelt is one of the authors of Watergate. He was a cheat, a liar and a crook, and he brought my country, which I love, into disrepute. Even worse than abusing his office, he abused the American people. Smathers was by that time already an intimate friend and business partner of Rebozo and a friend of Batista.
Smith dropped a bundle at the Sans Souci and left Cuba without paying it back. Safe in the States, he repudiated the debt. That infuriated Rothman. But there is the possibility also that Rebozo and Nixon actually connected in Miami in Clandestine America 35 , and it is almost certain that they knew of each other then, as will emerge. Here are the fragments with which we reconstruct Rebozo: a he is associated with the anti-Castro Cuban exile community in Florida; b an all-Cuban shopping center in Miami is constructed for him by Polizzi Construction Co. Hutton stock theft, in which the Mafia fenced stolen securities through his bank.
Used-tire distributors all over the country, of course, were willingly and unwillingly turned into fences of Mafia black market tires during the war. Rebozo could have been used and still not know it. He was born in in Florida to a family of poor Cuban immigrants, was ambitious, and by had his first gas station. By the time the war was over, his lucrative retread business had turned him into a capitalist and he was buying up Florida land. Before long he was buying vast amounts of it in partnership with Smathers and spreading thence into the small-loans business, sometimes called loan-sharking.
His successes soon carried him to the sphere of principalities and powers the likes of W.
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Also during the war, Rebozo was navigator in a part-time Military Air Transport Command crew that flew military transports to Europe full and back empty, which some find a Minderbinderesque detail. During the first year of the war, before going into the Navy, Nixon worked in the interpretations unit of the legal section of the tire-rationing branch of the Office of Price 36 The Yankee and Cowboy War Administration.
Investigator Jeff Gerth has discovered that three weeks after Nixon began this job, his close friend-to- be, George Smathers, came to federal court for the defendant in this case, United States vs. Standard Oil of Kansas. Smathers wanted to speed up the case for his client, and so wrote to the OPA for a ruling. His letter must have come to Nixon, who, OPA records show, was responsible for all correspondence on tire rationing questions. Especially since this was the first knock on the door, it would be nice to know what Nixon said and how the matter was disposed of.
The court file for this case is supposed to be in the Atlanta Records Center, but a written request submitted to the clerk of the civil court on July 6, , has not been honored, despite the usual one week response time. Written questions submitted to President Nixon and Bebe Robozo have also gone unanswered. Among the relevant questions is whether Miami was one of the regional offices Nixon set up. Prohibition : Organized crime takes over the distilleries industry.
This is the Clandestine America 37 first big foothold of organized crime in the operations of the state. World War II: In despair of otherwise securing the physical security of the docks against sabotage which may or may not have been Fascist-inspired, Roosevelt accepts a secret arrangement with organized crime.