He died as he lived: working. He had suffered a heart ailment for many years that could only have been counteracted by means of intellectual rest and lessened physical activity. However, since he was consecrated to his work, he refused everything that could absorb one single minute of his time and deviate him from his favorite occupations. In such an unequal fight, his physical body could not subsist eternally. An aneurism ended his life and Allan Kardec died instantaneously. That left one less individual on Earth; but, a great name took his place among those that had illuminated this century; a great Spirit had departed for the Infinite, where all of those souls who he had consoled and illuminated, were waiting impatiently for his return!
Death, I was saying not too long ago, redoubled its blows in the illustrious arrays! Whom will it now come to set free? He went, as so many others, to recover in Space, to seek new elements for the recuperation of his worn-out organism due to a life of incessant labors. He departed to be among those who would be the luminaries of the new generation, to return shortly thereafter with them to pursue and to conclude the task that he had left in dedicated hands. The individual is no longer here; but his soul, will remain with us forever. He will be a strong protector, an extra light, a tireless worker that the phalanges of Space have incorporated.
As on Earth, without interfering with anyone, he will expound his opportune advices; he will lessen the premature zeal of the ardent ones; he will aid the sincere and the disinterested ones, and will stimulate the indecisive ones. He now clearly sees everything that he had foreseen!
He is no longer subject to the uncertainties, nor to the frailties and he will share his convictions making us reach the goal with his finger, pointing the way for us, in that clear and precise language, that had consecrated him among the literary annals. The man no longer exists, we said it; however, Allan Kardec is immortal and his memory, his works, and his Spirit will always be with those who stand strong and vigorously wave the flag that he always respected.
An extraordinary individuality set up the task. He was the guide and the secure port for everyone. On Earth, the work will outlive the worker. The believers won't congregate around Allan Kardec; but rather, they will congregate around Spiritism, just as he had structured it, and with his advice and his influence, we will move forward, with firm steps, to the blissful phase promised to a regenerated Humanity. La table, le livre et les espirits. Omitted are works that deal exclusively with occultism, possession, or witchcraft; theosophy, anthroposophy, Christian Science, or other spiritual philosophies; theology or religious thought; and conjuring or stage magic.
While spiritualist writings have true importance for the history of animal magnetism and its offshoots, only those works have been included here that depict its development from mesmeric influences or that play a significant role in the rise of psychical research. This means that the bibliography does not include stories about clairvoyants, seers, or prophets; books relating communications from spirits; spiritualistic speculations about the afterlife or related matters; and collections of ghost-lore.
The second reason for circumscribing the bibliography, the wish to focus on the most significant writings arising within the animal magnetic tradition, necessitated the omission of works which, while legitimately part of the history of animal magnetism and its offshoots, are relatively minor. While it is difficult to define the criteria by which such a selection was made, a few words can be said about the thinking that was involved. Rating low on the list of works to be included were writings that simply summarize the work of others, collections of cases that have been dealt with in previous works, and popularizations intended to simplify and condense more serious treatises.
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In the field of hypnotism, this tended to exclude books on stage hypnotism, handbooks of hypnotic practice, pamphlets meant for home study of hypnotism, treatises on personal magnetism, and writings on auto-hypnosis and auto-suggestion. There are, of course, some works in these categories that were influential or otherwise significant, and they have been incorporated as appropriate into the bibliography. The bibliography ends with the year This date was chosen for a number of reasons. First, by publication of works on animal magnetism had almost completely ceased.
Second, shortly after the study of hypnotism entered a new phase, in which researchers such as Clark Hull, M. White, and others adopted innovative laboratory and statistical methods to explore its nature and effects. Third, by most of the classical works of psychical research had been published, and psychical research too was about to enter a new stage of development.
Like that of hypnotism, this new stage, initiated by the work of Joseph Banks Rhine at Duke University in the late s, involved the introduction of laboratory and statistical methods into the study of paranormal phenomena. Annotations are intended to provide information about the content of the work and thereby indicate its place in the history of the field.
The length of the annotation depends to some extent upon the significance of the entry in that history. In some cases, due to inaccessibility of a given work, annotations were compiled without benefit of direct inspection. Annotations are given for approximately one-third of the entries.
The intention is to provide annotations for the most important items and a sufficient variety of less significant works to convey to the reader a sense of the evolution of the literature. Entries are listed by year, from to Within each year, works are listed alphabetically. Each entry contains full bibliographic information, including author, title and publication data.
Many entries contain annotations. Publication information is given in English: cities are cited in their commonly accepted English form e.
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Every effort has been made to provide information about the first edition of each book. In the few cases in which that could not be obtained, information about a later edition is given. For books in languages other than English, English translations known to exist are listed. It is intended ordinarily to give the earliest English translation. Finally, undated works have been assigned the most accurate date that can be ascertained. In some cases, because of inaccessibility of the works, entries lack information about publisher or pages.
I would like to acknowledge a number of people who helped make books available for my research. Particular thanks go to Bill Williams, O. C, a man with an abiding interest in the working principles of the mind, who opened to me his fine private library of works on psychical research. I also would like to express my appreciation for the assistance given me by Jane Lynch, Senior Interlibrary Loan Technician for the Robarts Library and her staff at the University of Toronto.
I would also like to acknowledge with thanks a timely grant for this project provided by Therafields Foundation of Toronto. My special thanks to my wife Josephine for her research work, editing, and overall support for this project. Finally, I would particularly like to express my appreciation to Professor Rob Wozniak, editor of this bibliographic series, for his suggestion that I undertake this work, for his encouragement while I was working on the project, and for his invaluable input into each step of the process.
Artelt, Walter. Der Mesmerismus in Berlin. Mayence: Akademie der Wissenschaft und der Literatur, Barrucand, Dominique. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, Benz, Ernst. Munich: Wilhelm Fink, Bibliotheca Esoterica. Brueil-en Vexin: Yvelines, Blake, John B. Bethesda, Maryland: National Institute of Health, Bloch, George ed. Los Altos, California: William Kaufmann, Bousfield, Wendy ed. Catalog of the Maurice M. Wichita, Kansas: Wichita State University, Bramwell, J. Hypnotism: Its History, Practice and Theory. New York: Julian Press, The first edition was published in Bunn, Walter von.
Buranelli, Vincent. The Wizard from Vienna. Caillet, Albert Louis. Manuel bibliographique des sciences psychiques ou occultes. Paris: Lucien Borbon, Carlson, Eric T. Carlson, Eric and Simpson, Meribeth. Catalogue of the Library of the Society for Psychical Research. Boston: G. Hall, Cernilo, John J. The Secularization of the Soul. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues, Chertok, Leon. Le non-savoir des psy. Paris: Payot, Chertok, Leon and De Saussure, Raymond.
The Therapeutic Revolution from Mesmer to Freud. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, Darnton, Robert. Mesmerism and the End of the Enlightenment in France. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, Dessoir Max. Erster Nachtrag zur Bibliographie des modernen Hypnotismus. Berlin: Carl Duncker, Dingwall, Eric J.
Dureau, Alexis. Paris: The Author and Joubert, Edmonston, William E. The Induction of Hypnosis. EUenberger, Henri. New York: Basic Books, Figuier, Louis. Histoire du merveilleux dans les temps modernes. Paris: L. Hachette, Fuller, Robert C. Mesmerism and the American Cure of Souls.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Gallini, Clara. La sonnambula meravigliosa. Milan: Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, Gartrell, Ellen G. Electricity, Magnetism, and Animal Magnetism. A Checklist of Printed Sources: — Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc. Goldsmith, Margaret. Franz Anton Mesmer. The History of an Idea. London: Arthur Barker, Grattan-Guinness, Ivor. Psychical Research. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: Aquarian Press, The Society for Psychical Research: — London: Macdonald, Inglis, Brian. Natural and Supernatural. A History of the Paranormal from Earliest Times to London: Hodder and Stoughton, Science and Parascience.
A History of the Paranormal, — Jensen, Ann and Watkins, Mary Lou. Franz Anton Mesmer: Physician Extraordinaire. New York: Helix Press, Jervey, Edward. Kaplan, Fred. Kerner, Justinus. Erinnerungen an denselben, nebst Nachrichten von den letzten Jahren seines Lebens zu Meersburg am Bodensee.
Frankfurt: Literarische Anstalt, Kiesewetter, Carl. Geschichte des neueren Occultismus. Leipzig: Wilhelm Friedrich, Nebst einer Vorgeschichte des Mesmerismus, Hypnotismus und Somnambulismus. Leipzig: Max Spohr, Leibrand, Werner. Romantische Medizin. Hamburg and Leipzig: H. Goverts Verlag, Ludwig, August Friedr.
Revue Spirite (Annee 1860): Journal D'Etudes Psychologiques
Geschichte der okkultistischen metapsychichen Forschung von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. I Teil: Von der Antike bis zur Mitte des Pfullingen: Johannes Baum, McGuire, Gregory R. Privately published paper , Presentism and the Role of Parapsychology in the History of Psychology. August 25—28, Mialle, Simon. Paris: J. Dentu, Milt, Bernhard. Franz Anton Mesmer und seine Beziehungen zur Schweiz.
Magie und Heilkunde zu Lavaters Zeit. Zurich: Leemann, Moore, R. In Search of White Crows. Spiritualism, Parapsychology, and American Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, Moser, Fanny. Zurich: Orell Fussli, Mottelay, Paul Fleury ed. London: Charles Griffin, Myers, Frederic W. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. National Laboratory of Psychical Research. Palfreman, Jon. Parssinen, Terry. Pattie, Frank. Pleasants, Helene. Biographical Dictionary of Parapsychology, with Directory and Glossary. Podmore, Frank. Modern Spiritualism, a History and a Criticism. London: Methuen, Quen, Jacques.
Rausky, Franklin. Paris; Payot, Rosen George. Schneider, Emil. Der animale Magnetismus. Seine Geschichte und seine Beziehungen zur Heilkunst. Zurich: Konrad Lampert, Schott, Heinz. Zum therapeutischen Konzept von Franz Anton Mesmer — Schott, Heinz ed. Franz Anton Mesmer und die Geschichte des Mesmerismus. Schroeder, H. Geschichte des Lebensmagnetismus und des Hypnotismus.
Vom Uranfang bis auf den heutigen Tag. Leipzig: Arwed Strauch, Shepard, Leslie A. New York: Avon, The Society for Psychical Research. Tatar, Maria M. Spellbound: Studies on Mesmerism and Literature. Tinterow, Maurice. Foundations of Hypnosis From Mesmer to Freud. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, Tischner, Rudolf.
Geschichte der okkultistischen metapsychischen Forschung von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Teil: Von der Mitte des Jahrhunderts bis zur Gegenwart. Leben, Werk und Wirkungen. Tischner, Rudolf and Bittel, Karl. Mesmer und sein Problem: Magnetismus—Suggestion—Hypnose. Usteri, Paul. Specimen bibliothecae criticae magnetismi sic dicti animalis. Gottingen: Joannes Christ. Dieterich, Wyckoff, James.
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Between God and Devil. Wygrant, Larry J. The Truman G. Blocker, Jr. History of Medicine Collections: Books and Manuscripts. Galveston: University of Texas Medical Branch, Dissertatio physico-medica de planetarum influxu. Vienna: Ghelen, , 48 pp. Translated and edited by George Bloch. The first published writing of Franz Anton Mesmer is a dissertation presented to the University of Vienna medical school for the degree of doctor of medicine.
Although there is no record of what Mesmer studied in the years from to , the rest of his education is known, and there is little reason to think he attained a degree during that hiatus. Mesmer came to Vienna in to study at the university. After one year in law, he began a six-year program in the medical school, finishing with this dissertation. At the very beginning of the thesis Mesmer states that he is attempting to continue the work of Richard Mead — who wrote about the influence of the stars on men. Mesmer emphasizes that he is not talking about an astrological understanding of that influence, but a purely physical, scientific one.
After a general discussion of the laws of planetary motion, centrifugal force, and gravitation, he writes of his notion that there must be tides in the atmosphere just as there are in the ocean. Mesmer then presents his own original ideas. He says that just as there are tides in the sea and the atmosphere, so also there are tides in the human body. There is, he asserts, a universal gravitation by which our bodies are affected. Through this influence emanating from the stars, our bodies are caused to resonate in a harmonious fashion.
This fact, says Mesmer, must be taken seriously by medical practitioners, for if human bodies are violently shaken by the action of celestial bodies, then understanding the nature of that influence is of utmost importance. Vienna: n. Gedruckte Antwort des Herrn Dr Mesmer vom Januar Apparently the treatise first appeared in a Viennese periodical and then as a separate pamphlet.
Now it can only be found in the Sammlung der neuesten gedruckten und geschriebenen Nachrichten see entry number 9. Hell claimed that the cures ascribed by Mesmer to animal magnetism were really due to the action of magnets. In his response, Mesmer not only reasserts that animal magnetism was the cause, he also denies that magnets are of any use in treating illness.
Herrn Dr Mesmers Schreiben an die Frankfurter vom Mai A letter on magnetism addressed to the inhabitants of Frankfort. It can be found today only in the Sammlung der neuesten gedruckten und geschriebenen Nachrichten see entry number 9. Mesmer, Doktor der Arzneygelahrtheit, an einen auswartigen Arzt. Mesmer, Doctor of Medicine at Vienna to A. Written on January 5, , to Doctor Johann Christoph Unzer of Altona, this treatise appeared as a pamphlet and was then immediately published in the Neuer gelehrter Mercurius edited by Unzer.
He distinguishes animal magnetism from mineral magnetism, but at the same time shows the analogy between the two. An edition of this work published in has an important addition: a section titled Anhang von einigen Briefen und Nachrichten. This appendix contains excerpts from letters describing cures performed by Mesmer and ascribed to animal magnetism. Beschreibung eines mit dem kunstlichen Magneten angestellten medicinischen Versuchs. Hamburg: Herold, , pp.
The results were good, and he wrote this favorable opinion of the medical use of magnets. Schreiben den Thier. Magnetismus u. Prague: n. Klinkosch included the alleged cures through exorcism performed by Gassner and those carried out by Mesmer using animal magnetism in the same category.
He considered them to be false and delusory and argued that if any such cures occurred, it must be through electricity rather than magnetism. There are questions about both authorship and date. Amadou believes it a genuine piece by Mesmer, while Frank Pattie has his doubts. A collection of journal articles and polemical pamphlets written by Mesmer, Hell and others about the nature and efficacy of magnetic healing. For some of those writings this is the only remaining source. Mesmer himself acknowledged the accuracy of the reproductions in this collection.
A foundational work in the history of modern psychology. Having experimented with iron magnets to treat illnesses, Mesmer came to the conclusion that the human body itself is a magnet and that the physician, using his own body magnetically, can produce the most effective cures.
To promote his discovery, Mesmer moved in to Paris, which was the intellectual center of the Europe of his day. His Parisian clinic claimed many remarkable cures.
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Mesmer considered himself above all a physician and a scientist. According to Mesmer, there exists in nature a universal agent which, through as yet unknown laws, produces a mutual influence among the heavenly bodies, the earth, and living things. When this agent is observed operating in living organisms, it is seen to have properties of attraction similar to those of the magnet, even exhibiting polarity. He uses the magnetic power of his own body to influence the ebb and flow of magnetic fluid in that of his patient, restoring the natural balance of animal magnetic currents and thus aiding nature in the cure of disease.
Mesmer states that in this way animal magnetism can cure nervous disorders directly and other disorders indirectly. It resulted in their demand that he give up his involvement with the practice of animal magnetism. This book was his major opus on animal magnetism in which he describes his first exposure to animal magnetism and how he became convinced of its efficacy. He knew this from his own experience, having been cured by Mesmer of a life-long ailment. Vienna and Paris: L. Delalain le jeune, , 16 pp.
In this booklet he criticizes the animal magnetic fluid of Mesmer, claiming it is simply an electro-magnetic influence. In the reviews, Paulet makes some extravagant claims against Mesmer and animal magnetism. The Hague: n. Bergasse was a lawyer, philosopher, and political theorist from Lyons. In he was successfully treated by Mesmer and became his devoted follower. In this letter he declares his belief in the efficacy of the cures performed by Mesmer and condemns the closed attitude of orthodox medicine.
Beauvais: P. Desjardins, , 15 pp. An important early testimony of a cure by Mesmer with independent witnesses. The condition and cure paralysis of part of the body of a young woman are described in some detail. London: n. This collection of documents and comments was translated into French from an outline written by Mesmer in German.
The original outline was later destroyed and the German version of this work published in was a translation from the French edition. The work attempts to give a history of animal magnetism to date by reproducing and commenting on important relevant documents. The history of animal magnetism is divided into five time periods: 1 dealings with the Faculty of Medicine at Vienna, 2 dealings with the Academy of Sciences at Paris, 3 dealings with the Royal Society of Medicine at Paris, 4 various activities in the two years following, and 5 dealings with the Faculty of Medicine at Paris.
Mesmer uses the documentation format to reiterate his views and emphasize his side in the various disputes in which he had been involved. A study of the use of the divining rod and its effectiveness in discovering hidden sources of water. Thouvenel recalls the tradition of magnetic medicine and the theories of earlier writers concerning a universal magnetic force which accounts for such mysterious powers. The similarities between these ideas of Thouvenel and those of Mesmer are, however, striking. Paris: P. Gueffier, , 28 pp. Lettre de M. Geneva: B. Chirol and E.
London and Aix-la-Chapelle: n. Lettre sur le secret de M. However, he does admit that cures have been brought about through its application. The authors describe the medical uses of magnets, beginning with a history of the subject. They then take up contemporary practitioners who use magnets to heal, including Franz Anton Mesmer.
In , however, Thouret revised his view, becoming very critical of animal magnetism in his Recherches et doutes , entry number Pierres, , pp. This pamphlet consists of a letter from Mesmer to a Doctor Philip with comments added by Bacher. His monumental nine-volume Monde primitif — was a virtual encyclopedia of studies in comparative linguistics.
He passionately appeals for a serious study of that system and indicates the directions that study might take. In animal magnetism he believed he had discovered the true basis for that science. Paris: Imprimerie Royale, , 15 pp. Presented as a courtesy to the members of the Academy of Sciences which had been commissioned by the king to investigate animal magnetism. This brief report was intended to give them an account of some of the experiences which the commissioners had during their investigation. It is considerably shorter than the official report see entry number Paris: Imprimerie Royale, , 66 pp.
In the spring of the King of France appointed this commission made up of members of the Academy of Sciences to investigate the claims of animal magnetism. He chose some of the most eminent men of science of his day. The chairman was Benjamin Franklin — , a founding father of the United States of America, ambassador of that country to France, and a person highly knowledgeable in electricity and terrestrial magnetism. The secretary of the commission and editor of its report was the famous astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly — The commission also included the director of the Academy of Sciences, Jean Baptiste Leroy — , an investigator of electricity of some note.
The fifth member of the commission was the physician de Bory, about which nothing is known today. The commission began its investigations on March 12, , and published its report in August of that year. They contended that theory made no difference to their mandate, which was to decide about the existence and utility of animal magnetism.
Their conclusion was that they found no evidence for the existence of an animal magnetic fluid. This secret report by the Franklin commission was not published at the time of the public report. It was presented privately to the King of France and appeared for the first time in print in see entry number A summary of cures through animal magnetism attested to by the magnetizer that performed them or by the patient who had been cured.
The cures were in many cases not described with the detail needed to judge the effectiveness of the treatment. Amsterdam: n. The pronouncement of a group of Bordeaux freemasons concerning their views on mesmerism. They were at first orthodox members of the Bordeaux Lodge of Harmony founded to teach animal magnetism. However, in they broke away for a brief period, but were soon returned to the fold. Paris: Brunet, , 59 pp.
Two plays staged in Paris in Mesmer, par M. In , with a new partner, Mr. Maurice Delachatre, a merchant, he created a so-called "exchange" bank, which aims to facilitate commercial transactions and thus create new opportunities for trade and industry, in order to support in default of pecuniary resources for the natural products. The duration of the trading bank will be fixed by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry at ten years. In May , he met a certain Mr. Fortier, a magnetizer, who took him to Madame de Plainemaison, a medium who lives on rue de la Grange Bateliere in Paris, just a step away from the opera house.
In the presence of other guests for the session, He enters into communication with a spirit named Zephyr, who gives him the mission of being the spokesman of the Dead. For him, it's the revelation. Strange phenomena attributed to the action of spirits were considered a novelty, featuring objects that moved or "tapped", purportedly under the control of 'spirits'. In some cases, this was alleged to be a type of communication: the supposed spirits answered questions by controlling the movements of objects so as to pick out letters to form words, or simply indicate "yes" or "no".
When confronted with the phenomena described, some researchers, including Rivail, pointed out that animal magnetism might explain them.
Rivail, however, after seeing a demonstration, dismissed animal magnetism as insufficient to explain his observations. As a result of these influences, Rivail began his own investigation of psychic phenomena , mainly mediumship. He proposed that fraud, hallucination and unconscious mental activity might explain many phenomena regarded as mediumistic, and also proposed that telepathy and clairvoyance may be responsible. He compiled over one thousand questions concerning the nature and mechanisms of spirit communications, the reasons for human life on earth, and aspects of the spiritual realm.
He asked those questions to ten mediums , all purportedly unknown to each other, and documented their responses. From these, he concluded that the best explanation was that personalities that had survived death were the source of at least some mediumistic communications. He compiled the mediums' responses that were consistent and adapted them into a philosophy that he called Spiritism , which he initially defined as "a science that deals with the nature, origin, and destiny of spirits, and their relation with the corporeal world.
Rivail wrote under the name "Allan Kardec", allegedly following the suggestion of a spirit identified as Truth. Collectively, the books became known as the Spiritist Codification.